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Book ChapterDOI

Competing with Integrity

About: This article is published in The Ruffin Series in Business Ethics.The article was published on 1995-04-01. It has received 123 citations till now.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors apply the strategic logic of the Bartlett and Ghoshal typology to the realm of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to international organizational strategy and find that institutional pressures, rather than strategic analysis of social issues and stakeholders, are guiding decision-making with respect to CSR.
Abstract: What is the relationship of global and local (country-specific) corporate social responsibility (CSR) to international organizational strategy? Applying the strategic logic of the Bartlett and Ghoshal typology to the realm of CSR, multinational firms should respond to pressures for integration and responsiveness from salient stakeholders. However, an institutional logic would suggest that multinational firms will simply replicate the existing product-market organizational strategy (multidomestic, transnational, global) in their management of CSR. These alternative approaches are tested with a survey instrument sent to MNEs operating in Mexico. The results of this study are consistent with the proposition that institutional pressures, rather than strategic analysis of social issues and stakeholders, are guiding decision-making with respect to CSR. We develop implications for MNE management and research, as well as public policy.

745 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a so-called role model of responsible leadership is proposed, which gives a gestalt to a responsible leader and describes the different roles he or she takes in leading stakeholders and business in society.
Abstract: We understand responsible leadership as a social-relational and ethical phenomenon, which occurs in social processes of interaction. While the prevailing leadership literature has for the most part focussed on the relationship between leaders and followers in the organization and defined followers as subordinates, we show in this article that leadership takes place in interaction with a multitude of followers as stakeholders inside and outside the corporation. Using an ethical lens, we discuss leadership responsibilities in a stakeholder society, thereby following Bass and Steidelmeier’s suggestion to discuss “leadership in the context of contemporary stakeholder theory” (1999: 200). Moreover, from a relational and stakeholder perspective we approach the questions: What is responsible leadership? What makes a responsible leader? What qualities are needed? Finally, we propose a so-called “roles model” of responsible leadership, which gives a gestalt to a responsible leader and describes the different roles he or she takes in leading stakeholders and business in society.

633 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article argued that the preferred alternative is not to split the difference, but to move beyond the positivism vs. antipositivism debate and work from an alternative framework, which allows researchers to put this debate to the side and, in the process, develop research that is focused on serving human purposes.
Abstract: The central claim of this paper is that organization studies needs to be fundamentally reshaped. Such change is needed to provideroom for ethics and to increase the relevance of research. We argue that the new pragmatism provides critical resources forthis change. Pragmatism is a particularly helpful tool to use in that it highlights the moral dimensions of organizing (is thisuseful for our purposes?) while at the same time avoiding entrenched epistemological distinctions that marginalize ethicsand make research less useful. The paper begins by discussing the relative absence of ethics within the mainstream of organization studies, indicates why this relative absence is problematic, and proceeds to show how pragmatism offers a preferable approach. Epistemology-specifically the debate between positivists and anti-positivists-becomes a central issue because the framework of positivism is overtly hostile to ethics (and other nonquantitative approaches to studying organizations), rendering it a marginal subject. While anti-positivism holds promise for overcoming this hostility towards ethics, it retains some of the destructive elements of positivism that create new and equally troubling difficulties. The paper claims, in contrast to the proposals of others (e.g., Zald's 1993 position) that the preferred alternative is not to split the difference, but to move beyond the positivism vs. antipositivism debate and work from an alternative framework. Pragmatism allows researchers to put this debate to the side and, in the process, develop research that is focused on serving human purposes-i.e., both morally rich and useful to organizations and the communities in which they operate.

547 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors reviewed research on Chinese Guanxi and social networking in the past twenty years and identified the major perspectives, theories, and methodologies used in guanxi research at micro and macro levels.
Abstract: In this article we review research on Chinese guanxi and social networking in the past twenty years and identify the major perspectives, theories, and methodologies used in guanxi research at micro and macro levels. We summarize the main findings of over 200 journal articles on guanxi research in terms of its conceptual definitions and measurements, its antecedents and consequences, and its dynamics and processes. Furthermore, we identify the gaps between different levels of guanxi research and discuss future directions to advance our understanding of the complex and intricate guanxi phenomenon.

477 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors extended the discussion of guanxi beyond instrumental evaluations and advanced a normative assessment of Guanxi, concluding that there are many different forms of guuanxi that may have distinct impacts on economic efficiency and the well-being of ordinary Chinese citizens.
Abstract: This paper extends the discussion of guanxi beyond instrumental evaluations and advances a normative assessment of guanxi. Our discussion departs from previous analyses by not merely asking, “Does guanxi work?” but rather “Should corporations use guanxi?” The analysis begins with a review of traditional guanxi definitions and the changing economic and legal environment in China, both necessary precursors to understanding the role of guanxi in Chinese business transactions. This review leads us to suggest that there are distinct types of, and uses for guanxi. We identify the potentially problematic aspects of certain forms of guanxi from a normative perspective, noting among other things, the close association of particular types of guanxi with corruption and bribery. We conclude that there are many different forms of guanxi that may have distinct impacts on economic efficiency and the well-being of ordinary Chinese citizens. Consistent with Donaldson and Dunfee (1999), we advocate a particularistic analysis of the different forms of guanxi.

402 citations