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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FVETS.2021.617900

Comparative Study of Free-Roaming Domestic Dog Management and Roaming Behavior Across Four Countries: Chad, Guatemala, Indonesia, and Uganda.

04 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Veterinary Science (Frontiers Research Foundation)-Vol. 8, pp 617900-617900
Abstract: Dogs play a major role in public health because of potential transmission of zoonotic diseases, such as rabies. Dog roaming behavior has been studied worldwide, including countries in Asia, Latin America, and Oceania, while studies on dog roaming behavior are lacking in Africa. Many of those studies investigated potential drivers for roaming, which could be used to refine disease control measures. However, it appears that results are often contradictory between countries, which could be caused by differences in study design or the influence of context-specific factors. Comparative studies on dog roaming behavior are needed to better understand domestic dog roaming behavior and address these discrepancies. The aim of this study was to investigate dog demography, management, and roaming behavior across four countries: Chad, Guatemala, Indonesia, and Uganda. We equipped 773 dogs with georeferenced contact sensors (106 in Chad, 303 in Guatemala, 217 in Indonesia, and 149 in Uganda) and interviewed the owners to collect information about the dog [e.g., sex, age, body condition score (BCS)] and its management (e.g., role of the dog, origin of the dog, owner-mediated transportation, confinement, vaccination, and feeding practices). Dog home range was computed using the biased random bridge method, and the core and extended home range sizes were considered. Using an AIC-based approach to select variables, country-specific linear models were developed to identify potential predictors for roaming. We highlighted similarities and differences in term of demography, dog management, and roaming behavior between countries. The median of the core home range size was 0.30 ha (95% range: 0.17-0.92 ha) in Chad, 0.33 ha (0.17-1.1 ha) in Guatemala, 0.30 ha (0.20-0.61 ha) in Indonesia, and 0.25 ha (0.15-0.72 ha) in Uganda. The median of the extended home range size was 7.7 ha (95% range: 1.1-103 ha) in Chad, 5.7 ha (1.5-27.5 ha) in Guatemala, 5.6 ha (1.6-26.5 ha) in Indonesia, and 5.7 ha (1.3-19.1 ha) in Uganda. Factors having a significant impact on the home range size in some of the countries included being male dog (positively), being younger than one year (negatively), being older than 6 years (negatively), having a low or a high BCS (negatively), being a hunting dog (positively), being a shepherd dog (positively), and time when the dog was not supervised or restricted (positively). However, the same outcome could have an impact in a country and no impact in another. We suggest that dog roaming behavior is complex and is closely related to the owner's socioeconomic context and transportation habits and the local environment. Free-roaming domestic dogs are not completely under human control but, contrary to wildlife, they strongly depend upon humans. This particular dog-human bound has to be better understood to explain their behavior and deal with free-roaming domestic dogs related issues.

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Topics: Free-ranging dog (63%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-92308-7
18 Jun 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Free roaming domestic dogs (FRDD) are the main vectors for rabies transmission to humans worldwide. To eradicate rabies from a dog population, current recommendations focus on random vaccination with at least 70% coverage. Studies suggest that targeting high-risk subpopulations could reduce the required vaccination coverage, and increase the likelihood of success of elimination campaigns. The centrality of a dog in a contact network can be used as a measure of its potential contribution to disease transmission. Our objectives were to investigate social networks of FRDD in eleven study sites in Chad, Guatemala, Indonesia and Uganda, and to identify characteristics of dogs, and their owners, associated with their centrality in the networks. In all study sites, networks had small-world properties and right-skewed degree distributions, suggesting that vaccinating highly connected dogs would be more effective than random vaccination. Dogs were more connected in rural than urban settings, and the likelihood of contacts was negatively correlated with the distance between dogs’ households. While heterogeneity in dog's connectedness was observed in all networks, factors predicting centrality and likelihood of contacts varied across networks and countries. We therefore hypothesize that the investigated dog and owner characteristics resulted in different contact patterns depending on the social, cultural and economic context. We suggest to invest into understanding of the sociocultural structures impacting dog ownership and thus driving dog ecology, a requirement to assess the potential of targeted vaccination in dog populations.

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Topics: Population (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.15421/022134
28 Apr 2021-
Abstract: Ukraine remains the only country in Europe where rabies is widespread among animals and humans. Annually there are about 1,600 rabies cases in animals in Ukraine and sporadic cases in humans have been registered despite the conducting of preventive measures. Therefore, the aim of the study was to inspect the failures in rabies prevention, indicate the top reasons for human cases and highlights the risk of animal attacks in view of their species and geographical distribution in Ukraine during 1996–2020. The following archival state materials were used for analysis: from the Ministry of Health of Ukraine and from the annual reports of oblast departments of the State Service of Ukraine for Food Safety and Consumer Protection. In general, more than 84,000 people (187.4 per 100,000 of the population) were affected by bites or harmful contact with animals every year, among them, 2,155 people were victims of rabid animals. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) was prescribed annually, on average, for 21,434 patients (25.5% of all victims). Most people were attacked by cats and dogs that had owners (71.5%). The frequency of the proportion of the risk of attacks by rabid dogs on humans was (1:124), from cats (1:25), wild animals (1:7), and farm animals (1:2), but the largest general proportion of animal attacks on people was from dogs – 838,635 attacks (77.7%). Thus, due to the permanently higher level of contact with people, attacks by dogs remains more dangerous. Geographically attacks on humans by domestic carnivores were observed most commonly in the east part of Ukraine due to the high urbanization of the region and the high density of the human population. A large number of attacks by foxes was observed in the west part of Ukraine due to the larger area of forests and fields. During the last 25 years, there have been 63 human rabies cases. The main sources of rabies were dogs (24 cases) and cats (22 cases). The main causes of development of rabies were: failure to receive the PEP due to the absence of a visit to a hospital after an attack of an animal (n = 38), failures in prescribing PEP (n = 15), failure of PEP (n = 10). In conclusion, the gaps in the control measures against rabies are the lack of agreed coordination of inter-sectoral links, the lack of significant efforts to raise public awareness and the lack of funding for prophylaxis programmes for humans and animals. Our future research will be aimed at modelling the transmission of rabies from the pet population to humans.

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Topics: Rabies (55%), Population (54%), Consumer protection (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APPLANIM.2021.105449
Abstract: Although free-roaming domestic dogs (FRDD) constitute the majority of the dog population worldwide, many aspects of their ecology across habitats are little known. Activity budgets by these dogs may also inform management decisions for domestic dogs in human hands. Here we collected data on the activity patterns of owned FRDD from Guatemala (n = 58) and Indonesia (n = 37), and of farm dogs (n = 11) and family dogs (n = 20) in Switzerland. The FRDD from the two countries and the Swiss farm dogs shared the similarity that although they had owners, they spent most or all of the day outside without confinement. Conversely, activity in family dogs is largely controlled by their owners. This cross-continental study thus allowed us to tease apart environmental effects on dogs’ activity from effects due to different levels of control by humans. Dogs were collared with FitBark activity trackers, which measure 3D acceleration, for 2.4–7 days. Activity for each dog was defined as the sum of BarkPoints (a continuous activity metric recorded by the FitBark tracker), calculated for each hour in the 24-hour cycle. The proportion of time resting, in ‘moderate’ and ‘high’ activity (defined by fixed thresholds of BarkPoints) over 24 h was calculated for each dog. The activity patterns of all dogs that (partly) roam freely, i.e. owned FRDD in Guatemala and Indonesia and Swiss farm dogs, showed two peaks over 24 h during 5:00–7:00 h and, less pronounced, 16:00–19:00 h. Such a bimodal activity pattern, which is also observed in other canine species, could only be detected in 45% of the family dogs. Their activity is more dependent on the owners’ daily routines and predominantly showed one high mid-day peak that often changes from day to day. Swiss dogs spent significantly more time resting and less time with ‘moderate’ activity than the owned FRDD. However, family dogs were significantly more often highly active than all other dog groups and compensated with longer resting periods. Activity decreased significantly with age, neutering and increased body condition score, whereas sex did not have any significant influence on activity. Within this study, similarities, but also differences of the activity pattern between owned FRDD and pet dogs could be revealed. Although overall activity levels of the pet dog sample fall in the range of those observed in the less controlled FRDD, it would be of interest to investigate the potential benefit of a more structured daily schedule on pet dogs in future studies.

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Topics: Population (51%), Neutering (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PNTD.0009688
Abstract: Effective parenteral vaccines are available to control rabies in dogs. While such vaccines are successfully used worldwide, the period between vaccine boosters required to guarantee protection of the population against rabies varies between vaccines and populations. In Flores Island, Indonesia, internationally and locally produced rabies vaccines are used during annual vaccination campaigns of predominantly free-roaming owned domestic dogs. The study objective was to identify the duration of the presence and factors associated with the loss of adequate level of binding antibodies (≥0.5 EU/ml) following rabies vaccination in a domestic dog population on Flores Island. A total of 171 dogs that developed an antibody titre higher or equal to 0.5 EU/ml 30 days after vaccination (D30), were repeatedly sampled at day 90, 180, 270, and 360 after vaccination. On the day of vaccination (D0), an interview was performed with dog owners to collect information on dog characteristics (age, sex, body condition score (BCS)), history of rabies vaccination, kind of daily food, frequency of feeding, and origin of the dog. Serum samples were collected and the level of antibodies was quantitatively assessed using ELISA tests. Dogs were categorized as having an adequate level of binding antibodies (≥0.5 EU/ml) or inadequate level of binding antibodies (<0.5 EU/ml) at each time points examined. A total of 115, 72, 23, and 31 dogs were sampled at D90, D180, D270, and D360, respectively, with the highest proportion of antibodies ≥ 0.5 EU/ml (58%, 95% CI, 49-67%) at D90, which reduced gradually until D360 (35%, 95% CI, 19-52%). Multivariable logistic regression models showed that loss of adequate level of binding antibodies is significantly associated with dogs having no history of vaccination or vaccination applied more than 12 months before D0, being less than 12 months of age, and having a poor BCS. These results highlight the importance of BCS regarding the immune response duration and provide insights into frequency of vaccination campaigns required for the internationally available vaccine used on Flores Island. For dogs without vaccination history or vaccination being applied more than 12 months before D0, a booster is recommended within 3 months (a largest drop of antibodies was detected within the first 90 days) after the first vaccination to guarantee measurable protection of the population that lasts at least for one year.

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Topics: Vaccination (56%), Rabies (55%), Population (53%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS10111437
Vincenzo Lorusso1, Vincenzo Lorusso2Institutions (2)
05 Nov 2021-Pathogenetics
Abstract: This concept paper reviews issues pertaining to parasitic and vector-borne infections, of humans, animals, or both, of topical relevance to the African continent as well as to neighbouring and interconnected geographies. This analysis is carried out through the “One Health” lens, being mindful of the central role of agriculture and livestock keeping in Africa’s sustainable development. The possible agricultural transformation that the continent may undergo to fulfil the rising demand for animal protein of its growing population, coupled with the ongoing climate changes, may lead to potentially enhanced interactions among humans, domesticated and wild animals, in a fast-changing environment. In this view, tackling parasitic conditions of livestock can prove being multidimensionally beneficial by improving animal health as well as communities’ food security, livelihood and public health. Accordingly, the value of applying the One Health approach to drug discovery and development in the fight against parasitic neglected tropical diseases and zoonoses, is also underscored. Overall, this article upholds the adoption of a holistic, global, interdisciplinary, multisectoral, harmonised and forward-looking outlook, encompassing both life and social sciences, when dealing with parasitic conditions of humans and animals, in Africa and beyond, in COVID-19 times and further.

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Topics: One Health (54%), Population (52%), Food security (52%) ... show more
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51 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ECOLMODEL.2006.03.017
Clément Calenge1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The practical analysis of space use and habitat selection by animals is often a problem due to the lack of well-designed programs. I present here the “adehabitat” package for the R software, which offers basic GIS (Geographic Information System) functions, methods to analyze radio-tracking data and habitat selection by wildlife, and interfaces with other R packages. These tools can be downloaded freely on the internet. Because the functions of this package can be combined with other functions of R, “adehabitat” provides a powerful environment for the analysis of the space and habitat use.

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2,722 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PNTD.0003786
Abstract: There are a number of errors in Table 3. The table legend should read: Breakdown of economic costs of rabies by cluster in millions of USD. The headings for columns six, seven, and eight are incorrect. They should be in the following order: Dog vaccination, Dog population management, Livestock losses. Please see the correct Table 3 below. Table 3 Breakdown of economic costs of rabies by cluster in millions of USD.

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227 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0014592
Simon Benhamou1Institutions (1)
26 Jan 2011-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Background Although habitat use reflects a dynamic process, most studies assess habitat use statically as if an animal's successively recorded locations reflected a point rather than a movement process. By relying on the activity time between successive locations instead of the local density of individual locations, movement-based methods can substantially improve the biological relevance of utilization distribution (UD) estimates (i.e. the relative frequencies with which an animal uses the various areas of its home range, HR). One such method rests on Brownian bridges (BBs). Its theoretical foundation (purely and constantly diffusive movements) is paradoxically inconsistent with both HR settlement and habitat selection. An alternative involves movement-based kernel density estimation (MKDE) through location interpolation, which may be applied to various movement behaviours but lacks a sound theoretical basis.

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223 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-019-40604-8
Koen Stein1, Koen Stein2, Edina Prondvai3, Edina Prondvai4  +8 moreInstitutions (10)
14 Mar 2019-Scientific Reports
Abstract: One of the fossil record’s most puzzling features is the absence of preserved eggs or eggshell for the first third of the known 315 million year history of amniote evolution. Our meagre understanding of the origin and evolution of calcareous eggshell and amniotic eggs in general, is largely based on Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous fossils. For dinosaurs, the most parsimonious inference yields a thick, hard shelled egg, so richly represented in the Late Cretaceous fossil record. Here, we show that a thin calcareous layer (≤100 µm) with interlocking units of radiating crystals (mammillae) and a thick shell membrane already characterize the oldest known amniote eggs, belonging to three coeval, but widely distributed Early Jurassic basal sauropodomorph dinosaurs. This thin shell layer strongly contrasts with the considerably thicker calcareous shells of Late Jurassic dinosaurs. Phylogenetic analyses and their Sinemurian age indicate that the thin eggshell of basal sauropodomorphs represents a major evolutionary innovation at the base of Dinosauria and that the much thicker eggshell of sauropods, theropods, and ornithischian dinosaurs evolved independently. Advanced mineralization of amniote eggshell (≥150 µm in thickness) in general occurred not earlier than Middle Jurassic and may correspond with a global trend of increase in atmospheric oxygen.

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Topics: Cretaceous (51%)

188 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FVETS.2020.00001
Elena Battisti1, Stefania Zanet1, Sara Khalili2, Anna Trisciuoglio1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: In Europe, free-ranging wildlife has been linked to the emergence of several vector-borne diseases such as rodents for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. In particular, wild carnivorans are one of the most important sources of emerging zoonotic pathogens worldwide, although little information is available regarding the epidemiology of vector-borne parasites in these animals. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate the prevalence of Babesia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania infantum in alpine wild canids and mustelids from Italy. For this study, spleen samples of 157 foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 45 badgers (Meles meles), and 33 wolves (Canis lupus) collected between 2009 and 2017 in Northwest Italy were examined by using conventional PCR. Logistic regression was used to identify possible risk factors for pathogen infections. DNA of any of the tested pathogens was found in more than 90% of the analyzed animals. In particular, Babesia spp. showed significantly higher prevalence in foxes (89.7%) and badgers (89.6%) than in wolves, while the latter were considerably more infected with Hepatozoon canis (75.8%) than foxes (5.1%). None of the badger tested positive for Hepatozoon spp., although they showed high prevalence of Leishmania infantum (53.3%). Sequencing results revealed the presence, among others, of Babesia vulpes, Babesia sp. isolate badger type A and B, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Moreover, previously unreported pathogen/host associations were observed, such as Babesia capreoli in wolves and badgers. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens observed in the present study is one of the highest reported so far, suggesting the importance of free-ranging carnivorans in the epidemiology and maintenance of the sylvatic cycle of the pathogens. Moreover, several of these pathogens are of particular importance regarding human (A. phagocytophilum, L. infantum) and pet health (L. infantum, B. vulpes).

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Topics: Meles (55%), Leishmania infantum (55%), Babesia (54%) ... show more

139 Citations


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