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Journal ArticleDOI

Comprehensive mapping of long-range interactions reveals folding principles of the human genome.

09 Oct 2009-Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science)-Vol. 326, Iss: 5950, pp 289-293

TL;DR: Hi-C is described, a method that probes the three-dimensional architecture of whole genomes by coupling proximity-based ligation with massively parallel sequencing and demonstrates the power of Hi-C to map the dynamic conformations of entire genomes.
Abstract: We describe Hi-C, a method that probes the three-dimensional architecture of whole genomes by coupling proximity-based ligation with massively parallel sequencing. We constructed spatial proximity maps of the human genome with Hi-C at a resolution of 1 megabase. These maps confirm the presence of chromosome territories and the spatial proximity of small, gene-rich chromosomes. We identified an additional level of genome organization that is characterized by the spatial segregation of open and closed chromatin to form two genome-wide compartments. At the megabase scale, the chromatin conformation is consistent with a fractal globule, a knot-free, polymer conformation that enables maximally dense packing while preserving the ability to easily fold and unfold any genomic locus. The fractal globule is distinct from the more commonly used globular equilibrium model. Our results demonstrate the power of Hi-C to map the dynamic conformations of whole genomes.
Topics: Chromosome conformation capture (56%), Chromatin Loop (52%), Genome (51%), Higher Order Chromatin Structure (51%)
Citations
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28 Jul 2005-
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jesse R. Dixon1, Siddarth Selvaraj1, Siddarth Selvaraj2, Feng Yue1  +7 moreInstitutions (3)
17 May 2012-Nature
TL;DR: It is found that the boundaries of topological domains are enriched for the insulator binding protein CTCF, housekeeping genes, transfer RNAs and short interspersed element (SINE) retrotransposons, indicating that these factors may have a role in establishing the topological domain structure of the genome.
Abstract: The spatial organization of the genome is intimately linked to its biological function, yet our understanding of higher order genomic structure is coarse, fragmented and incomplete. In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, interphase chromosomes occupy distinct chromosome territories, and numerous models have been proposed for how chromosomes fold within chromosome territories. These models, however, provide only few mechanistic details about the relationship between higher order chromatin structure and genome function. Recent advances in genomic technologies have led to rapid advances in the study of three-dimensional genome organization. In particular, Hi-C has been introduced as a method for identifying higher order chromatin interactions genome wide. Here we investigate the three-dimensional organization of the human and mouse genomes in embryonic stem cells and terminally differentiated cell types at unprecedented resolution. We identify large, megabase-sized local chromatin interaction domains, which we term 'topological domains', as a pervasive structural feature of the genome organization. These domains correlate with regions of the genome that constrain the spread of heterochromatin. The domains are stable across different cell types and highly conserved across species, indicating that topological domains are an inherent property of mammalian genomes. Finally, we find that the boundaries of topological domains are enriched for the insulator binding protein CTCF, housekeeping genes, transfer RNAs and short interspersed element (SINE) retrotransposons, indicating that these factors may have a role in establishing the topological domain structure of the genome.

4,793 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Dec 2014-Cell
TL;DR: In situ Hi-C is used to probe the 3D architecture of genomes, constructing haploid and diploid maps of nine cell types, identifying ∼10,000 loops that frequently link promoters and enhancers, correlate with gene activation, and show conservation across cell types and species.
Abstract: We use in situ Hi-C to probe the 3D architecture of genomes, constructing haploid and diploid maps of nine cell types. The densest, in human lymphoblastoid cells, contains 4.9 billion contacts, achieving 1 kb resolution. We find that genomes are partitioned into contact domains (median length, 185 kb), which are associated with distinct patterns of histone marks and segregate into six subcompartments. We identify ∼10,000 loops. These loops frequently link promoters and enhancers, correlate with gene activation, and show conservation across cell types and species. Loop anchors typically occur at domain boundaries and bind CTCF. CTCF sites at loop anchors occur predominantly (>90%) in a convergent orientation, with the asymmetric motifs "facing" one another. The inactive X chromosome splits into two massive domains and contains large loops anchored at CTCF-binding repeats.

4,386 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "Comprehensive mapping of long-range..."

  • ...In our earlier experiments at 1 Mb map resolution (Lieberman-Aiden et al., 2009), we saw large squares of enhanced contact frequency tiling the diagonal of the contact matrices....

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  • ...C showed strong consistency between our loop calls and all six previously published Hi-C experiments in lymphoblastoid cell lines (Lieberman-Aiden et al., 2009; Kalhor et al., 2012) (Figure 3D; Data S2, I.E; Table S6)....

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  • ...Dilution Hi-C was performed as in Lieberman-Aiden et al. (2009)....

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  • ...(C) We compare our map of chromosome 7 in GM12878 (last column) to earlier Hi-Cmaps: Lieberman-Aiden et al. (2009), Kalhor et al. (2012), and Jin et al. (2013)....

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  • ...To interrogate all loci at once, we developed Hi-C, which combines DNA proximity ligation with high-throughput sequencing in a genome-wide fashion (Lieberman-Aiden et al., 2009)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Anshul Kundaje1, Wouter Meuleman2, Wouter Meuleman1, Jason Ernst3  +120 moreInstitutions (22)
19 Feb 2015-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that disease- and trait-associated genetic variants are enriched in tissue-specific epigenomic marks, revealing biologically relevant cell types for diverse human traits, and providing a resource for interpreting the molecular basis of human disease.
Abstract: The reference human genome sequence set the stage for studies of genetic variation and its association with human disease, but epigenomic studies lack a similar reference. To address this need, the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium generated the largest collection so far of human epigenomes for primary cells and tissues. Here we describe the integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes generated as part of the programme, profiled for histone modification patterns, DNA accessibility, DNA methylation and RNA expression. We establish global maps of regulatory elements, define regulatory modules of coordinated activity, and their likely activators and repressors. We show that disease- and trait-associated genetic variants are enriched in tissue-specific epigenomic marks, revealing biologically relevant cell types for diverse human traits, and providing a resource for interpreting the molecular basis of human disease. Our results demonstrate the central role of epigenomic information for understanding gene regulation, cellular differentiation and human disease.

4,169 citations


01 Feb 2015-
Abstract: The reference human genome sequence set the stage for studies of genetic variation and its association with human disease, but epigenomic studies lack a similar reference. To address this need, the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium generated the largest collection so far of human epigenomes for primary cells and tissues. Here we describe the integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes generated as part of the programme, profiled for histone modification patterns, DNA accessibility, DNA methylation and RNA expression. We establish global maps of regulatory elements, define regulatory modules of coordinated activity, and their likely activators and repressors. We show that disease- and trait-associated genetic variants are enriched in tissue-specific epigenomic marks, revealing biologically relevant cell types for diverse human traits, and providing a resource for interpreting the molecular basis of human disease. Our results demonstrate the central role of epigenomic information for understanding gene regulation, cellular differentiation and human disease.

3,734 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1982-
TL;DR: This book is a blend of erudition, popularization, and exposition, and the illustrations include many superb examples of computer graphics that are works of art in their own right.
Abstract: "...a blend of erudition (fascinating and sometimes obscure historical minutiae abound), popularization (mathematical rigor is relegated to appendices) and exposition (the reader need have little knowledge of the fields involved) ...and the illustrations include many superb examples of computer graphics that are works of art in their own right." Nature

23,860 citations


"Comprehensive mapping of long-range..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The resulting structure resembles a Peano curve, a continuous fractal trajectory that densely fills three-dimensional space without crossing itself (29)....

    [...]


28 Jul 2005-
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations


Book
15 Dec 1979-

10,758 citations


"Comprehensive mapping of long-range..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Power-law dependencies can arise from polymer-like behavior (24)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Tarjei S. Mikkelsen1, Manching Ku1, Manching Ku2, David B. Jaffe1  +26 moreInstitutions (4)
02 Aug 2007-Nature
TL;DR: The application of single-molecule-based sequencing technology for high-throughput profiling of histone modifications in mammalian cells is reported and it is shown that chromatin state can be read in an allele-specific manner by using single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Abstract: We report the application of single-molecule-based sequencing technology for high-throughput profiling of histone modifications in mammalian cells By obtaining over four billion bases of sequence from chromatin immunoprecipitated DNA, we generated genome-wide chromatin-state maps of mouse embryonic stem cells, neural progenitor cells and embryonic fibroblasts We find that lysine 4 and lysine 27 trimethylation effectively discriminates genes that are expressed, poised for expression, or stably repressed, and therefore reflect cell state and lineage potential Lysine 36 trimethylation marks primary coding and non-coding transcripts, facilitating gene annotation Trimethylation of lysine 9 and lysine 20 is detected at satellite, telomeric and active long-terminal repeats, and can spread into proximal unique sequences Lysine 4 and lysine 9 trimethylation marks imprinting control regions Finally, we show that chromatin state can be read in an allele-specific manner by using single nucleotide polymorphisms This study provides a framework for the application of comprehensive chromatin profiling towards characterization of diverse mammalian cell populations

3,955 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Feb 2002-Science
TL;DR: Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this work could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis and found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout.
Abstract: We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

3,129 citations


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