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Journal ArticleDOI

Compression-Then-Encryption-Based Secure Watermarking Technique for Smart Healthcare System

01 Oct 2020-IEEE MultiMedia (IEEE)-Vol. 27, Iss: 4, pp 133-143
TL;DR: A compression-then-encryption-based dual watermarking to protect the EPR data for the healthcare system, which produces several significant features and offers better performance in terms of robustness and security.

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Abstract: The smart healthcare system is an electronic patient records (EPR) sharing system, which significantly helps sharing of EPR data and provides appropriate medical assistance for the patients and a more suitable platform for the potential researchers. However, the security of EPR data is still a major issue in such systems. In this paper, we develop a compression-then-encryption-based dual watermarking to protect the EPR data for the healthcare system, which produces several significant features. Experiments conducted on a large set of medical data indicate the capability of our proposed method for smart healthcare. Finally, when compared with the existing technique, the proposed work offers better performance in terms of robustness and security.

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Topics: Encryption (51%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Soft computing based watermarking approaches providing robustness, imperceptibility and good embedding capacity are compared systematically and major issues and potential solutions for soft computing-basedWatermarking are discussed to encourage further research in this area.

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Abstract: Image watermarking techniques are used to provide copyright protection and verify ownership of media/entities. This technique refers to the concept of embedding of secret data/information of an owner in a given media/entity for determining any ownership conflicts that can arise. Many watermarking approaches have been offered by various authors in the last few years. However, there are not enough studies and comparisons of watermarking techniques in soft computing environments. Nowadays, soft computing techniques are used to improve the performance of watermarking algorithms. This paper surveys soft computing-based image watermarking for several applications. We first elaborate on novel applications, watermark characteristics and different kinds of watermarking systems. Then, soft computing based watermarking approaches providing robustness, imperceptibility and good embedding capacity are compared systematically. Furthermore, major issues and potential solutions for soft computing-based watermarking are also discussed to encourage further research in this area. Thus, this survey paper will be helpful for researchers to implement an optimized watermarking scheme for several applications.

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11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this work, we propose a blind watermarking approach for medical image protection. In this approach, the watermark will be constituted of the Electronic Patient Record and the image acquisition data. In order to enhance the security and guarantee the data integrity, the Electronic Patient Record hash will be added to the watermark. The integration process is based on a DWT-SVD combination, a DWT is applied to the retinal image, then, an SVD is applied to the LL sub-band. The watermark will be then integrated into the least significant bits of the S component obtained by combining the parity of the successive coefficients. Experimental results for imperceptibility and robustness show that the proposed scheme maintains a high quality watermarked image and remains highly robust against several conventional attacks.

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9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Arkadip Ray1, Somaditya RoyInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: In this study, contemporary developments of digital image watermarking techniques are appraised so as to identify state-of-the-art practices and their limitations.

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Abstract: Digital copyright protection signifies the technology of rights protection, utilization control, and management of digital substances in the activity of production, propagation, retailing, and consumption. In the era of digital boom in information technology and multimedia, malicious exploitations and piracy have become a global phenomenon; thus, the need for digital content protection is inexorable. Image watermarking has been advocated universally to resolve innumerable dilemmas correlated with issues in the fields of digital rights management and multimedia security. According to anticipated applications, various suitable image watermarking procedures have been designed to safeguard the copyright of digital subjects. In this study, contemporary developments of digital image watermarking techniques are appraised so as to identify state-of-the-art practices and their limitations. This research contribution will be expedient for the academics in instigating efficient watermarking techniques for copyright authentication.

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9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Amit Singh1, S.K. Thakur2, Alireza Jolfaei3, Gautam Srivastava4  +2 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Recently, due to the increase in popularity of the Internet, the problem of digital data security over the Internet is increasing at a phenomenal rate. Watermarking is used for various notable applications to secure digital data from unauthorized individuals. To achieve this, in this article, we propose a joint encryption then-compression based watermarking technique for digital document security. This technique offers a tool for confidentiality, copyright protection, and strong compression performance of the system. The proposed method involves three major steps as follows: (1) embedding of multiple watermarks through non-sub-sampled contourlet transform, redundant discrete wavelet transform, and singular value decomposition; (2) encryption and compression via SHA-256 and Lempel Ziv Welch (LZW), respectively; and (3) extraction/recovery of multiple watermarks from the possibly distorted cover image. The performance estimations are carried out on various images at different attacks, and the efficiency of the system is determined in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and normalized correlation (NC), structural similarity index measure (SSIM), number of changing pixel rate (NPCR), unified averaged changed intensity (UACI), and compression ratio (CR). Furthermore, the comparative analysis of the proposed system with similar schemes indicates its superiority to them.

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5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yang Wang1, Meng Fang2, Joey Tianyi Zhou2, Tingting Mu3  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Oct 2020-IEEE MultiMedia
TL;DR: The thirteen papers in this special section focus on social media data analytics with deep intelligence, which aims to handle data sampling from multimodal deep spaces, so as to well characterize the big data.

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Abstract: The thirteen papers in this special section focus on social media data analytics with deep intelligence. Big cross-model social media data analytics with deep intelligence aims to handle data sampling from multimodal deep spaces, so as to well characterize the big data. The addressed topic span from the range of human action recognition to affective computing, disaster detection, classification, retrieval, clustering, vehicle reidentification, and data security.

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4 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proved that in all permutationonly image ciphers, regardless of the cipher structure, the correct permutation mapping is recovered completely by a chosenplaintext attack, which significantly outperforms the state-of-theart cryptanalytic methods.

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Abstract: Permutation is a commonly used primitive in multimedia (image/video) encryption schemes, and many permutation-only algorithms have been proposed in recent years for the protection of multimedia data. In permutation-only image ciphers, the entries of the image matrix are scrambled using a permutation mapping matrix which is built by a pseudo-random number generator. The literature on the cryptanalysis of image ciphers indicates that the permutation-only image ciphers are insecure against ciphertext-only attacks and/or known/chosen-plaintext attacks. However, the previous studies have not been able to ensure the correct retrieval of the complete plaintext elements. In this paper, we revisited the previous works on cryptanalysis of permutation-only image encryption schemes and made the cryptanalysis work on chosen-plaintext attacks complete and more efficient. We proved that in all permutation-only image ciphers, regardless of the cipher structure, the correct permutation mapping is recovered completely by a chosen-plaintext attack. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, this paper gives a chosen-plaintext attack that completely determines the correct plaintext elements using a deterministic method. When the plain-images are of size ${M}\times {N}$ and with ${L}$ different color intensities, the number ${n}$ of required chosen plain-images to break the permutation-only image encryption algorithm is ${n}=\lceil \log _{L}$ ( MN ) $\rceil $ . The complexity of the proposed attack is $O$ ( $n\,\cdot \, {M N}$ ) which indicates its feasibility in a polynomial amount of computation time. To validate the performance of the proposed chosen-plaintext attack, numerous experiments were performed on two recently proposed permutation-only image/video ciphers. Both theoretical and experimental results showed that the proposed attack outperforms the state-of-the-art cryptanalytic methods.

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127 citations


9


Journal ArticleDOI
Amit Singh1, Basant Kumar2, Sanjay Singh3, Satya Prakash Ghrera1  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: The proposed robust and secure DWT, DCT and SVD based multiple watermarking techniques for protecting digital contents over unsecure social networks may find potential solutions in prevention of personal identity theft and unauthorized multimedia content sharing on online social networks/open channel.

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Abstract: The initial contribution in this paper begins with proposing a robust and secure DWT, DCT and SVD based multiple watermarking techniques for protecting digital contents over unsecure social networks. The proposed technique initially decomposes the host image into third level DWT where the vertical frequency band (LH2) at second level and low frequency band (LL3) at the third level DWT is selected for embedding image and text watermark respectively. Further, the proposed method addresses the issue of ownership identity authentication, multiple watermarks are embedded instead of single watermark into the same multimedia objects simultaneously, which offer the extra level of security and reduced storage and bandwidth requirements in the important applications areas such as E-health, secure multimedia contents on online social network, secured E-Voting systems, digital cinema, education and insurance companies, driver’s license /passport. Moreover, the robustness image watermark is also enhanced by using Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN), which is applied on extracted watermark to minimize the distortion effects on the watermarked image. In addition, the method addresses the issue of channel noise distortions in the identity information. This has been achieved using error correcting codes (ECCs) for encoding the text watermark before embedding into the host image. The effects of Hamming and BCH codes on the robustness of personal identity information in the form of text watermark and the cover image quality have been investigated. Further, to enhance the security of the host and watermarks the selective encryption is applied on watermarked image, where only the important multimedia data is encrypted. The proposed method has been extensively tested and analyzed against known attacks. Based on experimental results, it is established that the proposed technique achieves superior performance in respect of, robustness, security and capacity with acceptable visual quality of the watermarked image as compared to reported techniques. Finally, we have evaluated the image quality of the watermarked image by subjective method. Therefore, the proposed method may find potential solutions in prevention of personal identity theft and unauthorized multimedia content sharing on online social networks/open channel.

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92 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ashima Anand1, Amit Singh1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Experimental results demonstrate that the suggested watermarking technique archives high robustness against attacks in comparison to the other scheme for medical images, and verification its robustness for various attacks while maintaining imperceptibility, security and compression ratio.

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Abstract: Exchange of patient record over network required a technique to guarantee security and privacy for tele-health services. This paper presents an improved watermarking technique capable of providing protection of patient data by embedding multi-watermarks in medical cover image using DWT-SVD domain. Prior to embedding, Hamming code is applied to text watermark in order to reduce channel noise distortion for the sensitive data. After embedding, the watermarked medical image is encrypted then compressed. Out of two encryption method and three compression scheme tested, combination of Chaotic-LZW shows the best performance. However, HyperChaotic-LZW combination is more robust against Gaussian, JPEG compression, speckle noise and histogram equalization attacks. We illustrate the good results in terms of objective and subjective evaluation, and verify its robustness for various attacks while maintaining imperceptibility, security and compression ratio. Experimental results demonstrate that the suggested technique archives high robustness against attacks in comparison to the other scheme for medical images.

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54 citations


"Compression-Then-Encryption-Based S..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...PSNR and SSIM are the measures of imperceptibility offered by any hiding technique.(6) However, BER and NC determine the robustness provided by the data Table 1....

    [...]

  • ...From the survey, it is established that a combination of watermarking with a suitable encryption scheme is more popular and having great potential.(2,3,6) Encryption converts EPR data into an unreadable code for an unauthorized person to provide significant authentication of the digital form of medical data....

    [...]

  • ...Through making use of watermarking approaches with an appropriate compressionthen-encryption (CTE) scheme helps to provide secure and confidential transmission of sensitive data over bandwidth-constrained networks/IoT environments.(3,6,8) In this article, we develop a CTE based dual watermarking to protect the EPR data for the healthcare system....

    [...]

  • ...hiding technique.(6) NPCR and UACI estimate the strength of the encryption scheme....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
15 Jun 2011-
TL;DR: The proposed method presents a watermarking scheme based on redundant discrete wavelet transform and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) that is robust against affine transformation and ordinary image manipulation.

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Abstract: In this paper, a new method for non-blind image watermarking presented that is robust against affine transformation and ordinary image manipulation. The proposed method presents a watermarking scheme based on redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). After applying RDWT to cover image, we apply SVD to each subband. Then we modify singular values of the cover image using singular values of the visual watermark. The advantage of the proposed technique is its robustness against most common attacks. Analysis and experimental results show higher performance of the proposed method in comparison to the DWT-SVD method.

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52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental evaluation shows that using combination of NSCT, RDWT, SVD and chaotic encryption makes the approach robust, imperceptible, secure and suitable for medical applications.

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Abstract: In this paper, a chaotic based secure medical image watermarking approach is proposed. The method is using non sub-sampled contourlet transform (NSCT), redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to provide significant improvement in imperceptibility and robustness. Further, security of the approach is ensured by applying 2-D logistic map based chaotic encryption on watermarked medical image. In our approach, the cover image is initially divided into sub-images and NSCT is applied on the sub-image having maximum entropy. Subsequently, RDWT is applied to NSCT image and the singular vector of the RDWT coefficient is calculated. Similar procedure is followed for both watermark images. The singular value of both watermarks is embedded into the singular matrix of the cover. Experimental evaluation shows when the approach is subjected to attacks, using combination of NSCT, RDWT, SVD and chaotic encryption it makes the approach robust, imperceptible, secure and suitable for medical applications.

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45 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20221
202117
20204