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Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology

01 Jan 1980-

TL;DR: History Conceptual Foundations Uses and Kinds of Inference The Logic of Content Analysis Designs Unitizing Sampling Recording Data Languages Constructs for Inference Analytical Techniques The Use of Computers Reliability Validity A Practical Guide

AbstractHistory Conceptual Foundations Uses and Kinds of Inference The Logic of Content Analysis Designs Unitizing Sampling Recording Data Languages Constructs for Inference Analytical Techniques The Use of Computers Reliability Validity A Practical Guide

Topics: Sampling (statistics) (61%), Inference (58%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care.
Abstract: Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context. The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care.

25,246 citations


Cites result from "Content analysis: an introduction t..."

  • ...Others have compared the results of a content analysis with other data collected within the same research project, such as comparing preferences for various types of television programming with socioeconomic indicators of participants (Krippendorff, 1980)....

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Book
05 Mar 2009
TL;DR: This chapter discusses writing Analytic Memos About Narrative and Visual Data and exercises for Coding and Qualitative Data Analytic Skill Development.
Abstract: An Introduction to Codes and Coding Chapter Summary Purposes of the Manual What Is a Code? Codifying and Categorizing What Gets Coded? The Mechanics of Coding The Numbers of Codes Manual and CAQDAS Coding Solo and Team Coding Necessary Personal Attributes for Coding On Method Writing Analytic Memos Chapter Summary The Purposes of Analytic Memo-Writing What Is an Analytic Memo? Examples of Analytic Memos Coding and Categorizing Analytic Memos Grounded Theory and Its Coding Canon Analytic Memos on Visual Data First-Cycle Coding Methods Chapter Summary The Coding Cycles Selecting the Appropriate Coding Method(s) Overview of First-Cycle Coding Methods The Coding Methods Profiles Grammatical Methods Elemental Methods Affective Methods Literary and Language Methods Exploratory Methods Forms for Additional First-Cycle Coding Methods Theming the Data Procedural Methods After First-Cycle Coding Chapter Summary Post-Coding Transitions Eclectic Coding Code Mapping and Landscaping Operational Model Diagramming Additional Transition Methods Transitioning to Second-Cycle Coding Methods Second-Cycle Coding Methods Chapter Summary The Goals of Second-Cycle Methods Overview of Second-Cycle Coding Methods Second-Cycle Coding Methods Forms for Additional Second-Cycle Coding Methods After Second-Cycle Coding Chapter Summary Post-Coding and Pre-Writing Transitions Focusing Strategies From Coding to Theorizing Formatting Matters Writing about Coding Ordering and Re-Ordering Assistance from Others Closure Appendix A: A Glossary of Coding Methods Appendix B: A Glossary of Analytic Recommendations Appendix C: Field Note, Interview Transcript and Document Samples for Coding Appendix D: Exercises and Activities for Coding and Qualitative Data Analytic Skill Development References Index

20,106 citations


Cites methods from "Content analysis: an introduction t..."

  • ...• content analysis (Krippendorff, 2003; Schreier, 2012; Weber, 1990; Wilkinson & Birmingham, 2003) • mixed methods research (Creswell, 2009; Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003) • qualitative evaluation research (Patton, 2002, 2008) • quick ethnography (Handwerker, 2001) • survey research (Fowler, 2001; Wilkinson & Birmingham, 2003) • thematic analysis (Auerbach & Silverstein, 2003; Boyatzis, 1998; Smith & Osborn, 2008)...

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  • ...• First Cycle coding methods • content analysis (Krippendorff, 2003; Schreier, 2012; Weber, 1990; Wilkinson & Birmingham, 2003) • frequency counts (LeCompte & Schensul, 1999) • graph-theoretic techniques for semantic network analysis (Namey et al....

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  • ...• case studies (Merriam, 1998; Stake, 1995) • content analysis (Krippendorff, 2003; Schreier, 2012; Weber, 1990; Wilkinson & Birmingham, 2003) • cross-cultural content analysis (Bernard, 2011) • frequency counts (LeCompte & Schensul, 1999) • graph-theoretic techniques for semantic network analysis (Namey, Guest, Thairu, & Johnson, 2008) • illustrative charts, matrices, diagrams (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Morgan, Fellows, & Guevara, 2008; Northcutt & McCoy, 2004; Paulston, 2000) • longitudinal qualitative research (Giele & Elder, 1998; McLeod & Thomson, 2009; Saldaña, 2003, 2008) • mixed-methods research (Creswell, 2009; Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003) • qualitative evaluation research (Patton, 2002, 2008) • survey research (Fowler, 2001; Wilkinson & Birmingham, 2003) • within-case and cross-case displays (Gibbs, 2007; Miles & Huberman, 1994; Shkedi, 2005)...

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  • ...• content analysis (Krippendorff, 2003; Schreier, 2012; Weber, 1990; Wilkinson & Birmingham, 2003) • graph-theoretic techniques for semantic network analysis (Namey et al....

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  • ...• content analysis (Krippendorff, 2003; Schreier, 2012; Weber, 1990; Wilkinson & Birmingham, 2003) • cross-cultural content analysis (Bernard, 2011) • descriptive statistical analysis (Bernard, 2011)...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of important concepts related to qualitative content analysis is provided and measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure are proposed.
Abstract: Qualitative content analysis in nursing research : Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness.

14,499 citations


Cites background from "Content analysis: an introduction t..."

  • ...Krippendorff (1980) emphasises that categories must be exhaustive and mutually exclusive....

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  • ...Another issue is that concepts within the quantitative research tradition still predominate when describing qualitative content analysis (for example, Krippendorff, 1980; Burnard, 1991; DowneWamboldt, 1992), especially the use of concepts describing trustworthiness....

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  • ...Since all data have multiple meanings (Krippendorff, 1980; Downe-Wamboldt, 1992), themes are not necessarily mutually exclusive....

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  • ...A category is a group of content that shares a commonality (Krippendorff, 1980)....

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  • ...All rights reserved....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Inductive content analysis is used in cases where there are no previous studies dealing with the phenomenon or when it is fragmented, and a deductive approach is useful if the general aim was to test a previous theory in a different situation or to compare categories at different time periods.
Abstract: Aim This paper is a description of inductive and deductive content analysis. Background Content analysis is a method that may be used with either qualitative or quantitative data and in an inductive or deductive way. Qualitative content analysis is commonly used in nursing studies but little has been published on the analysis process and many research books generally only provide a short description of this method. Discussion When using content analysis, the aim was to build a model to describe the phenomenon in a conceptual form. Both inductive and deductive analysis processes are represented as three main phases: preparation, organizing and reporting. The preparation phase is similar in both approaches. The concepts are derived from the data in inductive content analysis. Deductive content analysis is used when the structure of analysis is operationalized on the basis of previous knowledge. Conclusion Inductive content analysis is used in cases where there are no previous studies dealing with the phenomenon or when it is fragmented. A deductive approach is useful if the general aim was to test a previous theory in a different situation or to compare categories at different time periods.

11,985 citations


Cites background or methods from "Content analysis: an introduction t..."

  • ...Content analysis as a research method is a systematic and objective means of describing and quantifying phenomena (Krippendorff 1980, Downe-Wamboldt 1992, Sandelowski 1995)....

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  • ...It is assumed that when classified into the same categories, words, phrases and the like share the same meaning (Cavanagh 1997)....

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  • ...Today, content analysis has a long history of use in communication, journalism, sociology, psychology and business, and during the last few decades its use has shown steady growth (Neundorf 2002)....

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  • ...The truth is that this method is as easy or as difficult as the researcher determines it to be (Neundorf 2002)....

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  • ...Content analysis is a research method for making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context, with the purpose of providing knowledge, new insights, a representation of facts and a practical guide to action (Krippendorff 1980)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Theme identification is one of the most fundamental tasks in qualitative research. It also is one of the most mysterious. Explicit descriptions of theme discovery are rarely found in articles and reports, and when they are, they are often relegated to appendices or footnotes. Techniques are shared among small groups of social scientists, but sharing is impeded by disciplinary or epistemological boundaries. The techniques described here are drawn from across epistemological and disciplinary boundaries. They include both observational and manipulative techniques and range from quick word counts to laborious, in-depth, line-by-line scrutiny. Techniques are compared on six dimensions: (1) appropriateness for data types, (2) required labor, (3) required expertise, (4) stage of analysis, (5) number and types of themes to be generated, and (6) issues of reliability and validity.

4,440 citations


Cites background from "Content analysis: an introduction t..."

  • ...Second, Opler (1945) noted that some expressions of a theme are obvious and culturally agreed on, while others are subtler, symbolic, and even idiosyncratic....

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  • ...Opler’s (1945) “expressions” are called “incidents” (Glaser and Strauss 1967), “segments” (Tesch 1990), “thematic units” (Krippendorf 1980), “data-bits” (Dey 1993), and “chunks” (Miles and Huberman 1994)....

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