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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15623599.2018.1523300

Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) in India: generation rate and implications of C&DW recycling

04 Mar 2021-The international journal of construction management (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 21, Iss: 3, pp 261-270
Abstract: Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management is gaining attention from policy makers in India. This article estimates C&DW generation from urban building, rural building, and non-building se...

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Topics: Demolition waste (59%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.WASMAN.2019.05.049
15 Jul 2019-Waste Management
Abstract: Associated with the continuing increase of construction activities such as infrastructure projects, commercial buildings and housing programs, Bangladesh has been experiencing a rapid increase of construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Till now, the generation rate of C&D waste has not been well understood or not explicitly documented in Bangladesh. This study aims to provide an approach to estimate C&D waste generation using waste generation rates (WGR) through regression analysis. Furthermore, analyses the economic benefit of recycling C&D waste. The results revealed that WGR 63.74 kg/m2 and 1615 kg/m2 for construction and demolition activities respectively. Approximately, in financial year (FY) 2016, 1.28 million tons (0.149 construction and 1.139 demolition) waste were generated in Dhaka city, of which the three largest proportions were concrete (60%), brick/block (21%) and mortar (9%). After collection they were dumped in either landfills or unauthorized places. Therefore, it can be summarized as: waste is a resource in wrong place. The results of this study indicate that rapid urbanization of Dhaka city would likely experience the peak in the generation of C&D waste. This paper thus designates that C&D waste recycling is an entrepreneurial activity worth venturing into and an opportunity for extracting economic and environmental benefits from waste. The research findings also show that recycling of concrete and brick waste can add economic value of around 44.96 million USD. In addition, recycling of C&D waste leads to important reductions in CO2 emissions, energy use, natural resources and illegal landfills. Therefore, the findings of WGR and economic values provide valuable quantitative information for the future C&D waste management exercises of various stakeholders such as government, industry and academy.

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Topics: Demolition waste (61%), Demolition (56%)

69 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JENVMAN.2020.110445
Abstract: It has been observed that the massive urbanization has boosted up infinite construction in the developed as well as developing countries. The construction and demolition waste has been correspondingly increased enormously which results in nasty and fatal impacts on urban sustainability and survival in the term of economic values and environmental safety. Considering construction and demolition waste management (CDWM) in the USA and China and its comparison has not been discussed, this study explores some research questions to fill such gaps: What are the existing CDWM policies and regulations in these two countries? What is the market mode for CDWM? What are the key challenges of CDWM? What are the CDWM contribution and limitations toward circular economy? What are the lessons that must be exemplary for the two economies through mutual learning? Our results show that the CD waste generation and its management are influenced by several factors including population, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), and CDWM regulatory measures. The USA has more developed CDWM system. Whereas, China is a growing economy and it has some management deficiencies in the construction industry. Key suggestions for improving CDWM include: i. Government supervision along with an economic incentive approach, ii. Interaction between Stakeholders, iii. Mutual coordination among operational departments, iv. Audit and inspection setup, and v. Continuous development and integration of emerging technologies.

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Topics: Population (51%)

68 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JOBE.2019.100882
Navdeep Singh1, Pawan Kumar1, Paresh Goyal1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The current review article focuses on the behaviour of High Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) based Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) prepared with Natural Coarse Aggregates (NCA) and Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA). The overall performance of HVFA based SCC has been estimated from the observations of the available literature in terms of fresh, mechanical and durability properties. The utilization of coal ashes i.e. Fly Ash (FA) and Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) in SCC has become an attractive substitute for disposal, thus their impact on aforementioned properties has also been summarised briefly. The study also encompasses the characteristics and applications of coal ashes (used as binder and fine aggregates) and RCA (coarse aggregates). The outcomes of the various investigations depict that replacement of binder and aggregates affects the fresh; mechanical as well as durability properties of HVFA based SCC. The literature signifies that HVFA based SCC made with specified levels of coal ashes (FA/CBA) and non-conventional aggregates (RCA) do not inhibit the overall performance. Further, the study also supports in minimization of over pounding of natural assets for achieving the desired sustainability.

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Topics: Fly ash (54%), Bottom ash (52%)

35 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RESCONREC.2019.104642
Abstract: The study compares life cycle environmental implications of two construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management alternatives, inert landfilling and integrated wet recycling, on many impact categories under several scenarios. Integrated wet-recycling valorizes coarse aggregates, sand, and soil, recovering over 95 percent of incoming C&DW waste. Using data from recycling plants operational in New Delhi complemented by the ecoinvent database, the study deploys SimaPro software and explores potential environmental implications of recycling compared to landfilling predominantly inert stony C&DW in urban India. Processes from the ecoinvent database were customized for Indian scenario using mix of primary and secondary data. ReCiPe method was used for impact assessment. Scenarios were developed to capture uncertainties in plant operational efficiencies, the share of carbon neutral electricity in overall generation mix, and avoided transport of natural materials. The results suggest that due to greater material recovery, integrated wet recycling is environmentally sound alternative compared to landfilling under most scenarios. Higher share of cleaner electricity lowered carbon emissions, but increased mineral scarcity and eutrophication among other impact categories, indicating environmental tradeoffs associated with energy intensive recycling process. Integrated recycling promises to lower environmental footprint of urban India while lowering requirement of virgin natural materials.

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Topics: Life-cycle assessment (56%), Demolition waste (53%)

28 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2020.121405
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the attitude of builders towards construction and demolition waste recycling in India. A conceptual framework was proposed using theory of planned behavior (perceived benefits, perceived costs, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control), institutional pressures (regulatory, normative and mimetic) and environmental consciousness on behavioral intention of builders towards construction and demolition waste recycling. Empirical data with 260 responses from different builders of construction sector in two large Indian cities were analyzed through partial least squares based structural equation modelling. The findings indicate that behavioral intention towards construction and demolition waste recycling is mainly driven by personal motivations (perceived benefits, perceived costs, attitude and perceived behavioral control), regulatory pressures and environmental consciousness. The study is relevant for policy makers, regulatory institutions, industry, and academia who study or manage construction and demolition waste and recycling.

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21 Citations


References
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41 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1211658109
Abstract: Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr−1), equal to ∼5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses.

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Topics: Urban climate (65%), Urbanization (60%), Urban planning (58%) ... read more

1,998 Citations


Open access
01 Dec 2012-
Abstract: Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr−1), equal to ∼5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses.

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Topics: Urbanization (60%), Urban planning (58%), Global biodiversity (57%) ... read more

1,939 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ECOLECON.2009.05.007
Abstract: The growing industrial metabolism is a major driver of global environmental change. We present an assessment of the global use of materials since the beginning of the 20th century based on the conceptual and methodological principles of material flow accounting (MFA). On the grounds of published statistical data, data compilations and estimation procedures for material flows not covered by international statistical sources, we compiled a quantitative estimate of annual global extraction of biomass, fossil energy carriers, metal ores, industrial minerals and construction minerals for the period 1900 to 2005. This period covers important phases of global industrialisation and economic growth. The paper analyses the observed changes in the overall size and composition of global material flows in relation to the global economy, population growth and primary energy consumption. We show that during the last century, global materials use increased 8-fold. Humanity currently uses almost 60 billion tons (Gt) of materials per year. In particular, the period after WWII was characterized by rapid physical growth, driven by both population and economic growth. Within this period there was a shift from the dominance of renewable biomass towards mineral materials. Materials use increased at a slower pace than the global economy, but faster than world population. As a consequence, material intensity (i.e. the amount of materials required per unit of GDP) declined, while materials use per capita doubled from 4.6 to 10.3 t/cap/yr. The main material groups show different trajectories. While biomass use hardly keeps up with population growth, the mineral fractions grow at a rapid pace. We show that increases in material productivity are mostly due to the slow growth of biomass use, while they are much less pronounced for the mineral fractions. So far there is no evidence that growth of global materials use is slowing down or might eventually decline and our results indicate that an increase in material productivity is a general feature of economic development.

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Topics: Population (56%), Material flow accounting (55%), Industrialisation (52%) ... read more

830 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0378-7788(01)00141-4
Abstract: Considerable amount of energy is spent in the manufacturing processes and transportation of various building materials. Conservation of energy becomes important in the context of limiting of green house gases emission into the atmosphere and reducing costs of materials. The paper is focused around some issues pertaining to embodied energy in buildings particularly in the Indian context. Energy consumption in the production of basic building materials (such as cement, steel, etc.) and different types of materials used for construction has been discussed. Energy spent in transportation of various building materials is presented. A comparison of energy in different types of masonry has been made. Energy in different types of alternative roofing systems has been discussed and compared with the energy of conventional reinforced concrete (RC) slab roof. Total embodied energy of a multi-storeyed building, a load bearing brickwork building and a soil–cement block building using alternative building materials has been compared. It has been shown that total embodied energy of load bearing masonry buildings can be reduced by 50% when energy efficient/alternative building materials are used.

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Topics: Embodied energy (64%), Building science (63%), Efficient energy use (62%) ... read more

565 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JIEC.12244
Abstract: It is increasingly recognized that the growing metabolism of society is approaching limitations both with respect to sources for resource inputs and sinks for waste and emission outflows. The circular economy (CE) is a simple, but convincing, strategy, which aims at reducing both input of virgin materials and output of wastes by closing economic and ecological loops of resource flows. This article applies a sociometabolic approach to assess the circularity of global material flows. All societal material flows globally and in the European Union (EU-27) are traced from extraction to disposal and presented for main material groups for 2005. Our estimate shows that while globally roughly 4 gigatonnes per year (Gt/yr) of waste materials are recycled, this flow is of moderate size compared to 62 Gt/yr of processed materials and outputs of 41 Gt/yr. The low degree of circularity has two main reasons: First, 44% of processed materials are used to provide energy and are thus not available for recycling. Second, socioeconomic stocks are still growing at a high rate with net additions to stocks of 17 Gt/yr. Despite having considerably higher end-of-life recycling rates in the EU, the overall degree of circularity is low for similar reasons. Our results indicate that strategies targeting the output side (end of pipe) are limited given present proportions of flows, whereas a shift to renewable energy, a significant reduction of societal stock growth, and decisive eco-design are required to advance toward a CE

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Topics: European union (57%), Material flow accounting (54%), Circular economy (52%) ... read more

506 Citations