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Book ChapterDOI

Community policing in Canada

01 Jan 1992-pp 99-109
TL;DR: In Canada, community policing has replaced professional crime control policing as the dominant ideology and organizational model of progressive policing (Murphy, 1988b), and despite the relative lack of external pressures1 for police reform the country has gradually adopted a shift towards community policing as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In Canada, community policing has replaced professional crime control policing as the dominant ideology and organizational model of progressive policing (Murphy, 1988b). What is interesting about Canadian policing — but not unique to it — is that despite the relative lack of external pressures1 for police reform the country has gradually adopted a shift towards community policing. With heavy reliance on ‘US-tested and proven’ police innovations, technologies and strategies, Canadian policing is argued to have used ‘innovation through imitation’. Possibly this took place due to the proximity to the American experience and the growing readiness on the part of police chiefs and administrators to adopt strategies and tactics that seemed to work for their southern neighbour. This, in turn, was perceived as encouraging a wholesale and uncritical import of policing philosophies and technologies — mostly from the country’s American neighbour — which are not always appropriate to Canadian policing (Murphy, 1988b). At the same time, Canada is also not less influenced by the tradition and heritage of British policing and is following developments there quite closely. In fact, a recent community policing conference (organized by Loree and Murphy, 1986) dedicated a greater portion of its proceedings to developments in the London Metropolitan Police Force than to other relevant US advances in community policing.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant focus has also been an effort to promote greater citizen participation and community partnerships in crime resolution and prevention as mentioned in this paper, which can be seen as an attempt to escape the rigidity associated with the paramilitary organizational structures.
Abstract: When it has not been focused on addressing corruption and allegations of bias, harassment, and brutality, much police reform since the 1960s can be characterized as a slow movement away from the professional model of policing (Kelling and Moore, 1988). Specifically, much of this reform can be seen as an attempt to escape the rigidity associated with the paramilitary organizational structures, and to overcome the limits these bureaucratic structures have imposed on flexible, effective, long-term solutions to crime. A significant focus has also been an effort to promote greater citizen participation and community partnerships in crime resolution and prevention. In essence, a new relationship between police departments and the communities they serve (Skolnick and Bayley, 1986; Bayley, 1994). Such reform has moved along two separate but related problem-oriented and community-oriented policing tracks.

45 citations

Dissertation
22 Nov 2019
TL;DR: The authors examined police responses to racially motivated hate crimes in the Greater Toronto Area and found that hate as a primary object of police attention is often obscured by concerns police officers see as more important, such as protecting the credibility of law enforcement organizations, preventing noncriminal disputes from becoming criminal matters, police victimization at the hands of the public, and perceptions of the fundamental unfairness of hate crime laws.
Abstract: This dissertation examines police responses to racially motivated hate crimes in the Greater Toronto Area. In the mid-1990s, police services in Canada developed procedures to respond to suspected hate/bias motivated crimes. Hate crime procedures and training programs developed around two central foci: 1) traditional policing concerns involving proper investigative techniques, evidence collection, and documentation; and 2) emerging concerns regarding victim care, community consultation, and respect for racial and cultural diversity. Two sets of empirical data ground this study: 1) texts, including documents obtained through Access to Information requests and publicly accessible documents pertaining to hate crime policy and training; and 2) 34 semi-structured interviews with uniform and civilian police personnel. Central to my project is an examination of key government documents, including formal police protocols, working group documents, internal police job descriptions, statistical reports, officer handbooks, and training materials that outline the official police protocols, guidelines, and rationales relating to hate crime. By examining officer accounts of their on-the-ground practices, the training regimes involved in hate crime response, and investigative strategies employed by officers, I trace the way institutional mandates, personal experiences, and notions of Canadian multiculturalism coordinate and legitimize particular forms of intervention. I argue that hate as a primary object of police attention is often obscured by concerns police officers see as more important, such as protecting the credibility of law enforcement organizations, preventing non-criminal disputes from becoming criminal matters, police victimization at the hands of the public, and perceptions of the fundamental unfairness of hate crime laws. In this way, I show how the policing of hate crime is organized by a system of racial governance that obscures race and racism even as it claims to confront them.

25 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined university students' perceptions of the Ghana police service in contrast with general population studies that explain citizens' attitudes toward the police and found that students critically evaluated police procedural fairness and effectiveness.
Abstract: This study examines university students’ perceptions of the Ghana police service in contrast with general population studies that explain citizens’ attitudes toward the police. Two research questions guided this study: (1) What are university students’ perceptions of the police? and (2) What factors influence university students’ perceptions of the police? Using data collected from one large university in Ghana between the months of December 2012 and February 2013, the study found several intriguing findings. First, students have moderate trust in the Ghana police. Second, students critically evaluated police procedural fairness and effectiveness. Multivariate regression models revealed that vicarious experiences of police corruption, marital status, level of education, and ethnicity predicted students’ trust in the police as well as influenced their perceptions of fairness and effectiveness. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.

17 citations


Cites result from "Community policing in Canada"

  • ...Their result is consistent with previous studies that argued that people leaving in communities considered to be crime ridden and dangerous were less likely to approve of the police (Hennigan et al., 2002). Unlike fear of crime and crime rates, the effect of police corruption on public’s attitudes toward the police has barely been examined. However, the limited studies that exist in the policing literature have observed a negative effect of police corruption on citizens’ ratings of the police (Silva Forné, 2009; Sabet, 2012). For example, Silva Forné (2009) found that bribe solicitation negatively affected respondents’ satisfaction with the police. Similarly, Sabet (2012) found that corruption among police officers was a major reason that drove Mexicans’ dissatisfaction with the police. Specifically, Sabet (2012) observed that direct experiences of police corruption explain why the Mexican populace was dissatisfied with the police....

    [...]

  • ...Their result is consistent with previous studies that argued that people leaving in communities considered to be crime ridden and dangerous were less likely to approve of the police (Hennigan et al., 2002). Unlike fear of crime and crime rates, the effect of police corruption on public’s attitudes toward the police has barely been examined. However, the limited studies that exist in the policing literature have observed a negative effect of police corruption on citizens’ ratings of the police (Silva Forné, 2009; Sabet, 2012). For example, Silva Forné (2009) found that bribe solicitation negatively affected respondents’ satisfaction with the police....

    [...]

  • ...Their result is consistent with previous studies that argued that people leaving in communities considered to be crime ridden and dangerous were less likely to approve of the police (Hennigan et al., 2002). Unlike fear of crime and crime rates, the effect of police corruption on public’s attitudes toward the police has barely been examined. However, the limited studies that exist in the policing literature have observed a negative effect of police corruption on citizens’ ratings of the police (Silva Forné, 2009; Sabet, 2012). For example, Silva Forné (2009) found that bribe solicitation negatively affected respondents’ satisfaction with the police. Similarly, Sabet (2012) found that corruption among police officers was a major reason that drove Mexicans’ dissatisfaction with the police....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a sustainable policing framework (SPF) intended to enhance the sustainability of policing services, which can be implemented by police service organizations to assist with organizational development as the external environment changes.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the sustainability of policing organizations and propose approaches to enhance their sustainability. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses an action research approach involving the researchers and partners from the main national policing bodies in Canada and six police service research sites. Findings – This paper presents a Sustainable Policing Framework (SPF) intended to enhance the sustainability of policing services. Practical implications – The SPF the authors present can be implemented by police service organizations to assist with organizational development as the external environment changes. Originality/value – No other approaches to police sustainability that involve a framework similar to the one that is presented are known. This paper provides specific tools for police services to deploy to address their sustainability concerns.

14 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant focus has also been an effort to promote greater citizen participation and community partnerships in crime resolution and prevention as mentioned in this paper, which can be seen as an attempt to escape the rigidity associated with the paramilitary organizational structures.
Abstract: When it has not been focused on addressing corruption and allegations of bias, harassment, and brutality, much police reform since the 1960s can be characterized as a slow movement away from the professional model of policing (Kelling and Moore, 1988). Specifically, much of this reform can be seen as an attempt to escape the rigidity associated with the paramilitary organizational structures, and to overcome the limits these bureaucratic structures have imposed on flexible, effective, long-term solutions to crime. A significant focus has also been an effort to promote greater citizen participation and community partnerships in crime resolution and prevention. In essence, a new relationship between police departments and the communities they serve (Skolnick and Bayley, 1986; Bayley, 1994). Such reform has moved along two separate but related problem-oriented and community-oriented policing tracks.

45 citations

Dissertation
22 Nov 2019
TL;DR: The authors examined police responses to racially motivated hate crimes in the Greater Toronto Area and found that hate as a primary object of police attention is often obscured by concerns police officers see as more important, such as protecting the credibility of law enforcement organizations, preventing noncriminal disputes from becoming criminal matters, police victimization at the hands of the public, and perceptions of the fundamental unfairness of hate crime laws.
Abstract: This dissertation examines police responses to racially motivated hate crimes in the Greater Toronto Area. In the mid-1990s, police services in Canada developed procedures to respond to suspected hate/bias motivated crimes. Hate crime procedures and training programs developed around two central foci: 1) traditional policing concerns involving proper investigative techniques, evidence collection, and documentation; and 2) emerging concerns regarding victim care, community consultation, and respect for racial and cultural diversity. Two sets of empirical data ground this study: 1) texts, including documents obtained through Access to Information requests and publicly accessible documents pertaining to hate crime policy and training; and 2) 34 semi-structured interviews with uniform and civilian police personnel. Central to my project is an examination of key government documents, including formal police protocols, working group documents, internal police job descriptions, statistical reports, officer handbooks, and training materials that outline the official police protocols, guidelines, and rationales relating to hate crime. By examining officer accounts of their on-the-ground practices, the training regimes involved in hate crime response, and investigative strategies employed by officers, I trace the way institutional mandates, personal experiences, and notions of Canadian multiculturalism coordinate and legitimize particular forms of intervention. I argue that hate as a primary object of police attention is often obscured by concerns police officers see as more important, such as protecting the credibility of law enforcement organizations, preventing non-criminal disputes from becoming criminal matters, police victimization at the hands of the public, and perceptions of the fundamental unfairness of hate crime laws. In this way, I show how the policing of hate crime is organized by a system of racial governance that obscures race and racism even as it claims to confront them.

25 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined university students' perceptions of the Ghana police service in contrast with general population studies that explain citizens' attitudes toward the police and found that students critically evaluated police procedural fairness and effectiveness.
Abstract: This study examines university students’ perceptions of the Ghana police service in contrast with general population studies that explain citizens’ attitudes toward the police. Two research questions guided this study: (1) What are university students’ perceptions of the police? and (2) What factors influence university students’ perceptions of the police? Using data collected from one large university in Ghana between the months of December 2012 and February 2013, the study found several intriguing findings. First, students have moderate trust in the Ghana police. Second, students critically evaluated police procedural fairness and effectiveness. Multivariate regression models revealed that vicarious experiences of police corruption, marital status, level of education, and ethnicity predicted students’ trust in the police as well as influenced their perceptions of fairness and effectiveness. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a sustainable policing framework (SPF) intended to enhance the sustainability of policing services, which can be implemented by police service organizations to assist with organizational development as the external environment changes.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the sustainability of policing organizations and propose approaches to enhance their sustainability. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses an action research approach involving the researchers and partners from the main national policing bodies in Canada and six police service research sites. Findings – This paper presents a Sustainable Policing Framework (SPF) intended to enhance the sustainability of policing services. Practical implications – The SPF the authors present can be implemented by police service organizations to assist with organizational development as the external environment changes. Originality/value – No other approaches to police sustainability that involve a framework similar to the one that is presented are known. This paper provides specific tools for police services to deploy to address their sustainability concerns.

14 citations