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Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method

31 May 1995-

TL;DR: This paper presents background history of space-grid time-domain techniques for Maxwell's equations scaling to very large problem sizes defense applications dual-use electromagnetics technology, and the proposed three-dimensional Yee algorithm for solving these equations.
Abstract: Part 1 Reinventing electromagnetics: background history of space-grid time-domain techniques for Maxwell's equations scaling to very large problem sizes defense applications dual-use electromagnetics technology. Part 2 The one-dimensional scalar wave equation: propagating wave solutions finite-difference approximation of the scalar wave equation dispersion relations for the one-dimensional wave equation numerical group velocity numerical stability. Part 3 Introduction to Maxwell's equations and the Yee algorithm: Maxwell's equations in three dimensions reduction to two dimensions equivalence to the wave equation in one dimension. Part 4 Numerical stability: TM mode time eigenvalue problem space eigenvalue problem extension to the full three-dimensional Yee algorithm. Part 5 Numerical dispersion: comparison with the ideal dispersion case reduction to the ideal dispersion case for special grid conditions dispersion-optimized basic Yee algorithm dispersion-optimized Yee algorithm with fourth-order accurate spatial differences. Part 6 Incident wave source conditions for free space and waveguides: requirements for the plane wave source condition the hard source total-field/scattered field formulation pure scattered field formulation choice of incident plane wave formulation. Part 7 Absorbing boundary conditions for free space and waveguides: Bayliss-Turkel scattered-wave annihilating operators Engquist-Majda one-way wave equations Higdon operator Liao extrapolation Mei-Fang superabsorption Berenger perfectly-matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions for waveguides. Part 8 Near-to-far field transformation: obtaining phasor quantities via discrete fourier transformation surface equivalence theorem extension to three dimensions phasor domain. Part 9 Dispersive, nonlinear, and gain materials: linear isotropic case recursive convolution method linear gyrontropic case linear isotropic case auxiliary differential equation method, Lorentz gain media. Part 10 Local subcell models of the fine geometrical features: basis of contour-path FD-TD modelling the simplest contour-path subcell models the thin wire conformal modelling of curved surfaces the thin material sheet relativistic motion of PEC boundaries. Part 11 Explicit time-domain solution of Maxwell's equations using non-orthogonal and unstructured grids, Stephen Gedney and Faiza Lansing: nonuniform, orthogonal grids globally orthogonal global curvilinear co-ordinates irregular non-orthogonal unstructured grids analysis of printed circuit devices using the planar generalized Yee algorithm. Part 12 The body of revolution FD-TD algorithm, Thomas Jurgens and Gregory Saewert: field expansion difference equations for on-axis cells numerical stability PML absorbing boundary condition. Part 13 Modelling of electromagnetic fields in high-speed electronic circuits, Piket-May and Taflove. (part contents).
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TL;DR: This review describes recent fundamental spectroscopic studies that reveal key relationships governing the LSPR spectral location and its sensitivity to the local environment, including nanoparticle shape and size and introduces a new form of L SPR spectroscopy, involving the coupling between nanoparticle plasmon resonances and adsorbate molecular resonances.
Abstract: Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy of metallic nanoparticles is a powerful technique for chemical and biological sensing experiments. Moreover, the LSPR is responsible for the electromagnetic-field enhancement that leads to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and other surface-enhanced spectroscopic processes. This review describes recent fundamental spectroscopic studies that reveal key relationships governing the LSPR spectral location and its sensitivity to the local environment, including nanoparticle shape and size. We also describe studies on the distance dependence of the enhanced electromagnetic field and the relationship between the plasmon resonance and the Raman excitation energy. Lastly, we introduce a new form of LSPR spectroscopy, involving the coupling between nanoparticle plasmon resonances and adsorbate molecular resonances. The results from these fundamental studies guide the design of new sensing experiments, illustrated through applications in which researchers use both LSPR wavelength-shift sensing and SERS to detect molecules of chemical and biological relevance.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Nathan Ingle Landy1, Soji Sajuyigbe2, Jack J. Mock2, David R. Smith2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: This work fabricate, characterize, and analyze a MM absorber with a slightly lower predicted A(omega) of 96%.
Abstract: We present the design for an absorbing metamaterial (MM) with near unity absorbance A(omega). Our structure consists of two MM resonators that couple separately to electric and magnetic fields so as to absorb all incident radiation within a single unit cell layer. We fabricate, characterize, and analyze a MM absorber with a slightly lower predicted A(omega) of 96%. Unlike conventional absorbers, our MM consists solely of metallic elements. The substrate can therefore be optimized for other parameters of interest. We experimentally demonstrate a peak A(omega) greater than 88% at 11.5 GHz.

4,447 citations


Cites background from "Computational Electrodynamics: The ..."

  • ...The PML, however, requires gain and additionally is on the order of λ0/2 in thickness[32]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of nanosphere lithography for the fabrication of highly reproducible and robust SERS substrates is described and progress in applying SERS to the detection of chemical warfare agents and several biological molecules is described.
Abstract: The ability to control the size, shape, and material of a surface has reinvigorated the field of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Because excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance of a nanostructured surface or nanoparticle lies at the heart of SERS, the ability to reliably control the surface characteristics has taken SERS from an interesting surface phenomenon to a rapidly developing analytical tool. This article first explains many fundamental features of SERS and then describes the use of nanosphere lithography for the fabrication of highly reproducible and robust SERS substrates. In particular, we review metal film over nanosphere surfaces as excellent candidates for several experiments that were once impossible with more primitive SERS substrates (e.g., metal island films). The article also describes progress in applying SERS to the detection of chemical warfare agents and several biological molecules.

2,783 citations


Cites methods from "Computational Electrodynamics: The ..."

  • ...These methods include the discrete dipole approximation and the finite-difference time domain methods (37, 45, 46), and calculated results typically match well with experiment....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Ardavan Oskooi1, David Roundy2, Mihai Ibanescu1, Peter Bermel1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: This paper describes Meep, a popular free implementation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for simulating electromagnetism, and focuses on aspects of implementing a full-featured FDTD package that go beyond standard textbook descriptions of the algorithm.
Abstract: This paper describes Meep, a popular free implementation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for simulating electromagnetism. In particular, we focus on aspects of implementing a full-featured FDTD package that go beyond standard textbook descriptions of the algorithm, or ways in which Meep differs from typical FDTD implementations. These include pervasive interpolation and accurate modeling of subpixel features, advanced signal processing, support for nonlinear materials via Pade approximants, and flexible scripting capabilities.

2,241 citations


Cites background or methods from "Computational Electrodynamics: The ..."

  • ...where ε(1) represents all the linear nondispersive terms and Pi is a dispersive polarization P = χ((1)) dispersive(ω)E from dispersive materials such as Lorentz media [1]....

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  • ...5) t , while E is stored at times n t [1]....

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  • ...References: [1] GNU Guile, http://www....

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  • ...Operating system:any Unix-like system; developed under Debian GNU/Linux 5.0.2 RAM:problem dependent (roughly 100 bytes per pixel/voxel) Classification:10 Electrostatics and Electromagnetics ∗Corresponding author ∗∗Principal corresponding author Email addresses:ardavan@mit.edu (Ardavan F. Oskooi),roundyd@physics.oregonstate.edu (David Roundy),michel@alum.mit.edu (Mihai Ibanescu),bermel@mit.edu (Peter Bermel),joannop@mit.edu (J. D. Joannopoulos),stevenj@math.mit.edu (Steven G. Johnson) Preprint submitted to Elsevier January 8, 2010 External routines/libraries: optionally exploits additional free software packages: GNU Guile [1], libctl interface library [2], HDF5 [3], MPI message-passing interface [4], and Harminv filter-diagonalization [5] (which requires LAPACK and BLAS linear-algebra software [6])....

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  • ...GNU Guile,http://www.gnu.org/software/guile 2....

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20225
2021244
2020302
2019350
2018393
2017313