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Journal ArticleDOI

Comprehensive review of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner

01 Nov 2017-Vol. 263, Iss: 3, pp 032026
TL;DR: In this paper, the important geotechnical characteristics such as hydraulic conductivity, liquid limit and free swell index of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on research findings.
Abstract: Human activity inevitably produces waste materials that must be managed. Some waste can be reused. However many wastes that cannot be used beneficially must be disposed of ensuring environmental safety. One of the common methods of disposal is landfilling. The most common problems of the landfill site are environmental degradation and groundwater contamination caused by leachate produced during the decomposition process of organic material and rainfall. Liner in a landfill is an important component which prevent leachate migration and prevent groundwater contamination. Earthen liners have been widely used to contain waste materials in landfill. Liners and covers for municipal and hazardous waste containment facilities are often constructed with the use of fine–grained, low plasticity soils. Because of low permeability geosynthetic clay liners and compacted clay liners are the main materials used in waste disposal landfills. This paper summaries the important geotechnical characteristics such as hydraulic conductivity, liquid limit and free swell index of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on research findings. This paper also compares geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on certain criteria such as thickness, availability of materials, vulnerability to damage etc.
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Journal ArticleDOI
15 Jul 2021
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a review on the environmental assessment of using biopolymers as binders in soil improvement, biopolymer-treated soil characteristics, as well as the most important factors affecting the behavior of the treated soil.
Abstract: Soil improvement using biopolymers has attracted considerable attention in recent years, with the aim to reduce the harmful environmental effects of traditional materials, such as cement. This paper aims to provide a review on the environmental assessment of using biopolymers as binders in soil improvement, biopolymer-treated soil characteristics, as well as the most important factors affecting the behavior of the treated soil. In more detail, environmental benefits and concerns about the use of biopolymers in soil improvement as well as biopolymer–soil interaction are discussed. Various geotechnical properties are evaluated and compared, including the unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, erosion resistance, physical properties, and durability of biopolymer-treated soils. The influential factors and soil and environmental conditions affecting various geotechnical characteristics of biopolymer-treated soils are also discussed. These factors include biopolymer concentration in the biopolymer–soil mixture, moisture condition, temperature, and dehydration time. Potential opportunities for biopolymers in geotechnical engineering and the challenges are also presented.

47 citations


Cites background from "Comprehensive review of geosyntheti..."

  • ...Clay liners with low hydraulic conductivity are used in landfill systems, but their drawbacks, mostly because of high volume change and cracking as well as non-renewability, limit their use [200]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Guar gum-stabilized soil (GGSS) was used as a landfill liner by improving the hydromechanical behavior and heavy metal attenuation capacity of the poorly graded sand-clay mixture.
Abstract: Biopolymers have attracted much attention in the field of geo-environmental engineering as they provide a carbon–neutral alternative for soil stabilization and heavy metal removal This study explores the possibility of using guar gum-stabilized soil (GGSS) as a landfill liner by improving the hydromechanical behaviour and heavy metal attenuation capacity of the poorly graded sand–clay mixture The results demonstrate that the unconfined compressive strength improved by 175 folds, and hydraulic conductivity after 120 days of curing decreased by 272 × 105 folds at 2% guar gum addition Additionally, it withstands adverse environmental conditions and increases the heavy metal attenuation capacity of the soil Leachate studies show that GGSS has a good capacity to adsorb heavy metals like lead, copper, cadmium and zinc Micrographs from the scanning electron microscope demonstrate gel plug formation and bioclogging in the soil matrix with the addition of guar gum leading to favorable modifications in the geotechnical properties of the stabilized soil The durability of the stabilized soil strongly depends on the biopolymer concentration The soil stabilized with a higher dosage shows better resistance against alternate cycles of wetting and drying than lower dosages due to weak inter-particle connection Guar-stabilized soil is also more economic than conventional bentonite liners The study demonstrates that guar gum can be considered as an ideal liner material for landfills with specific advantages like replacing a nonrenewable material, bentonite with clean and renewable material, guar gum

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
08 May 2020
TL;DR: In this article, the physicochemical, mineralogical and geotechnical characteristics of four natural clayey substrata were compared to discuss their feasibility as landfill liners, and hydraulic conductivities were measured every ≈2 days spread over 7 weeks of centrifugation at 25 gravities.
Abstract: Engineered synthetic liners on their own cannot protect the environment and human health against landfill leachate pollution. Despite their initial impermeability, they are susceptible to failure during and after installation and have no attenuation properties. Conversely, natural clay liners can attenuate leachate pollutants by sorption, redox transformations, biodegradation, precipitation, and filtration, decreasing the pollutant flux. Depending on the clay, significant differences exist in their shrinkage potential, sorption capacity, erosion resistance and permeability to fluids, which affects the suitability and performance of the potential clay liner. Here, the physico-chemical, mineralogical and geotechnical characteristics of four natural clayey substrata were compared to discuss their feasibility as landfill liners. To study their chemical compatibility with leachate and rainwater, hydraulic conductivities were measured every ≈2 days spread over 7 weeks of centrifugation at 25 gravities. At field-scale, this is equivalent to every 3.4 yrs spread over 80 yrs. All the clayey substrata had favourable properties for the attenuation of leachate pollutants, although different management options should be applied for each one. London Clay (smectite-rich) is the best material based on the sorption capacity, hydraulic conductivity and low erodibility, but has the greatest susceptibility to excessive shrinkage and alterable clay minerals that partially collapse to illitic structures. Oxford Clay (illite rich) is the best material for buffering acid leachates and supporting degradation of organic compounds. The Coal Measures Clays (kaoline-rich) have the lowest sorption capacity, but also the lowest plasticity and have the most resistant clay minerals to alteration by leachate exposure.

4 citations


Cites background from "Comprehensive review of geosyntheti..."

  • ...…liquid (di Emidio et al., 2017; Francisca and Glatstein, 2010; Jo et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2005; Singh and Prasad, 2007; Stepniewski et al., 2011; Uma Shankar and Muthukumar, 2017); Methodology (Sandoval et al., 2017); Passing of time and wet-dry seasonal variations (di Emidio et al., 2017;…...

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References
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01 Jan 1976
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed an understanding of the factors determining and controlling the engineering properties of soil, the factors controlling their magnitude, and the influences of environment and time, and developed a two-part book which contains the following chapters: Part 1 - the nature of soils; bonding, crystal structure and surface characteristics; soil mineralogy; soil formation and soil deposits; determination of soil composition; soil water; clay-water-electrolyte system; soil fabric and its measurement; Part 2 - soil behavior; soil composition and engineering properties; effective, intergranular
Abstract: The book is intended to develop an understanding of the factors determining and controlling the engineering properties of soil, the factors controlling their magnitude, and the influences of environment and time. The two-part book contains the following chapters: Part 1 - the nature of soils; bonding, crystal structure and surface characteristics; soil mineralogy; soil formation and soil deposits; determination of soil composition; soil water; clay-water-electrolyte system; soil fabric and its measurement; Part 2 - soil behavior; soil composition and engineering properties; effective, intergranular and total stress; soil structure and its stability; fabric, structure and property relationships, volume change behavior; strength and deformation behavior; and, conduction phenomena. /TRRL/

3,283 citations

Book
01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of the history of the field of geotechnical engineering with a focus on soil formation and its application in the area of chemical engineering.
Abstract: Preface. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION. 1.1 Soil Behavior in Civil and Environmental Engineering. 1.2 Scope and Organization. 1.3 Getting Started. CHAPTER 2: SOIL FORMATION. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 The Earth's Crust. 2.3 Geologic Cycle and Geological Time. 2.4 Rock and Mineral Stability. 2.5 Weathering. 2.6 Origin of Clay Minerals and Clay Genesis. 2.7 Soil Profiles and Their Development. 2.8 Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition. 2.9 Postdepositional Changes in Sediments. 2.10 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. CHAPTER 3: SOIL MINERALOGY. 3.1 Importance of Soil Mineralogy in Geotechnical Engineering. 3.2 Atomic Structure. 3.3 Interatomic Bonding. 3.4 Secondary Bonds. 3.5 Crystals and Their Properties. 3.6 Crystal Notation. 3.7 Factors Controlling Crystal Structures. 3.8 Silicate Crystals. 3.9 Surfaces. 3.10 Gravel, Sand, and Silt Particles. 3.11 Soil Minerals and Materials Formed by Biogenic and Geochemical Processes. 3.12 Summary of Nonclay Mineral Characteristics. 3.13 Structural Units of the Layer Silicates. 3.14 Synthesis Pattern and Classification of the Clay Minerals. 3.15 Intersheet and Interlayer Bonding in the Clay Minerals. 3.16 The 1:1 Minerals. 3.17 Smectite Minerals. 3.18 Micalike Clay Minerals. 3.19 Other Clay Minerals. 3.20 Summary of Clay Mineral Characteristics. 3.21 Determination of Soil Composition. 3.22 X-ray Diffraction Analysis. 3.23 Other Methods for Compositional Analysis. 3.24 Quantitative Estimation of Soil Components. 3.25 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. CHAPTER 4: SOIL COMPOSITION AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Approaches to the Study of Composition and Property Interrelationships. 4.3 Engineering Properties of Granular Soils. 4.4 Dominating Influence of the Clay Phase. 4.5 Atterberg Limits. 4.6 Activity. 4.7 Influences of Exchangeable Cations and pH. 4.8 Engineering Properties of Clay Minerals. 4.9 Effects of Organic Matter. 4.10 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. CHAPTER 5: SOIL FABRIC AND ITS MEASUREMENT. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Definitions of Fabrics and Fabric Elements. 5.3 Single-Grain Fabrics. 5.4 Contact Force Characterization Using Photoelasticity. 5.5 Multigrain Fabrics. 5.6 Voids and Their Distribution. 5.7 Sample Acquisition and Preparation for Fabric Analysis. 5.8 Methods for Fabric Study. 5.9 Pore Size Distribution Analysis. 5.10 Indirect Methods for Fabric Characterization. 5.11 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. CHAPTER 6: SOIL-WATER-CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Nature of Ice and Water. 6.3 Influence of Dissolved Ions on Water. 6.4 Mechanisms of Soil-Water Interaction. 6.5 Structure and Properties of Adsorbed Water. 6.6 Clay-Water-Electrolyte System. 6.7 Ion Distributions in Clay-Water Systems. 6.8 Elements of Double-Layer Theory. 6.9 Influences of System Variables on the Double Layer. 6.10 Limitations of the Gouy-Chapman Diffuse Double Layer Model. 6.11 Energy and Force of Repulsion. 6.12 Long-Range Attraction. 6.13 Net Energy of Interaction. 6.14 Cation Exchange-General Considerations. 6.15 Theories for Ion Exchange. 6.16 Soil-Inorganic Chemical Interactions. 6.17 Clay-Organic Chemical Interactions. 6.18 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. CHAPTER 7: EFFECTIVE, INTERGRANULAR, AND TOTAL STRESS. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Principle of Effective Stress. 7.3 Force Distributions in a Particulate System. 7.4 Interparticle Forces. 7.5 Intergranular Pressure. 7.6 Water Pressures and Potentials. 7.7 Water Pressure Equilibrium in Soil. 7.8 Measurement of Pore Pressures in Soils. 7.9 Effective and Intergranular Pressure. 7.10 Assessment of Terzaghi's Equation. 7.11 Water-Air Interactions in Soils. 7.12 Effective Stress in Unsaturated Soils. 7.13 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. CHAPTER 8: SOIL DEPOSITS-THEIR FORMATION, STRUCTURE, GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES, AND STABILITY. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Structure Development. 8.3 Residual Soils. 8.4 Surficial Residual Soils and Taxonomy. 8.5 Terrestrial Deposits. 8.6 Mixed Continental and Marine Deposits. 8.7 Marine Deposits. 8.8 Chemical and Biological Deposits. 8.9 Fabric, Structure, and Property Relationships: General Considerations. 8.10 Soil Fabric and Property Anisotropy. 8.11 Sand Fabric and Liquefaction. 8.12 Sensitivity and Its Causes. 8.13 Property Interrelationships in Sensitive Clays. 8.14 Dispersive Clays. 8.15 Slaking. 8.16 Collapsing Soils and Swelling Soils. 8.17 Hard Soils and Soft Rocks. 8.18 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. CHAPTER 9: CONDUCTION PHENOMENA. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Flow Laws and Interrelationships. 9.3 Hydraulic Conductivity. 9.4 Flows Through Unsaturated Soils. 9.5 Thermal Conductivity. 9.6 Electrical Conductivity. 9.7 Diffusion. 9.8 Typical Ranges of Flow Parameters. 9.9 Simultaneous Flows of Water, Current, and Salts Through Soil-Coupled Flows. 9.10 Quantification of Coupled Flows. 9.11 Simultaneous Flows of Water, Current, and Chemicals. 9.12 Electrokinetic Phenomena. 9.13 Transport Coefficients and the Importance of Coupled Flows. 9.14 Compatibility-Effects of Chemical Flows on Properties. 9.15 Electroosmosis. 9.16 Electroosmosis Efficiency. 9.17 Consolidation by Electroosmosis. 9.18 Electrochemical Effects. 9.19 Electrokinetic Remediation. 9.20 Self-Potentials. 9.21 Thermally Driven Moisture Flows. 9.22 Ground Freezing. 9.23 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. CHAPTER 10: VOLUME CHANGE BEHAVIOR. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 General Volume Change Behavior of Soils. 10.3 Preconsolidation Pressure. 10.4 Factors Controlling Resistance to Volume Change. 10.5 Physical Interactions in Volume Change. 10.6 Fabric, Structure, and Volume Change. 10.7 Osmotic Pressure and Water Adsorption Influences on Compression and Swelling. 10.8 Influences of Mineralogical Detail in Soil Expansion. 10.9 Consolidation. 10.10 Secondary Compression. 10.11 In Situ Horizontal Stress (K 0 ). 10.12 Temperature-Volume Relationships. 10.13 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. CHAPTER 11 STRENGTH AND DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 General Characteristics of Strength and Deformation. 11.3 Fabric, Structure, and Strength. 11.4 Friction Between Solid Surfaces. 11.5 Frictional Behavior of Minerals. 11.6 Physical Interactions Among Particles. 11.7 Critical State: A Useful Reference Condition. 11.8 Strength Parameters for Sands. 11.9 Strength Parameters for Clays. 11.10 Behavior After Peak and Strain Localization. 11.11 Residual State and Residual Strength. 11.12 Intermediate Stress Effects and Anisotropy. 11.13 Resistance to Cyclic Loading and Liquefaction. 11.14 Strength of Mixed Soils. 11.15 Cohesion. 11.16 Fracturing of Soils. 11.17 Deformation Characteristics. 11.18 Linear Elastic Stiffness. 11.19 Transition from Elastic to Plastic States. 11.20 Plastic Deformation. 11.21 Temperature Effects. 11.22 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. CHAPTER 12: TIME EFFECTS ON STRENGTH AND DEFORMATION. 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 General Characteristics. 12.3 Time-Dependent Deformation-Structure Interaction. 12.4 Soil Deformation as a Rate Process. 12.5 Bonding, Effective Stresses, and Strength. 12.6 Shearing Resistance as a Rate Process. 12.7 Creep and Stress Relaxation. 12.8 Rate Effects on Stress-Strain Relationships. 12.9 Modeling of Stress-Strain-Time Behavior. 12.10 Creep Rupture. 12.11 Sand Aging Effects and Their Significance. 12.12 Mechanical Processes of Aging. 12.13 Chemical Processes of Aging. 12.14 Concluding Comments. Questions and Problems. List of Symbols. References. Index.

2,942 citations

Book
16 Sep 2005

686 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) permeated with non-standard liquids (i.e., liquids other than water) is discussed and supported with test data.

453 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of single-species salt solutions of various concentration, cation valence, and pH on swelling and hydraulic conductivity of non-prehydrated GCLs was examined.
Abstract: The influence of single-species salt solutions of various concentration, cation valence, and pH on swelling and hydraulic conductivity of nonprehydrated GCLs was examined. At similar concentration, swell was largest with NaCl, KCl, and LiCl solutions (monovalent cations Na+, K+, and Li+) and smallest with LaCl3 solutions (trivalent cation La3+). Intermediate swell volumes were obtained with divalent solutions (CaCl2, MgCl2, ZnCl2, and CuCl2). Analogous results were obtained from hydraulic conductivity tests. GCL specimens permeated with solutions containing divalent or trivalent cations had higher hydraulic conductivity than GCLs permeated with monovalent solutions or deionized water, unless the divalent or trivalent solutions were very dilute (≤0.01 M). Hydraulic conductivity increased as the concentration increased, and at high concentration (1 M) only small differences existed between hydraulic conductivities measured with all solutions. Swelling and hydraulic conductivity were related to size of the h...

356 citations