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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26051339

Collagenated Porcine Heterologous Bone Grafts: Histomorphometric Evaluation of Bone Formation Using Different Physical Forms in a Rabbit Cancellous Bone Model.

02 Mar 2021-Molecules (MDPI AG)-Vol. 26, Iss: 5, pp 1339
Abstract: Collagenated porcine-derived bone graft materials exhibit osteoconductive properties and the development of different formulations intends to enhance bone regeneration. This study aims to evaluate bone healing in a rabbit cancellous bone defect in response to grafting with different physicochemical forms of heterologous porcine bone. Twenty-six adult male New Zealand White rabbits received two critical size femoral bone defects per animal (n = 52), each randomly assigned to one of the five tested materials (Apatos, Gen-Os, mp3, Putty, and Gel 40). Animals were sacrificed at 15- and 30-days post-surgery. Qualitative and quantitative (new bone, particle and connective tissue percentages) histological analyses were performed. Histomorphometry showed statistically significant differences in all evaluated parameters between mp3 and both Putty and Gel 40 groups, regardless of the timepoint (p < 0.05). Moreover, statistical differences were observed between Apatos and both Putty (p = 0.014) and Gel 40 (p = 0.007) groups, at 30 days, in regard to particle percentage. Within each group, regarding new bone formation, mp3 showed significant differences (p = 0.028) between 15 (40.93 ± 3.49%) and 30 (52.49 ± 11.04%) days. Additionally, intragroup analysis concerning the percentage of particles revealed a significant reduction in particle occupied area from 15 to 30 days in mp3 and Gen-Os groups (p = 0.009). All mp3, Gen-Os and Apatos exhibited promising results in terms of new bone formation, thus presenting suitable alternatives to be used in bone regeneration.

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Topics: Bone regeneration (70%), Cancellous bone (68%), Bone healing (63%) ... read more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA14123319
15 Jun 2021-Materials
Abstract: Periodontal and peri-implant regeneration is the technique that aims to restore the damaged tissue around teeth and implants. They are surrounded by a different apparatus, and according to it, the regenerative procedure can differ for both sites. During the last century, several biomaterials and biological mediators were proposed to achieve a complete restoration of the damaged tissues with less invasiveness and a tailored approach. Based on relevant systematic reviews and articles searched on PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases, data regarding different biomaterials were extracted and summarized. Bone grafts of different origin, membranes for guided tissue regeneration, growth factors, and stem cells are currently the foundation of the routinary clinical practice. Moreover, a tailored approach, according to the patient and specific to the involved tooth or implant, is mandatory to achieve a better result and a reduction in patient morbidity and discomfort. The aim of this review is to summarize clinical findings and future developments regarding grafts, membranes, molecules, and emerging therapies. In conclusion, tissue engineering is constantly evolving; moreover, a tailor-made approach for each patient is essential to obtain a reliable result and the combination of several biomaterials is the elective choice in several conditions.

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9 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/APP11104642
19 May 2021-Applied Sciences
Abstract: The alterations of bone remodeling are typical of multiple myeloma (MM) patients where the uncoupled and unbalanced bone remodeling caused the onset of osteolytic lesions. Moreover, bone metastasis occurs in the majority of patients with breast and prostate cancer. Skeletal-related events negatively impact on quality of life by increasing the vulnerability to fractures. Several bone-targeting treatments have been developed to control bone pain and pathological fractures, including bisphosphonates and Denosumab. Nevertheless, these agents act by inhibiting osteoclast activity but do not improve bone formation. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) have shown bone anabolic effects and encouraging results in stimulating osteoblast differentiation and bone healing. Among these, the first-in-class bortezomib and the second-generation PIs, carfilzomib, and ixazomib regulate the bone remodeling process by controlling the degradation of several bone proteins. PIs have been recently proven to also be efficacious in blocking MM-induced osteocyte death providing new possible therapeutic use in the management of bone loss. PIs have significant side effects that limit their use as bone anabolic strategy. Multiple alternative approaches have been made. The conjugation of PIs with bisphosphonates, which can target them to bone, showed good results in terms of bone anabolic activity. However, the clinical implications of these effects require further investigations.

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Topics: Bone remodeling (70%), Bone disease (69%), Bone metastasis (65%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA14123290
14 Jun 2021-Materials
Abstract: In the last twenty years, due to an increasing medical and market demand for orthopaedic implants, several grafting options have been developed. However, when alternative bone augmentation materials mimicking autografts are searched on the market, commercially available products may be grouped into three main categories: cellular bone matrices, growth factor enhanced bone grafts, and peptide enhanced xeno-hybrid bone grafts. Firstly, to obtain data for this review, the search engines Google and Bing were employed to acquire information from reports or website portfolios of important competitors in the global bone graft market. Secondly, bibliographic databases such as Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were also employed to analyse data from preclinical/clinical studies performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of each product released on the market. Here, we discuss several products in terms of osteogenic/osteoinductive/osteoconductive properties, safety, efficacy, and side effects, as well as regulatory issues and costs. Although both positive and negative results were reported in clinical applications for each class of products, to date, peptide enhanced xeno-hybrid bone grafts may represent the best choice in terms of risk/benefit ratio. Nevertheless, more prospective and controlled studies are needed before approval for routine clinical use.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MEDICINA57050430
Caner Yilmaz1, Selim Ersanli1, Murat Karabagli1, Vakur Olgaç1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
29 Apr 2021-Medicina-lithuania
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) surgeries are used for dental implant placements with insufficient bone volume. Biomaterials used in GBR are expected to produce sufficient volume and quality of bone swiftly. This study aims to histologically evaluate the effectiveness of the use of Hyalonect membranes alone or with autogenous grafts in intraosseous defects. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental study on sheep. Surgeries were performed under general anesthesia in accordance with ethical rules. Five 10 mm defects were surgically created in each ilium of six sheep. One defect was left empty in each ilium (group ED). The defects in the experimental group were covered with Hyalonect membrane while unfilled (group HY) or after being filled with autogenous bone grafts (ABG) (group G+HY). In the control group, the defects were either covered with collagen membrane while unfilled (group CM) or after being filled with the ABG group (G+CM). The sheep were histologically and histomorphometrically evaluated after being postoperatively sacrificed in the third and sixth week (three animals in each interval). Results: All animals completed the study without any complications. No difference was found between groups in the third and sixth weeks regarding the inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis scores. The G+CM (52.83 ± 3.06) group was observed to have a significantly higher new bone formation rate than all the other groups in the third week, followed by the G+HY group (46.33 ± 2.25). Similar values were found for HY and CM groups (35.67 ± 4.55 ve 40.00 ± 3.41, respectively, p = 0.185), while the lowest values were observed to be in group ED (19.67 ± 2.73). The highest new bone formation was observed in group G+CM (82.33 ± 4.08) in the sixth week. There was no difference in new bone formation rates between groups G+CM, G+HY (77.17 ± 3.49, p = 0.206), and CM (76.50 ± 2.43, p = 0.118). The insignificant difference was found ED group and group HY (55.83 ± 4.92, 73.50 ± 3.27, respectively, p = 0.09). The residual graft amount in the G+CM group was found to be statistically significant at 3 weeks (p = 0.0001), compared to the G+HY group, and insignificantly higher at the 6th week (p = 0.4). Conclusions: In this study, close values were observed between G+HY and G+CM groups. Further experimental and clinical studies with different graft materials are required to evaluate the effectiveness of HY in GBR.

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Topics: Bone regeneration (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/POLYM13183070
11 Sep 2021-Polymers
Abstract: Natural bone is a composite organic-inorganic material, containing hydroxyapatite (HAP) as an inorganic phase. In this review, applications of natural alginic acid (ALGH) polymer for the fabrication of composites containing HAP are described. ALGH is used as a biocompatible structure directing, capping and dispersing agent for the synthesis of HAP. Many advanced techniques for the fabrication of ALGH-HAP composites are attributed to the ability of ALGH to promote biomineralization. Gel-forming and film-forming properties of ALGH are key factors for the development of colloidal manufacturing techniques. Electrochemical fabrication techniques are based on strong ALGH adsorption on HAP, pH-dependent charge and solubility of ALGH. Functional properties of advanced composite ALGH-HAP films and coatings, scaffolds, biocements, gels and beads are described. The composites are loaded with other functional materials, such as antimicrobial agents, drugs, proteins and enzymes. Moreover, the composites provided a platform for their loading with cells for the fabrication of composites with enhanced properties for various biomedical applications. This review summarizes manufacturing strategies, mechanisms and outlines future trends in the development of functional biocomposites.

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1 Citations


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65 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/JCBFM.2010.220
Abstract: The following guidelines are excerpted (as permitted under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL), with the knowledge and approval of PLoS Biology and the authors) from Kilkenny et al (2010). ​ Table

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1,870 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-9-66
31 May 2011-BMC Medicine
Abstract: Bone regeneration is a complex, well-orchestrated physiological process of bone formation, which can be seen during normal fracture healing, and is involved in continuous remodelling throughout adult life. However, there are complex clinical conditions in which bone regeneration is required in large quantity, such as for skeletal reconstruction of large bone defects created by trauma, infection, tumour resection and skeletal abnormalities, or cases in which the regenerative process is compromised, including avascular necrosis, atrophic non-unions and osteoporosis. Currently, there is a plethora of different strategies to augment the impaired or 'insufficient' bone-regeneration process, including the 'gold standard' autologous bone graft, free fibula vascularised graft, allograft implantation, and use of growth factors, osteoconductive scaffolds, osteoprogenitor cells and distraction osteogenesis. Improved 'local' strategies in terms of tissue engineering and gene therapy, or even 'systemic' enhancement of bone repair, are under intense investigation, in an effort to overcome the limitations of the current methods, to produce bone-graft substitutes with biomechanical properties that are as identical to normal bone as possible, to accelerate the overall regeneration process, or even to address systemic conditions, such as skeletal disorders and osteoporosis.

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Topics: Bone regeneration (72%), Bone healing (59%), Avascular necrosis (55%) ... read more

1,030 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.INJURY.2011.06.015
Abstract: Bone grafting is a commonly performed surgical procedure to augment bone regeneration in a variety of cases in orthopaedic and maxillofacial surgery. Autologous bone graft remains to be the 'gold standard' and the iliac crest to be the most common harvesting site. The intramedullary canal of long bones represents another potential site for large volume of autologous bone graft harvesting and is recently being used as an alternative donor site. However, harvesting of autologous bone graft is associated with morbidity and a number of complications. The aim of this systematic review was to collect and summarise the existing data on reported complications after harvesting autologous bone from the iliac crest (anterior and posterior) and the long bone intramedullary canal using the RIA device. We searched the PubMed Medline and Ovid Medline databases, from January 1990 to October 2010, to retrieve all relevant articles. A total of 92 articles (6682 patients) were included in the analysis. Overall, the complication rate following RIA was 6% (14 complications in 233 patients) and 19.37% after iliac crest bone graft harvesting (1249 complications in 6449 patients). The rate of each of the reported complications was assessed and, when the donor site was properly documented, comparison within the anterior and posterior iliac crest donor sites was performed. Although the difference of the overall morbidity rates between the two harvesting sites was not statistically significant (p=0.71); the rates of certain complications were found to significantly differ when anterior or posterior iliac crest was used. The rates of infection (p=0.016), haematoma formation (p=0.002), fracture (p=0.017), and hyperthrophic scar (p=0.017) were significantly higher when the donor site was the anterior iliac crest compared to the posterior iliac crest; whereas the rates of chronic donor site pain (p=0.004) and sensory disturbances (p=0.003) were significantly lower. The incidence of bone graft harvesting related complications can be reduced further if certain principles are followed depending on the performed harvesting methods; but overall the use of RIA device as harvesting method seems a promising alternative with a low complication rate.

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Topics: Bone grafting (65%), Iliac crest (64%), Bone regeneration (58%) ... read more

559 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1034/J.1601-0825.2002.01829.X
Takenobu Katagiri1, Naoyuki Takahashi2Institutions (2)
01 May 2002-Oral Diseases
Abstract: Bone is continuously destroyed and reformed to maintain constant bone volume and calcium homeostasis in vertebrates throughout their lives. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are specialized cells responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively. Recent developments in bone cell biology have greatly changed our conceptions of the regulatory mechanisms of the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play critical roles in osteoblast differentiation. The discovery of Smad-mediated signals revealed the precise functions of BMPs in osteoblast differentiation. Transcription factors, Runx2 and Osterix, are found to be essential molecules for inducing osteoblast differentiation, as indicated by the fact that both Runx2-null mice and Osterix-null mice have neither bone tissue nor osteoblasts. Smad transcriptional factors are shown to interact with other transcription regulators, including Runx2. Also, the recent discovery of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)–RANK interaction confirms the well-known hypothesis that osteoblasts play an essential role in osteoclast differentiation. Osteoblasts express RANKL as a membrane-associated factor. Osteoclast precursors that express RANK, a receptor for RANKL, recognize RANKL through the cell–cell interaction and differentiate into osteoclasts. Recent studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-α and interleukin 1 directly regulate osteoclast differentiation and function through a mechanism independent of the RANKL–RANK interaction. Transforming growth factor-β super family members and interferon-γ are also shown to be important regulators in osteoclastogenesis. These findings have opened new areas for exploring the molecular mechanisms of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

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Topics: RANKL (64%), Osteoclast (64%), Osteoblast (62%) ... read more

557 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCMS.2012.01.002
Andreas Kolk1, Jörg Handschel2, Wolf Drescher3, Daniel Rothamel4  +5 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: An autologous bone graft is still the ideal material for the repair of craniofacial defects, but its availability is limited and harvesting can be associated with complications. Bone replacement materials as an alternative have a long history of success. With increasing technological advances the spectrum of grafting materials has broadened to allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials, providing material specific advantages. A large number of bone-graft substitutes are available including allograft bone preparations such as demineralized bone matrix and calcium-based materials. More and more replacement materials consist of one or more components: an osteoconductive matrix, which supports the ingrowth of new bone; and osteoinductive proteins, which sustain mitogenesis of undifferentiated cells; and osteogenic cells (osteoblasts or osteoblast precursors), which are capable of forming bone in the proper environment. All substitutes can either replace autologous bone or expand an existing amount of autologous bone graft. Because an understanding of the properties of each material enables individual treatment concepts this review presents an overview of the principles of bone replacement, the types of graft materials available, and considers future perspectives. Bone substitutes are undergoing a change from a simple replacement material to an individually created composite biomaterial with osteoinductive properties to enable enhanced defect bridging.

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327 Citations