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Consuls, Corsairs, and Captives: the Creation of Dutch Diplomacy in the Early Modern Mediterranean, 1596-1699

TL;DR: Lindemann et al. as mentioned in this paper examined Dutch-North African relations in the seventeenth century and raised new questions about the origins and the development of early modern diplomacy and invited us to rethink the position of European states in global power relations.
Abstract: of a dissertation at the University of Miami. Dissertation supervised by Professor Mary Lindemann. No. of pages in text. (418) In the seventeenth-century western Mediterranean, the conflict between the Dutch Republic and North African principalities over the issues of corsairing and the capture of Christians created a type of diplomacy that significantly deviates from our traditional understanding of how early modern diplomacy evolved, namely as an exchange of resident ambassadors between European states. As a study in the New Diplomatic History, this dissertation emphasizes the significance of cultural practices and political interests between Europe and other parts of the world. Over the course of the seventeenth century, North African society greatly influenced the rhythms and patterns of the evolving diplomatic relations, practices, and policies in the western Mediterranean in four particular ways. First, Europe and the Maghreb employed a mixed group of negotiators to conduct their affairs and did not exchange resident ambassadors as sovereigns in Europe usually did. Dutch consuls, whose role as merchant-consuls transformed into that of staterepresentatives, became the pre-eminent diplomats conducting the Republic’s affairs in North Africa. Second, Dutch and North African negotiators sought to combine commercial and political interests rather than follow the grand political agendas that governments in Europe often developed and pursued. Third, because the Dutch and North Africans did not exchange plenipotentiary resident ambassadors, Dutch consuls stationed in the Maghreb were forced to adjust to North African customary practices, especially those of ransoming captives and lavish gift-giving. Finally, these adjustments to North African negotiating practices, especially the giving of gifts that eventually became a form of paying tribute, demonstrate how early modern diplomacy in the western Mediterranean did not evolve in a linear manner. Thus, by examining Dutch-North African relations in the seventeenth century, this study raises new questions about the origins and the development of early modern diplomacy and invites us to rethink the position of European states in global power relations.
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TL;DR: The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 White, Richard as discussed by the authors, reviewed the Middle Ground in the book.
Abstract: Review of: The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 White, Richard

188 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Offen has provided a springboard to a future in which "partnership and mutual respect" will become the norm as mentioned in this paper. But the history of this struggle has repeatedly been forgotten as the backlash that each reform effort called torth wiped out the memory of that effort's achievements.
Abstract: recognition of her achievement in this book. The history ol’ this struggle, she muses in the kist chapter, has repeatedly been forgotten as thc backlash that each reform effort called torth wiped out the memory of that effort’s achievements. But a continuing record of the cmpnign can bc the springboard to a future in which “partnership and mutual respect” hecome the norm. Karen Offen has provided just such a springboard in this book.

53 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1925
TL;DR: In this, his most famous work, Marcel Mauss presented to the world a book which revolutionized our understanding of some of the basic structures of society as mentioned in this paper, identifying the complex web of exchange and obligation involved in the act of giving, and called into question many of our social conventions and economic systems.
Abstract: In this, his most famous work, Marcel Mauss presented to the world a book which revolutionized our understanding of some of the basic structures of society. By identifying the complex web of exchange and obligation involved in the act of giving, Mauss called into question many of our social conventions and economic systems. In a world rife with runaway consumption, The Gift continues to excite and challenge.

3,197 citations

Book
01 Jan 1972
TL;DR: Fernand Braudel as mentioned in this paper analizira poglavito udio sredine i gotovo nepomicnu povijest covjeka u njegovim odnosima s okolinom koja ga okružuje.
Abstract: U svom prvom svesku doktorske disertaciji najznacajniji francuski povjesnicar XX. st.Fernand Braudel analizira poglavito udio sredine i gotovo nepomicnu povijest covjeka u njegovim odnosima s okolinom koja ga okružuje.Poglavlja prvog dijela nose naslove "Poluotoci: planine, visoravni i ravnice" ; U srcu Sredozmlja mora i primorja ; Granice ili najsire Sredozemlje ; Fizicko jedinstvo: klima i povijest ; Ljudsko jedinstvo: putovi i gradovi, gradovi i putovi". Drugi dio knjige je naslovlje sa "Zajednicke sudbine i sveukupna kretanja" a sastoji se od 3 poglavlja: 1. Ekonomija: Mjerilo stoljeca ; 2. Privredne djelatnosti: plemenite kovine, novac i cijene ; 3. Privredne djelatnosti: trgovina i prijevoz.

1,903 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1974-Americas
TL;DR: The focus of Braudel's great work is the Mediterranean world in the second half of the sixteenth century, but the focus of this work is not the Mediterranean but the natural world and material life, economics, demography, politics, and diplomacy.
Abstract: The focus of Fernand Braudel's great work is the Mediterranean world in the second half of the sixteenth century, but Braudel ranges back in history to the world of Odysseus and forward to our time, moving out from the Mediterranean area to the New World and other destinations of Mediterranean traders. Braudel's scope embraces the natural world and material life, economics, demography, politics, and diplomacy.

298 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviewed Grotius' On the Law of War and Peace and found that it is a legal text of kind, and one should not be mislead by the title to think it deals only with the law of war and peace.
Abstract: There are some books that most people know of, many think they understand, but few have actually read. Hugo Grotius’ On the Law of War and Peace is such a book, and I have had the privilege of reviewing Stephen C Neff’s ‘version’ of that book. I say version because, (1) the original book was issued in four different versions (first edition published in 1625 and fourth edition published in 1642) and unlike the original versions, the book I have read is written in English. In his work, Neff ‘ruthlessly prunes the dense overgrowth of classical and biblical display, to allow the substantive ideas of Grotius to be absorbed in straightforward (or at least relatively straightforward) form by modern readers’. The modern reader will appreciate just how indebted we are to Neff for performing this, no doubt delicate and time-consuming task. Reviewing a book always presents its particular challenges, and reviewing this particular book certainly has been challenging. In one way, however, reviewing this book has been easy; I have not had to consider whether the original work has merits as it is already a classic. To fully evaluate Neff’s account of Grotius’ classic, I should of course have familiarised myself with the original work as well as any competing interpretive works. For obvious reasons of practicality, I have not done so. But for equally obvious reasons, this limits the value of my review and the reader of this review should not ignore this fact. However, one thing that I can say with the greatest certainty is that Hugo Grotius: On the Law of War and Peace gives a fascinating insight into topics of great relevance, now as well as at the time Hugo Grotius (or perhaps more correctly, Hugh de Groot) wrote his classic. On that basis, I would encourage anyone with an interest in public international law, legal history, jurisprudence, the law of war, or indeed seventeenth-century history and thinking, to read the book under review. Grotius’ book (original title being De Iure Belli ac Pacis) is first and foremost a legal text of kind, and one should not be mislead by the title to think it deals only with the law of war and peace. In fact, a wide variety of legal matters is covered such as property law topics, law of the sea, international law more generally, and jurisprudential issues such as the concept of ‘ownership’ and the concept of ‘good faith’. However, it is doubtlessly of even broader relevance, and the political and religious elements and implications are obvious and everywhere present. Further, in dealing with what is morally just in warfare, it also (whether intentionally or not) enters into the sphere of literature dealing with how to conduct successful warfare. After all, the success or failure of a military campaign may be directly dependent on whether the campaign is seen as being conducted morally or not – warfare being perceived as morally justified, and conducted morally, may (1) attract supporters to the campaign, and (2) prevent the enemy

193 citations