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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TENCON.2019.8929694

Convergence of MassiveMIMO Frequency Selective Channels

01 Oct 2019-pp 1499-1503
Abstract: MassiveMIMO(MaMI) is one of the fiery topics in 5G wireless communications. It is introduced based on the fact that the channel vectors becomes asymptotically orthogonal (as antenna elements tending to infinity). Convergence of frequency selective channel (quasi static block fading) characteristics in terms of favorable propagation and channel hardening (asymptotically orthogonal) conditions are studied using metrics like Eigenvalue Ratio (EVR), Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) and Diagonal Dominance (DD). Finally, simulations results for convergence metrics EVR, MAD and DD are compared with its limiting behavior. The effect of time delay spread on the channel convergence is studied based on the condition number of channel matrix.

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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139207249.009

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01 Jan 2012-

123,310 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TWC.2010.092810.091092
Thomas L. Marzetta1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A cellular base station serves a multiplicity of single-antenna terminals over the same time-frequency interval. Time-division duplex operation combined with reverse-link pilots enables the base station to estimate the reciprocal forward- and reverse-link channels. The conjugate-transpose of the channel estimates are used as a linear precoder and combiner respectively on the forward and reverse links. Propagation, unknown to both terminals and base station, comprises fast fading, log-normal shadow fading, and geometric attenuation. In the limit of an infinite number of antennas a complete multi-cellular analysis, which accounts for inter-cellular interference and the overhead and errors associated with channel-state information, yields a number of mathematically exact conclusions and points to a desirable direction towards which cellular wireless could evolve. In particular the effects of uncorrelated noise and fast fading vanish, throughput and the number of terminals are independent of the size of the cells, spectral efficiency is independent of bandwidth, and the required transmitted energy per bit vanishes. The only remaining impairment is inter-cellular interference caused by re-use of the pilot sequences in other cells (pilot contamination) which does not vanish with unlimited number of antennas.

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Topics: Fading (61%), Channel state information (58%), Many antennas (57%) ...read more

5,634 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2014.6736761
Abstract: Multi-user MIMO offers big advantages over conventional point-to-point MIMO: it works with cheap single-antenna terminals, a rich scattering environment is not required, and resource allocation is simplified because every active terminal utilizes all of the time-frequency bins. However, multi-user MIMO, as originally envisioned, with roughly equal numbers of service antennas and terminals and frequency-division duplex operation, is not a scalable technology. Massive MIMO (also known as large-scale antenna systems, very large MIMO, hyper MIMO, full-dimension MIMO, and ARGOS) makes a clean break with current practice through the use of a large excess of service antennas over active terminals and time-division duplex operation. Extra antennas help by focusing energy into ever smaller regions of space to bring huge improvements in throughput and radiated energy efficiency. Other benefits of massive MIMO include extensive use of inexpensive low-power components, reduced latency, simplification of the MAC layer, and robustness against intentional jamming. The anticipated throughput depends on the propagation environment providing asymptotically orthogonal channels to the terminals, but so far experiments have not disclosed any limitations in this regard. While massive MIMO renders many traditional research problems irrelevant, it uncovers entirely new problems that urgently need attention: the challenge of making many low-cost low-precision components that work effectively together, acquisition and synchronization for newly joined terminals, the exploitation of extra degrees of freedom provided by the excess of service antennas, reducing internal power consumption to achieve total energy efficiency reductions, and finding new deployment scenarios. This article presents an overview of the massive MIMO concept and contemporary research on the topic.

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Topics: 3G MIMO (72%), Multi-user MIMO (66%), Spatial multiplexing (63%) ...read more

5,302 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MSP.2011.2178495
Fredrik Rusek1, Daniel Persson1, Buon Kiong Lau1, Erik G. Larsson1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology is maturing and is being incorporated into emerging wireless broadband standards like long-term evolution (LTE) [1]. For example, the LTE standard allows for up to eight antenna ports at the base station. Basically, the more antennas the transmitter/receiver is equipped with, and the more degrees of freedom that the propagation channel can provide, the better the performance in terms of data rate or link reliability. More precisely, on a quasi static channel where a code word spans across only one time and frequency coherence interval, the reliability of a point-to-point MIMO link scales according to Prob(link outage) ` SNR-ntnr where nt and nr are the numbers of transmit and receive antennas, respectively, and signal-to-noise ratio is denoted by SNR. On a channel that varies rapidly as a function of time and frequency, and where circumstances permit coding across many channel coherence intervals, the achievable rate scales as min(nt, nr) log(1 + SNR). The gains in multiuser systems are even more impressive, because such systems offer the possibility to transmit simultaneously to several users and the flexibility to select what users to schedule for reception at any given point in time [2].

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Topics: MIMO (61%), Many antennas (56%), Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (53%) ...read more

4,913 Citations


Open accessBook
Antonio M. Tulino1, Sergio Verdu2Institutions (2)
28 Jun 2004-
Abstract: Random matrix theory has found many applications in physics, statistics and engineering since its inception. Although early developments were motivated by practical experimental problems, random matrices are now used in fields as diverse as Riemann hypothesis, stochastic differential equations, condensed matter physics, statistical physics, chaotic systems, numerical linear algebra, neural networks, multivariate statistics, information theory, signal processing and small-world networks. This article provides a tutorial on random matrices which provides an overview of the theory and brings together in one source the most significant results recently obtained. Furthermore, the application of random matrix theory to the fundamental limits of wireless communication channels is described in depth.

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2,196 Citations