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Journal ArticleDOI

Compact generation of superposed higher-order Bessel beams via composite diffractive optical elements

01 Nov 2015-Optical Engineering (International Society for Optics and Photonics)-Vol. 54, Iss: 11, pp 111310-111310
TL;DR: In this article, a binary composite diffractive optical element with the functions of a spiral phase plate (SPP), an axicon, and a Fresnel zone lens (FZL) were designed with different topological charges.
Abstract: Binary composite diffractive optical elements with the functions of a spiral phase plate (SPP), an axicon, and a Fresnel zone lens (FZL) were designed with different topological charges. The element was designed in two steps. In the first step, the function of an SPP was combined with that of an axicon by spiraling the periods of the axicon with respect to the phase of the SPP followed by a modulo- 2π phase addition with the phase of an FZL in the second step. The higher-order Bessel beams generated by the binary phase spiral axicon are superposed at the FZL’s focal plane. Although location of the focal plane is wavelength dependent, the radius of the flower-like beams generated by the element was found to be independent of wavelength. The element was fabricated using electron-beam direct writing. The evaluation results matched well with the simulation results, generating flower-like beams at the focal plane of the FZL.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements (PBOE)-based plasmonic metasurfaces made of rectangular-hole nanoantenna arrays are designed and demonstrated to generate focused 3D Perfect vortex (PV) beams in a broad wavelength range, by combining the phase profiles of axicon, spiral phase plate, and Fourier transform lens simultaneously based on the PBOE phase.
Abstract: DOI: 10.1002/adom.201701228 from the Fourier transformation of the Bessel–Gauss (BG) beam,[13,14] by utilizing a series of free-space bulky optical components including axicon, spiral phase plate, Fourier transform lens, and spatial light modulator. This fact greatly increases the optical system complexity and also hinders the device integration in OAM-based photonic circuits. Recently, plasmonic metasurfaces made of subwavelength nanoantenna arrays in thin metallic films have provided a powerful and efficient platform for manipulating the intensity, wavefront, and polarization of light beams beyond the diffraction limit.[26,27] In contrast to the bulky optical components with wavelengthdependent phase shift based on optical path difference, in the Pancharatnam– Berry phase optical elements (PBOEs), the PB phase in broadband operation originating from the geometric phase and accompanied polarization conversion is introduced.[28–34] The PBOE-based metasurfaces have been widely designed for wavefront shaping applications in making on-chip structured beam generators,[35–45] flat lenses,[46–49] ultrathin wave plates,[50–52] and holograms.[53–57] In this work, we present PBOE-based plasmonic metasurfaces made of rectangular-hole nanoantenna arrays as integrated optical beam converters for the direct generation of the focused 3D PV beams, without using bulky optical components, such as axicon, lens, and spatial light modulator. The PB phase profiles encoded on metasurfaces are uniquely designed with the combined phase distributions of axicon, spiral phase plate, and Fourier transform lens. The single ultrathin plasmonic metasurface device with compact area of 50 μm × 50 μm can create 3D PV beam in a long propagation distance and operate in a broad wavelength range from 600 to 1000 nm, which is useful in wavelength-multiplexed OAM-based optical fiber communication. For comparison, the previously demonstrated PB phase element system used to produce PV beams contains three in-sequence metasurface plates with efficient diameters ≥6 mm fabricated in glass boards, with the single operating wavelength at 632.8 nm.[13] It is shown that the obtained PV beams have the almost constant vortex ring radius and the same beam divergence for different TCs. We also demonstrate that the PV beam structures can be easily adjusted by varying several control parameters in the metasurface design including axicon period, lens focal length, and operation wavelength. Furthermore, multiple PV beams with Perfect vortex (PV) beams possessing annular intensity profiles independent of topological charges promise significant advances in particle manipulation, fiber communication, and quantum optics. The PV beam is typically generated from the Fourier transformation of the Bessel–Gauss beam. However, the conventional method to produce PV beams requires a series of bulky optical components, which greatly increases the system complexity and also hinders the photonic device integration. Here, plasmonic metasurfaces made of rectangular-hole nanoantennas as integrated beam converters are designed and demonstrated to generate focused 3D PV beams in a broad wavelength range, by combining the phase profiles of axicon, spiral phase plate, and Fourier transform lens simultaneously based on the Pancharatnam–Berry phase. It is demonstrated that the PV beam structures can be adjusted by varying several control parameters in the metasurface design. Moreover, multiple PV beams with arbitrary arrangement and topological charges are also produced. These results have the promising potential for enabling new types of compact optical devices for tailoring complex light beams and advancing metasurfacebased functional integrated photonic chips.

105 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The CSFZP beam pattern was implemented in an optical trapping experiment and was found to possess particle trapping capabilities, with a strong central focal spot and twisted side lobes.
Abstract: In this study, we introduce what we believe is a novel holographic optical element called a chiral square Fresnel zone plate (CSFZP) The chirality is imposed on a square Fresnel zone plate (SFZP) using a nonclassical technique by rotating the half-period zones relative to one another The rotation of the half-period zones, in turn, twists the side lobes of the diffraction pattern without altering the focusing properties inherent to a SFZP As a consequence, the beam profile is hybrid, consisting of a strong central Gaussian focal spot with gradient force similar to that generated by a lens and twisted side lobes with orbital angular momentum The optical fields at the focal plane were calculated and found to possess a whirlpool-phase profile and a twisted intensity profile Analysis of the field variation along the direction of propagation revealed a spiraling phase and amplitude distribution Poynting vector plot of the fields revealed the presence of angular momentum in the regions of chiral side lobes The phase of the CSFZPs were displayed on a phase-only reflective spatial light modulator and illuminated using a laser The intensity patterns recorded in the experiment match the calculated ones, with a strong central focal spot and twisted side lobes The beam pattern was implemented in an optical trapping experiment and was found to possess particle trapping capabilities

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Dec 2020
TL;DR: In this paper, a co-axial pump (optical)-probe (x-rays) experimental concept and show performance of the optical component are presented and different realisations of optical pump are discussed.
Abstract: We put forward a co-axial pump (optical)-probe (x-rays) experimental concept and show performance of the optical component. A Bessel beam generator with a central 100 µm diameter hole (on the optical axis) was fabricated using femtosecond (fs) laser structuring inside a silica plate. This flat-axicon optical element produces a needle-like axial intensity distribution which can be used for the optical pump pulse. The fs-x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) beam of sub-1 µm diameter can be introduced through the central hole along the optical axis onto a target as a probe. Different realisations of optical pump are discussed. Such optical elements facilitate alignment of ultra-short fs-pulses in space and time and can be used in light–matter interaction experiments at extreme energy densities on the surface and in the volume of targets. Full advantage of ultra-short 10 fs-X-FEL probe pulses with fs-pump (optical) opens an unexplored temporal dimension of phase transitions and the fastest laser-induced rates of material heating and quenching. A wider field of applications of fs-laser-enabled structuring of materials and design of specific optical elements for astrophotonics is presented.

10 citations


Cites background from "Compact generation of superposed hi..."

  • ...The recent developments on the generation of exotic optical fields such as fields varying in amplitude, phase and polarization [102, 103], vector fields [103], fields generated by OAM superposition [98, 104, 105], OAM beams in unconventional beam channels [106] will enable sophisticated light-matter interactions studies....

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Journal ArticleDOI
15 Jun 2020
TL;DR: In this paper, the interference between the double rings generated by the Fourier transform of a binary diffractive axicon was investigated and it was shown that the interference condition can be easily changed by adding a constant phase bias, resulting in a central ring that is either dark or bright.
Abstract: We report on the interference between the double rings generated by the Fourier transform of a binary diffractive axicon. These two rings have the same size and correspond to the ± 1 diffracted order beams. The interference condition between both rings can be easily changed by adding a constant phase bias, resulting in a central ring that is either dark or bright. Additionally, this interference condition can be changed along the ring and can be easily tuned, thus allowing greater flexibility. We present experimental results obtained with a binary π-phase liquid-crystal spatial light modulator. These patterns might find applications in optical trapping systems, where the bright or dark regions could trap particles whose refractive index is either higher or lower than the medium.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a phase-only diffractive optical element called chiral binary square axicon (CBSA) is introduced, which is designed by linearly rotating the square half-period zones of the binary squares axicon with respect to one another.
Abstract: We introduce a novel phase-only diffractive optical element called chiral binary square axicon (CBSA). The CBSA is designed by linearly rotating the square half-period zones of the binary square axicon with respect to one another. A quadratic phase mask (QPM) is combined with the CBSA using modulo-2{\pi} phase addition technique to bring the far-field intensity pattern of CBSA at the focal plane of the QPM and to introduce quasi-achromatic effects. The periodically rotated zones of CBSA produces a whirlpool phase profile and twisted intensity patterns at the focal plane of QPM. The degree of twisting seen in the intensity patterns is dependent upon the angular step size of rotation of the zones. The intensity pattern was found to rotate around the optical axis along the direction of propagation. The phase patterns of CBSA with different angles of zone rotation are displayed on a phase-only spatial light modulator and the experimental results were found to match with the simulation results. To evaluate the optical trapping capabilities of CBSA, an optical trapping experiment was carried out and the optical fields generated by CBSA were used for trapping and rotating yeast cells.

2 citations


Cites background or methods from "Compact generation of superposed hi..."

  • ...Although the above intensity patterns have many advantages, in most of the cases, the design and fabrication of DOEs is a challenge and the efficiency is poor due to combining different phase functions.26 In Ref....

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  • ...CBSA has many advantages compared to existing DOEs, which are used for optical trapping applications....

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  • ...CBSA is a binary DOE and has an uniform period, which makes the fabrication procedure much easier for manufacturing compared to other DOEs such as spiral phase plates,20 chiral Fresnel zone plates,27 and hybrid DOEs.22,24,26 Second, the absence of central peak in the optical field expands the applicability of CBSA to highly absorptive optical trapping specimens....

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  • ...24, the DOEs are not phase-only but use both amplitude and phase modulation simultaneously, which results in a poor efficiency....

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  • ...CBSA is a binary DOE and has an uniform period which makes the fabrication procedure much easier for manufacturing compared to other DOEs such as spiral phase plates [20], chiral Fresnel zone plates [28], hybrid DOEs [22, 26, 27], etc....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Laser beams that contain phase singularities can be generated with computer-generated holograms, which in the simplest case have the form of spiral Fresnel zone plates.
Abstract: Laser beams that contain phase singularities can be generated with computer-generated holograms, which in the simplest case have the form of spiral Fresnel zone plates.

1,251 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the theoretical foundation of the Bessel beam is described and various experiments that make use of Bessel beams are discussed: these cover a wide range of fields including non-linear optics, where the intense central core of the bessel beam has attracted interest; short pulse non-diffracting fields; atom optics, and optical manipulation where the reconstruction properties of the beam enable new effects to be observed that cannot be seen with Gaussian beams.
Abstract: Diffraction is a cornerstone of optical physics and has implications for the design of all optical systems. The paper discusses the so-called 'non-diffracting' light field, commonly known as the Bessel beam. Approximations to such beams can be experimentally realized using a range of different means. The theoretical foundation of these beams is described and then various experiments that make use of Bessel beams are discussed: these cover a wide range of fields including non-linear optics, where the intense central core of the Bessel beam has attracted interest; short pulse non-diffracting fields; atom optics, where the narrow non-diffracting features of the Bessel beam are able to act as atomic guides and atomic confinement devices and optical manipulation, where the reconstruction properties of the beam enable new effects to be observed that cannot be seen with Gaussian beams. The intensity profile of the Bessel beam may offer routes to investigating statistical physics as well as new techniques for the...

1,173 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors demonstrate and analyse a method for efficiently generating a high-order Bessel beam of arbitrary order by illuminating an axicon with the appropriate Laguerre-Gaussian light beam.

698 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work shows by the method of stationary phase that any of these wave fields can be realized approximately with a laser and a single computer-generated hologram, and demonstrates experimentally the formation of arbitrary-order Bessel beams and rotationally nonsymmetric beams.
Abstract: A new class of solutions to the scalar wave equation was introduced recently that represents transversely localized but totally nondiffracting fields. We show by the method of stationary phase that any of these wave fields can be realized approximately with a laser and a single computer-generated hologram. We briefly discuss various techniques for coding and fabrication of the required hologram and the associated diffraction efficiencies. Using both binary-amplitude and four-level phase holograms, we demonstrate experimentally the formation of arbitrary-order Bessel beams and rotationally nonsymmetric beams.

668 citations


"Compact generation of superposed hi..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...5–12 Higher-order Bessel beams can also be generated using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer(13) and computergenerated holograms.(14) Superposition of beams for the generation of beams with interesting and useful irradiance and phase profiles has been reported....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a theoretical analysis of axicon-type computer-generated holograms designed to produce higher-order Jn-Bessel waves is presented and verified, whose validity is not confined to the optical axis.

245 citations


"Compact generation of superposed hi..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...amplitude holograms were used for the generation of higher-order Bessel beams.(24) Computer-generated amplitude holograms containing the functions of an SPP and a Fresnel zone lens (FZL) were used for the generation of Gaussian– Hermite (TEM01) modes....

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