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Journal ArticleDOI

Comparison of single and multiple injection strategies in a butanol diesel dual fuel engine

08 Mar 2018-Journal of Energy Resources Technology-transactions of The Asme (American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection)-Vol. 140, Iss: 7, pp 072206
About: This article is published in Journal of Energy Resources Technology-transactions of The Asme.The article was published on 2018-03-08. It has received 12 citation(s) till now. The article focuses on the topic(s): Diesel fuel & Fuel injection.
Topics: Diesel fuel (64%), Fuel injection (60%), Butanol (50%)
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Biodiesel has emerged as a suitable alternative to mineral diesel in compression ignition (CI) engines in order to ensure global energy security and to reduce engine out emissions in near future. Biodiesel derived from various feedstocks available worldwide fits well in the current fuel supply arrangement for transport sector. However, biodiesel as an alternative transportation fuel has been extensively investigated because of differences in its important fuel properties compared with baseline mineral diesel. Since fuel properties greatly influence spray development, combustion, and emission formation in internal combustion (IC) engines, a number of experimental and computational studies on biodiesel usage in CI engines have been performed to determine its brake thermal efficiency (BTE), gaseous emissions, durability, etc., by various researchers using variety of engines and feedstocks. In the present paper, a critical review of the effect of biodiesel's fuel properties on engine performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics in existing diesel engines vis-a-vis conventional diesel has been undertaken. In addition, the progress and advances of numerical modeling involving biodiesel are also reviewed to determine the effect of fuel properties on spray evolution and development of reaction mechanisms for biodiesel combustion simulations. Fuel properties are discussed in two categories: physical and chemical properties, which are key parameters affecting spray and combustion processes. Subsequent sections review spray, combustion, emissions, and performance characteristics of biodiesels under various engine operation conditions. In the last section of this review paper, numerical modeling of biodiesel covering recent numerical models and schemes to understand the behavior of biodiesel combustion and pollutants formation is included. This review paper comprehensively summarizes biodiesel fuel's (BDFs) spray, combustion, and emission characteristics using experimental and numerical approaches. Limitations and scope for future studies are discussed in each section.

35 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper investigated the effect of different substitution ratios of neat ethanol (E100) and ethanol–gasoline blend E85 on in-cylinder combustion, engine efficiency, and exhaust emissions, in a dual-fuel diesel engine, using the ethanol–diesel blend (DE95). Experimental studies realized at 1400 rpm, 1600 rpm, and 1800 rpm engine speeds under constant engine load of 50% (20 Nm). For each engine speed, the injection timing of diesel and E95 fuels at 24 °CA bTDC kept constant while low-reactivity fuels (i.e., E100 and E85) substitution ratio changed in the range of 59–83%. The results showed that premixed fuels in different SRs have an impact on shaping engine emissions, ignition delay (ID), in-cylinder pressure, and heat-release rate. Also, at the dual-fuel experimental studies in all engine speeds, NOx about 47–67% decrease compared to single fuel conditions of reference diesel and DE95, and smoke opacity remained unchanged around 0.1 FSN, whereas HC and CO increased in the range of 20–50%. However, E85/DE95 and E100/DE95 dual-fuel combustion achieved lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and combustion efficiency compared to single diesel fuel combustion. On the other hand, in dual-fuel combustion conditions, despite the low combustion efficiency, premixed E85 fuel offered higher engine efficiency and lower exhaust emissions than E100.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the present work, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is premixed with air for combustion in a compression ignition engine, along with neat rubber seed oil as the direct injected fuel. The LPG is injected directly into the intake manifold using an electronic gas injector. The variation in the LPG flow rate is from zero to the maximum tolerable value. The engine load was varied from no load to full load at regular intervals of 25% of full load. Experimental results indicate a reduction in thermal efficiency at low loads, followed by a small improvement in the thermal efficiency at 75% and 100% loads. Premixing of LPG prolongs the delay in the ignition with a simultaneous decrease in the duration of combustion. With an increase in the LPG flow rate, the maximum in-cylinder pressure increased at high outputs, whereas it decreased at low outputs. The heat release rate shows that the combustion rate increases with LPG induction. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) levels reduced at high outputs, whereas at all loads, the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) levels increased. The NOx level at full load increased from 6.9 g/kWh at no LPG induction to 10.36 g/kWh at 47.63% LPG induction. At all loads, the smoke level decreased drastically. The smoke level at full load decreased from 6.1BSU at no LPG induction to 3.9BSU at 47.63% LPG induction.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Low NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions are simultaneously attempted to implement via an experimental study on diesel/butanol isomers binary fuels in premixed-charge compression ignition (PCCI) mode. N-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol were blended with diesel in a certain volume ratio of 0.24:0.76, denoted as N24, I24, S24, and T24, respectively. The indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) of binary fuels in PCCI mode decreases slightly than that in direction injection (DI) mode. T24 obtains higher ITE than the other three test fuels with 50% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). NOx formation is certainly inhibited more than 60% in PCCI mode, especially when the EGR rate is 50%. PCCI mode produces more CO, HC, and carbonyl emissions than DI mode to varying degrees; under these circumstances, T24 tends to have the lowest emissions among four test fuels, reflecting the potential of tert-butanol as a diesel alternative fuel. Butanol isomers have a vital contribution on particulate matter emissions inhibition for both PM total number and total mass. Tert-butanol tends to form accumulation mode particle, and n-butanol tends to form nucleation mode mainly caused by molecular structure diversity of isomers. The geometric mean diameter of diesel/butanol isomers increases in PCCI mode compared with that in DI mode.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this study, experiments were performed in a single-cylinder research engine to investigate the particulate matter (PM) characteristics of the engine operated in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) mode combustion vis-a-vis baseline compression ignition (CI) mode combustion using three test fuels, namely, B20 (20% v/v biodiesel blended with mineral diesel), B40 (40% v/v/ biodiesel blended with mineral diesel), and baseline mineral diesel. The experiments were carried out at constant fuel injection pressure (FIP) (700 bar), constant engine speed (1500 rpm), and constant fuel energy input (0.7 kg/h diesel equivalent). PM characteristics of PCCI mode combustion were evaluated using two different fuel injection strategies, namely, single pilot injection (SPI) (35 deg before top dead center (bTDC)) and double pilot injection (DPI) (35 deg and 45 deg bTDC) at four different start of main injection (SoMI) timings. Results showed that both PCCI mode combustion strategies emitted significantly lower PM compared to baseline CI mode combustion strategy. However, the blending of biodiesel resulted in relatively higher PM emissions from both CI and PCCI combustion modes. Chemical characterization of PM showed that PCCI mode combustion emitted relatively lower trace metals compared to baseline CI mode combustion, which reduced further for B20. For detailed investigations of particulate structure, morphological characterization was done using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which showed that PM emitted by B20-fueled PCCI mode combustion posed potentially lower health risk compared to baseline mineral diesel-fueled CI mode combustion.

4 citations

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01 Jan 1971-
Abstract: 1 Introduction 2 Basic Concepts 3 Analysis of Experimental Data 4 Basic Electrical Measurements and Sensing Devices 5 Displacement and Area Measurements 6 Pressure Measurement 7 Flow Measurement 8 The Measurement of Temperature 9 Thermal and Transport-Property Measurements 10 Force, Torque, and Strain Measurements 11 Motion and Vibration Measurement 12 Thermal and Nuclear-Radiation Measurements 13 Air-Pollution Sampling and Measurement 14 Data Acquisition and Processing 15 Report Writing and Presentations 16 Design of Experiments Appendix A-Conversion Factors and Material Properties Appendix B-Digital Imaging Systems

2,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Butanol is a very competitive renewable biofuel for use in internal combustion engines given its many advantages. In this review, the properties of butanol are compared with the conventional gasoline, diesel fuel, and some widely used biofuels, i.e. methanol, ethanol, biodiesel. The comparison of fuel properties indicates that n-butanol has the potential to overcome the drawbacks brought by low-carbon alcohols or biodiesel. Then, the development of butanol production is reviewed and various methods for increasing fermentative butanol production are introduced in detailed, i.e. metabolic engineering of the Clostridia, advanced fermentation technique. The most costive part of the fermentation is the substrate, so methods involved in renewed substrates are also mentioned. Next, the applications of butanol as a biofuel are summarized from three aspects: (1) fundamental combustion experiments in some well-defined burning reactors; (2) a substitute for gasoline in spark ignition engine; (3) a substitute for diesel fuel in compression ignition engine. These studies demonstrate that butanol, as a potential second generation biofuel, is a better alternative for the gasoline or diesel fuel, from the viewpoints of combustion characteristics, engine performance, and exhaust emissions. However, butanol has not been intensively studied when compared to ethanol or biodiesel, for which considerable numbers of reports are available. Finally, some challenges and future research directions are outlined in the last section of this review.

736 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review describes re-commercialization efforts and highlights developments in feedstock utilization, microbial strain development and fermentation process development, all of which significantly impact production costs.
Abstract: A sustainable bacterial fermentation route to produce biobutanol is poised for re-commercialization. Today, biobutanol can compete with synthetic butanol in the chemical market. Biobutanol is also a superior biofuel and, in longer term, can make an important contribution towards the demand for next generation biofuels. There is scope to improve the conventional fermentation process with solventogenic clostridia and drive down the production cost of 1-butanol by deploying recent advances in biotechnology and engineering. This review describes re-commercialization efforts and highlights developments in feedstock utilization, microbial strain development and fermentation process development, all of which significantly impact production costs.

611 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1979-

609 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2010-Fuel
Abstract: Alcohols, because of their potential to be produced from renewable sources and because of their high quality characteristics for spark-ignition (SI) engines, are considered quality fuels which can be blended with fossil-based gasoline for use in internal combustion engines. They enable the transformation of our energy basis in transportation to reduce dependence on fossil fuels as an energy source for vehicles. The research presented in this work is focused on applying n -butanol as a blending agent additive to gasoline to reduce the fossil part in the fuel mixture and in this way to reduce life cycle CO 2 emissions. The impact on combustion processes in a spark-ignited internal combustion engine is also detailed. Blends of n -butanol to gasoline with ratios of 0%, 20%, and 60% in addition to near n -butanol have been studied in a single cylinder cooperative fuels research engine (CFR) SI engine with variable compression ratio manufactured by Waukesha Engine Company. The engine is modified to provide air control and port fuel injection. Engine control and monitoring was performed using a target-based rapid-prototyping system with electronic sensors and actuators installed on the engine [1] . A real-time combustion analysis system was applied for data acquisition and online analysis of combustion quantities. Tests were performed under stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratios, fixed engine torque, and compression ratios of 8:1 and 10:1 with spark timing sweeps from 18° to 4° before top dead center (BTDC). On the basis of the experimental data, combustion characteristics for these fuels have been determined as follows: mass fraction burned (MFB) profile, rate of MFB, combustion duration and location of 50% MFB. Analysis of these data gives conclusions about combustion phasing for optimal spark timing for maximum break torque (MBT) and normalized rate for heat release. Additionally, susceptibility of 20% and 60% butanol–gasoline blends on combustion knock was investigated. Simultaneously, comparison between these fuels and pure gasoline in the above areas was investigated. Finally, on the basis of these conclusions, characteristic of these fuel blends as substitutes of gasoline for a series production engine were discussed.

355 citations

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