Abstract: Immunoinfertility is an important problem, involving a significant number of infertile couples. Although the presence of antibodies on sperm has better prognostic value than those in serum or seminal plasma, it may not be the sole authentic evidence of immunoinfertility. Infertility from antisperm antibodies is likely only when they bind to a relevant sperm antigen involved in a specific fertility function. The variance in functional deficits seen in immunologic infertility is most likely related to antibodies directed at different sperm antigens or different class, subclass, or isotypes. Antibodies to FA-1 seem to be of significant importance in human immunoinfertility. In approaching couples with infertility, a high index of suspicion for antibodies is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. In the optimal situation, all semen analyses should be screened for sperm-bound antibodies, but if this is impractical, testing should be performed on high-risk individuals (Table I). In couples in which the man has sperm-bound antibodies, and in whom there is no identifiable female factor, treatment should be instituted. Most treatments for immunoinfertility have been disappointing because of poor results, adverse effects, or high cost. Corticosteroid therapy has shown some promise in published reports (mostly poorly designed studies), but increase in pregnancy rate is modest and adverse effects may be significant. In our opinion, informed consent should be documented prior to institution of corticosteroid therapy, and subjects should be closely monitored. Advanced reproductive technologies offer a higher safety profile, and, with increasing technology, higher pregnancy rates. We recommend progressing from "low-tech" procedures, such as IUI and reserving the higher level procedures, such as IVF and ICSI, for those couples in whom pregnancy does not occur. The highest level reproductive technologies give the best current prospects for pregnancy in patients with this difficult problem but also are invasive and costly. It is hoped that further work in the laboratory will give rise to newer, safer, and less expensive effective treatments in the very near future.