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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-21692-5

Complete biosynthesis of a sulfated chondroitin in Escherichia coli.

02 Mar 2021-Nature Communications (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 12, Iss: 1, pp 1389-1389
Abstract: Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a class of important biologics that are currently manufactured by extraction from animal tissues. Although such methods are unsustainable and prone to contamination, animal-free production methods have not emerged as competitive alternatives due to complexities in scale-up, requirement for multiple stages and cost of co-factors and purification. Here, we demonstrate the development of single microbial cell factories capable of complete, one-step biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of GAG. We engineer E. coli to produce all three required components for CS production–chondroitin, sulfate donor and sulfotransferase. In this way, we achieve intracellular CS production of ~27 μg/g dry-cell-weight with about 96% of the disaccharides sulfated. We further explore four different factors that can affect the sulfation levels of this microbial product. Overall, this is a demonstration of simple, one-step microbial production of a sulfated GAG and marks an important step in the animal-free production of these molecules. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a type of sulfated glycosaminoglycan that is manufactured by extraction from animal tissues for the treatment of osteoarthritis and in drug delivery applications. Here, the authors report the development of single microbial cell factories capable of compete, one-step biosynthesis of animal-free CS production in E. coli.

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Topics: Chondroitin sulfate (58%), Chondroitin (54%), Sulfation (53%)
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7 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1042/EBC20200172
Abstract: Bio-based production of industrially important chemicals and materials from non-edible and renewable biomass has become increasingly important to resolve the urgent worldwide issues including climate change. Also, bio-based production, instead of chemical synthesis, of food ingredients and natural products has gained ever increasing interest for health benefits. Systems metabolic engineering allows more efficient development of microbial cell factories capable of sustainable, green, and human-friendly production of diverse chemicals and materials. Escherichia coli is unarguably the most widely employed host strain for the bio-based production of chemicals and materials. In the present paper, we review the tools and strategies employed for systems metabolic engineering of E. coli. Next, representative examples and strategies for the production of chemicals including biofuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and natural products are discussed, followed by discussion on materials including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), proteins, and nanomaterials. Lastly, future perspectives and challenges remaining for systems metabolic engineering of E. coli are discussed.

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Topics: Speciality chemicals (55%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MTBIO.2021.100115
O. Burgos-Morales1, O. Burgos-Morales2, M. Gueye1, L. Lacombe1  +10 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Materials in nature have fascinating properties that serve as a continuous source of inspiration for materials scientists. Accordingly, bio-mimetic and bio-inspired approaches have yielded remarkable structural and functional materials for a plethora of applications. Despite these advances, many properties of natural materials remain challenging or yet impossible to incorporate into synthetic materials. Natural materials are produced by living cells, which sense and process environmental cues and conditions by means of signaling and genetic programs, thereby controlling the biosynthesis, remodeling, functionalization, or degradation of the natural material. In this context, synthetic biology offers unique opportunities in materials sciences by providing direct access to the rational engineering of how a cell senses and processes environmental information and translates them into the properties and functions of materials. Here, we identify and review two main directions by which synthetic biology can be harnessed to provide new impulses for the biologization of the materials sciences: first, the engineering of cells to produce precursors for the subsequent synthesis of materials. This includes materials that are otherwise produced from petrochemical resources, but also materials where the bio-produced substances contribute unique properties and functions not existing in traditional materials. Second, engineered living materials that are formed or assembled by cells or in which cells contribute specific functions while remaining an integral part of the living composite material. We finally provide a perspective of future scientific directions of this promising area of research and discuss science policy that would be required to support research and development in this field.

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Topics: Synthetic biology (50%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1GC00260K
Xuerong Jin1, Weijiao Zhang1, Yang Wang1, Jingyu Sheng1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
21 Jun 2021-Green Chemistry
Abstract: Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is widely applied in the medical, clinical, and nutraceutical fields. However, all commercialized CS is extracted from animal tissues, which is associated with many problems, such as heavy reliance on antibiotics, animal excrement waste and long breeding time. Here, we developed a promising new green route for the de novo biosynthesis of non-animal CS from methanol, a one-carbon compound, using the engineered Pichia pastoris cell factory. Firstly, three exogenous genes, namely kfoC and kfoA from Escherichia coli K4 and tuaD from Bacillus subtilis, were introduced into P. pastoris to construct the chondroitin synthesis pathway, which yielded 5.5 mg L−1 chondroitin. After optimizing the expression of committed enzymes by codon optimization, the production of chondroitin improved by approximately 35-fold to 189.8 mg L−1. Thereafter, 6 kinds of Kozak sequences and 10 different endogenous promoters were compared and applied to achieve the expression of active chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase (41.3 U L−1). After integrating the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfonation modules, the engineered strain, Pp006, successfully produced 182.0 mg L−1 CSA [GlcA-GalNAc (4S)] with a sulfation degree of 1.1%. We further improved the sulfation degree to 2.8% by strengthening the 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS) supply with the overexpression of adenosine-5′-triphosphate sulfurylase and adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate kinase. In the fed-batch cultivation, the final titer of CSA reached 2.1 g L−1 and the sulfation degree increased to 4.0%. Moreover, the results suggest that the P. pastoris cell factory could be used as a green route to produce other sulfated glycosaminoglycans.

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Topics: Chondroitin (64%), Pichia pastoris (58%), Chondroitin sulfate (57%) ... show more

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/BIT.27919
Kaifang Liu1, Xiulai Chen1, Yunlu Zhong1, Cong Gao1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The compound 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) serves as a sulfate group donor in the production of valuable sulfated compounds. However, elevated costs and low conversion efficiency limit the industrial applicability of PAPS. Here, we designed and constructed an efficient and controllable catalytic system for the conversion of ATP (disodium salt) into PAPS without inhibition from by-products. In vitro and in vivo testing in Escherichia coli identified adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase from Penicillium chrysogenum (PcAPSK) as the rate-limiting enzyme. Based on analysis of the catalytic steps and molecular dynamics simulations, a mechanism-guided "ADP expulsion" strategy was developed to generate an improved PcAPSK variant (L7), with a specific activity of 48.94 U·mg-1 and 73.27-fold higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) that of the wild-type enzyme. The improvement was attained chiefly by reducing the ADP-binding affinity of PcAPSK, as well as by changing the enzyme's flexibility and lid structure to a more open conformation. By introducing PcAPSK L7 in an in vivo catalytic system, 73.59 mM (37.32 g·L-1 ) PAPS was produced from 150 mM ATP in 18.5 h using a 3-L bioreactor, and achieved titer is the highest reported to date and corresponds to a 98.13% conversion rate. Then, the PAPS catalytic system was combined with the chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase (C4ST) using a one-pot method. Finally, chondroitin sulfate was transformed from chondroitin at a conversion rate of 98.75%. This strategy has great potential for scale biosynthesis of PAPS and chondroitin sulfate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Topics: 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (58%), Chondroitin (55%), Chondroitin sulfate (54%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIOX10111816
16 Nov 2021-Antioxidants
Abstract: Chondroitin sulfates (CS) are a class of sulfated glycosaminoglycans involved in many biological processes. Several studies reported their protective effect against neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s disease. CS are commonly derived from animal sources, but ethical concerns, the risk of contamination with animal proteins, and the difficulty in controlling the sulfation pattern have prompted research towards non-animal sources. Here we exploited two microbiological-chemical sourced CS (i.e., CS-A,C and CS-A,C,K,L) and Carbopol 974P NF/agarose semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (i.e., P.NaOH.0 and P.Ethanol.0) to set up a release system, and tested the neuroprotective role of released CS against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. After assessing that our CS (1–100 µM) require a 3 h pre-treatment for neuroprotection with SH-SY5Y cells, we evaluated whether the autoclave type (i.e., N- or B-type) affects hydrogel viscoelastic properties. We selected B-type autoclaves and repeated the study after loading CS (1 or 0.1 mg CS/0.5 mL gel). After loading 1 mg CS/0.5 mL gel, we evaluated CS release up to 7 days by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay and verified the neuroprotective role of CS-A,C (1 µM) in the supernatants. We observed that CS-A,C exhibits a broader neuroprotective effect than CS-A,C,K,L. Moreover, sulfation pattern affects not only neuroprotection, but also drug release.

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Topics: Sulfation (53%), Controlled release (52%)

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54 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.120163297
Kirill A. Datsenko1, Barry L. WannerInstitutions (1)
Abstract: We have developed a simple and highly efficient method to disrupt chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli in which PCR primers provide the homology to the targeted gene(s). In this procedure, recombination requires the phage lambda Red recombinase, which is synthesized under the control of an inducible promoter on an easily curable, low copy number plasmid. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we generated PCR products by using primers with 36- to 50-nt extensions that are homologous to regions adjacent to the gene to be inactivated and template plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes that are flanked by FRT (FLP recognition target) sites. By using the respective PCR products, we made 13 different disruptions of chromosomal genes. Mutants of the arcB, cyaA, lacZYA, ompR-envZ, phnR, pstB, pstCA, pstS, pstSCAB-phoU, recA, and torSTRCAD genes or operons were isolated as antibiotic-resistant colonies after the introduction into bacteria carrying a Red expression plasmid of synthetic (PCR-generated) DNA. The resistance genes were then eliminated by using a helper plasmid encoding the FLP recombinase which is also easily curable. This procedure should be widely useful, especially in genome analysis of E. coli and other bacteria because the procedure can be done in wild-type cells.

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Topics: Plasmid (60%), Recombinase (57%), Operon (54%) ... show more

13,178 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0003647
05 Nov 2008-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Current cloning technologies based on site-specific recombination are efficient, simple to use, and flexible, but have the drawback of leaving recombination site sequences in the final construct, adding an extra 8 to 13 amino acids to the expressed protein. We have devised a simple and rapid subcloning strategy to transfer any DNA fragment of interest from an entry clone into an expression vector, without this shortcoming. The strategy is based on the use of type IIs restriction enzymes, which cut outside of their recognition sequence. With proper design of the cleavage sites, two fragments cut by type IIs restriction enzymes can be ligated into a product lacking the original restriction site. Based on this property, a cloning strategy called ‘Golden Gate’ cloning was devised that allows to obtain in one tube and one step close to one hundred percent correct recombinant plasmids after just a 5 minute restriction-ligation. This method is therefore as efficient as currently used recombination-based cloning technologies but yields recombinant plasmids that do not contain unwanted sequences in the final construct, thus providing precision for this fundamental process of genetic manipulation.

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Topics: Golden Gate Cloning (66%), Restriction enzyme (54%), Restriction site (53%) ... show more

1,570 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKT520
David Bikard1, Wenyan Jiang1, Poulami Samai1, Ann Hochschild1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The ability to artificially control transcription is essential both to the study of gene function and to the construction of synthetic gene networks with desired properties. Cas9 is an RNA-guided doublestranded DNA nuclease that participates in the CRISPR-Cas immune defense against prokaryotic viruses. We describe the use of a Cas9 nuclease mutant that retains DNA-binding activity and can be engineered as a programmable transcription repressor by preventing the binding of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) to promoter sequences or as a transcription terminator by blocking the running RNAP. In addition, a fusion between the omega subunit of the RNAP and a Cas9 nuclease mutant directed to bind upstream promoter regions can achieve programmable transcription activation. The simple and efficient modulation of gene expression achieved by this technology is a useful asset for the study of gene networks and for the development of synthetic biology and biotechnological applications.

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Topics: RNA polymerase II (61%), RNA polymerase (61%), Response element (59%) ... show more

850 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA0803200
Abstract: BACKGROUND There is an urgent need to determine whether oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a compound contaminating heparin supplies worldwide, is the cause of the severe anaphylactoid reactions that have occurred after intravenous heparin administration in the United States and Germany. METHODS Heparin procured from the Food and Drug Administration, consisting of suspect lots of heparin associated with the clinical events as well as control lots of heparin, were screened in a blinded fashion both for the presence of OSCS and for any biologic activity that could potentially link the contaminant to the observed clinical adverse events. In vitro assays for the activation of the contact system and the complement cascade were performed. In addition, the ability of OSCS to recapitulate key clinical manifestations in vivo was tested in swine. RESULTS The OSCS found in contaminated lots of unfractionated heparin, as well as a synthetically generated OSCS reference standard, directly activated the kinin-kallikrein pathway in human plasma, which can lead to the generation of bradykinin, a potent vasoactive mediator. In addition, OSCS induced generation of C3a and C5a, potent anaphylatoxins derived from complement proteins. Activation of these two pathways was unexpectedly linked and dependent on fluid-phase activation of factor XII. Screening of plasma samples from various species indicated that swine and humans are sensitive to the effects of OSCS in a similar manner. OSCS-containing heparin and synthetically derived OSCS induced hypotension associated with kallikrein activation when administered by intravenous infusion in swine. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide a scientific rationale for a potential biologic link between the presence of OSCS in suspect lots of heparin and the observed clinical adverse events. An assay to assess the amidolytic activity of kallikrein can supplement analytic tests to protect the heparin supply chain by screening for OSCS and other highly sulfated polysaccharide contaminants of heparin that can activate the contact system.

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Topics: Heparin (56%)

557 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/B819896A
Abstract: Heparin is unique as one of the oldest drugs currently still in widespread clinical use as an anticoagulant, a natural product, one of the first biopolymeric drugs, and one of the few carbohydrate drugs. Recently, certain batches of heparin have been associated with anaphylactoid-type reactions, some leading to hypotension and death. These reactions were traced to contamination with a semi-synthetic oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS). This Highlight reviews the heparin contamination crisis, its resolution, and the lessons learned. Pharmaceutical scientists now must consider dozens of natural and synthetic heparinoids as potential heparin contaminants. Effective assays, which can detect both known and unknown contaminants, are required to monitor the quality of heparin. Safer and better-regulated processes are needed for heparin production.

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Topics: Heparinoids (52%), Heparin (52%)

313 Citations


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