Abstract: As one of the most appealing and attractive technologies, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been utilized to directly harvest, convert and store renewable solar energy for producing sustainable and green solar fuels and a broad range of environmental applications. Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, a wide variety of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts have been designed to drive various reduction and oxidation reactions under light irradiation with suitable wavelengths. In this review, we have systematically summarized the photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts, including fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, advantages, challenges and the design considerations of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts. The versatile properties of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts are highlighted, including their crystal structural, surface phisicochemical, stability, optical, adsorption, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and electronic properties. Various design strategies are also thoroughly reviewed, including band-gap engineering, defect control, dimensionality tuning, pore texture tailoring, surface sensitization, heterojunction construction, co-catalyst and nanocarbon loading. Many important applications are also addressed, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H2 evolution and overall water splitting), degradation of pollutants, carbon dioxide reduction, selective organic transformations and disinfection. Through reviewing the important state-of-the-art advances on this topic, it may provide new opportunities for designing and constructing highly effective g-C3N4-based photocatalysts for various applications in photocatalysis and other related fields, such as solar cell, photoelectrocatalysis, electrocatalysis, lithium battery, supercapacitor, fuel cell and separation and purification.
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