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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/IMA.22566

Convolutional capsule network for COVID-19 detection using radiography images.

02 Mar 2021-International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 31, Iss: 2, pp 525-539
Abstract: Novel corona virus COVID-19 has spread rapidly all over the world. Due to increasing COVID-19 cases, there is a dearth of testing kits. Therefore, there is a severe need for an automatic recognition system as a solution to reduce the spreading of the COVID-19 virus. This work offers a decision support system based on the X-ray image to diagnose the presence of the COVID-19 virus. A deep learning-based computer-aided decision support system will be capable to differentiate between COVID-19 and pneumonia. Recently, convolutional neural network (CNN) is designed for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients through chest radiography (or chest X-ray, CXR) images. However, due to the usage of CNN, there are some limitations with these decision support systems. These systems suffer with the problem of view-invariance and loss of information due to down-sampling. In this paper, the capsule network (CapsNet)-based system named visual geometry group capsule network (VGG-CapsNet) for the diagnosis of COVID-19 is proposed. Due to the usage of capsule network (CapsNet), the authors have succeeded in removing the drawbacks found in the CNN-based decision support system for the detection of COVID-19. Through simulation results, it is found that VGG-CapsNet has performed better than the CNN-CapsNet model for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The proposed VGG-CapsNet-based system has shown 97% accuracy for COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 classification, and 92% accuracy for COVID-19 versus normal versus viral pneumonia classification. Proposed VGG-CapsNet-based system available at https://github.com/shamiktiwari/COVID19_Xray can be used to detect the existence of COVID-19 virus in the human body through chest radiographic images.

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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13369-021-05880-5
Munish Khanna1, Astitwa Agarwal1, Law Kumar Singh1, Shankar Thawkar1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic that is widely spreading daily and reaches a significant community spread. X-ray images, computed tomography (CT) images and test kits (RT-PCR) are three easily available options for predicting this infection. Compared to the screening of COVID-19 infection from X-ray and CT images, the test kits(RT-PCR) available to diagnose COVID-19 face problems such as high analytical time, high false negative outcomes, poor sensitivity and specificity. Radiological signatures that X-rays can detect have been found in COVID-19 positive patients. Radiologists may examine these signatures, but it's a time-consuming and error-prone process (riddled with intra-observer variability). Thus, the chest X-ray analysis process needs to be automated, for which AI-driven tools have proven to be the best choice to increase accuracy and speed up analysis time, especially in the case of medical image analysis. We shortlisted four datasets and 20 CNN-based models to test and validate the best ones using 16 detailed experiments with fivefold cross-validation. The two proposed models, ensemble deep transfer learning CNN model and hybrid LSTMCNN, perform the best. The accuracy of ensemble CNN was up to 99.78% (96.51% average-wise), F1-score up to 0.9977 (0.9682 average-wise) and AUC up to 0.9978 (0.9583 average-wise). The accuracy of LSTMCNN was up to 98.66% (96.46% average-wise), F1-score up to 0.9974 (0.9668 average-wise) and AUC up to 0.9856 (0.9645 average-wise). These two best pre-trained transfer learning-based detection models can contribute clinically by offering the patients prediction correctly and rapidly.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3103316
09 Aug 2021-IEEE Access
Abstract: A Phonocardiogram (PCG) signal represents murmurs and sounds signals made by vibrations caused for the period of a cardiac cycle. Acoustic wave generated through the beat of the cardiac cycle propagates through the chest wall. It can be easily recorded by a low-cost small handheld digital device called a stethoscope. It provides information like heart rate, intensity, tone, quality, frequency, and location of various components of cardiac sound. Due to these characteristics, phonocardiogram signals can be used to detect heart status at an early stage in a non-invasive manner. In previous studies, the Convolutional Neural Network (ConvNet) is the most studied architecture, which was fed by features, namely Mel Frequency Cepstral (MFC), Chroma Energy Normalized Statistics (CENS), and Constant-Q Transform (CQT). This work has proposed a ConvNet model trained by Hybrid Constant-Q Transform (HCQT) for heart sound beat classification. CQT, Variable-Q Transform (VQT), and HCQT are extracted from each phonocardiogram signal as the acoustic features, including the dominant MFCC features, feed into five-layer regularized ConvNets. After analyzing the literature in the same domain, it can be stated that this is the first time HCQT is being utilized for PCG signals. The findings of the experiments demonstrate that HCQT is more effective than standard CQT and other variants. Also, the accuracies of the system proposed in this work on the validation datasets are 96% in multi-class classification, which outperforms the proposed work relative to other models significantly. The source code is available on the Github repository https://github.com/shamiktiwari/ PCG-signal-Classification-using-Hybrid-Constant-Q-Transform to support the research community.

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Topics: Phonocardiogram (67%), Mel-frequency cepstrum (52%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10772-021-09890-4
Abstract: During each cardiac cycle of heart, vibrations creates sound and murmur. When these sound and murmur wave is represented graphically then it is called phonocardiogram (PCG). Digital stethoscope is used to record the audio wave signals generated due to heart vibration. Audio waves recorded through digital stethoscope can be used to fetch information like tone, quality, intensity, frequency, heart rate etc. Based on the heart condition, this information will be different for different people and can be used to predict the status of heart at early stage in non-invasive manner. In this research work, by using deep learning models, authors have classified PCG signals into 5 classes namely extra systole, extra heart sound, artifacts, normal heartbeat and murmur. Initially spectrograms in the form of images are extracted from PCG sound and feed into Regularized Convolutional Neural Network. From the simulation environment designed in python, it has found that proposed model has shown the average accuracy of 94% while doing the classification of PCG sound in five classes.

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Topics: Phonocardiogram (62%), Heartbeat (53%), Stethoscope (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.21595/RSA.2021.22108
13 Sep 2021-
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a neural convolutional system for recognizing the wearing of a mask by people entering a building. The algorithm is provided with input data thanks to cameras placed in the humanoid robot COVIDguard. The data collected by the humanoid – the temperature of people entering the facility, the location of the person, the way the protective mask was applied – are stored in the cloud, which enables the application of advanced image recognition algorithms and, consequently, the tracking of people within the range of the robot’s sensory systems by the administrator and the verification of the security level in the given premises. The paper presents the architecture of the intelligent COVIDguard platform, the structure of the sensory system and the results of the neural network learning.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.32604/CMC.2022.020238
Abstract: Corona is a viral disease that has taken the form of an epidemic and is causing havoc worldwide after its first appearance in the Wuhan state of China in December 2019. Due to the similarity in initial symptoms with viral fever, it is challenging to identify this virus initially. Non-detection of this virus at the early stage results in the death of the patient. Developing and densely populated countries face a scarcity of resources like hospitals, ventilators, oxygen, and healthcareworkers. Technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence can play a vital role in diagnosing the COVID-19 virus at an early stage. To minimize the spread of the pandemic, IoT-enabled devices can be used to collect patient's data remotely in a secure manner. Collected data can be analyzed through a deep learning model to detect the presence of the COVID-19 virus. In this work, the authors have proposed a three-phase model to diagnose covid-19 by incorporating a chatbot, IoT, and deep learning technology. In phase one, an artificially assisted chatbot can guide an individual by asking about some common symptoms. In case of detection of even a single sign, the second phase of diagnosis can be considered, consisting of using a thermal scanner and pulse oximeter. In case of high temperature and low oxygen saturation levels, the third phase of diagnosis will be recommended, where chest radiography images can be analyzed through an AI-based model to diagnose the presence of the COVID-19 virus in the human body. The proposed model reduces human intervention through chatbot-based initial screening, sensor-based IoT devices, and deep learning-based X-ray analysis. It also helps in reducing the mortality rate by detecting the presence of the COVID-19 virus at an early stage. © 2022 Tech Science Press. All rights reserved.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE14539
Yann LeCun1, Yann LeCun2, Yoshua Bengio3, Geoffrey E. Hinton4  +1 moreInstitutions (5)
28 May 2015-Nature
Abstract: Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

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33,931 Citations


Open accessProceedings Article
26 Oct 2017-
Abstract: A capsule is a group of neurons whose activity vector represents the instantiation parameters of a specific type of entity such as an object or object part. We use the length of the activity vector to represent the probability that the entity exists and its orientation to represent the instantiation parameters. Active capsules at one level make predictions, via transformation matrices, for the instantiation parameters of higher-level capsules. When multiple predictions agree, a higher level capsule becomes active. We show that a discrimininatively trained, multi-layer capsule system achieves state-of-the-art performance on MNIST and is considerably better than a convolutional net at recognizing highly overlapping digits. To achieve these results we use an iterative routing-by-agreement mechanism: A lower-level capsule prefers to send its output to higher level capsules whose activity vectors have a big scalar product with the prediction coming from the lower-level capsule.

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2,737 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40779-020-00240-0
Yan Rong Guo, Qing Dong Cao1, Zhong Si Hong1, Yuan Yang Tan  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. As of 1 March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed cases globally, 79,968 confirmed in China and 7169 outside of China, with 2977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. Currently, there are few specific antiviral strategies, but several potent candidates of antivirals and repurposed drugs are under urgent investigation. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and discussed the current treatment and scientific advancements to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (66%), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (65%), Disease reservoir (53%) ... show more

2,461 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12098-020-03263-6
Abstract: There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. There have been around 96,000 reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and 3300 reported deaths to date (05/03/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. The disease is mild in most people; in some (usually the elderly and those with comorbidities), it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ dysfunction. Many people are asymptomatic. The case fatality rate is estimated to range from 2 to 3%. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the virus in respiratory secretions by special molecular tests. Common laboratory findings include normal/ low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The computerized tomographic chest scan is usually abnormal even in those with no symptoms or mild disease. Treatment is essentially supportive; role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. Prevention entails home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses and strict infection control measures at hospitals that include contact and droplet precautions. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain.

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Topics: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (59%), Pneumonia (55%), Case fatality rate (54%) ... show more

1,729 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1148/RADIOL.2020200905
Lin Li, Lixin Qin1, Zeguo Xu, Youbing Yin  +14 moreInstitutions (3)
19 Mar 2020-Radiology
Abstract: Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has widely spread all over the world since the beginning of 2020. It is desirable to develop automatic and accurate detection of COVID-19 using chest CT. Purpose To develop a fully automatic framework to detect COVID-19 using chest CT and evaluate its performance. Materials and Methods In this retrospective and multicenter study, a deep learning model, the COVID-19 detection neural network (COVNet), was developed to extract visual features from volumetric chest CT scans for the detection of COVID-19. CT scans of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and other non-pneumonia abnormalities were included to test the robustness of the model. The datasets were collected from six hospitals between August 2016 and February 2020. Diagnostic performance was assessed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity. Results The collected dataset consisted of 4352 chest CT scans from 3322 patients. The average patient age (±standard deviation) was 49 years ± 15, and there were slightly more men than women (1838 vs 1484, respectively; P = .29). The per-scan sensitivity and specificity for detecting COVID-19 in the independent test set was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83%, 94%; 114 of 127 scans) and 96% (95% CI: 93%, 98%; 294 of 307 scans), respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.96 (P < .001). The per-scan sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAP in the independent test set was 87% (152 of 175 scans) and 92% (239 of 259 scans), respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.97). Conclusion A deep learning model can accurately detect coronavirus 2019 and differentiate it from community-acquired pneumonia and other lung conditions. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

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942 Citations


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