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Journal ArticleDOI

Convolutional Neural Network and Histogram of Oriented Gradient Based Invariant Handwritten MODI Character Recognition

01 Jun 2022-Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis)-Vol. 32, Iss: 2, pp 402-418
About: This article is published in Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis.The article was published on 2022-06-01. It has received None citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Convolutional neural network & Pattern recognition (psychology).
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
Jia Deng1, Wei Dong1, Richard Socher1, Li-Jia Li1, Kai Li1, Li Fei-Fei1 
20 Jun 2009
TL;DR: A new database called “ImageNet” is introduced, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure, much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets.
Abstract: The explosion of image data on the Internet has the potential to foster more sophisticated and robust models and algorithms to index, retrieve, organize and interact with images and multimedia data. But exactly how such data can be harnessed and organized remains a critical problem. We introduce here a new database called “ImageNet”, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure. ImageNet aims to populate the majority of the 80,000 synsets of WordNet with an average of 500-1000 clean and full resolution images. This will result in tens of millions of annotated images organized by the semantic hierarchy of WordNet. This paper offers a detailed analysis of ImageNet in its current state: 12 subtrees with 5247 synsets and 3.2 million images in total. We show that ImageNet is much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets. Constructing such a large-scale database is a challenging task. We describe the data collection scheme with Amazon Mechanical Turk. Lastly, we illustrate the usefulness of ImageNet through three simple applications in object recognition, image classification and automatic object clustering. We hope that the scale, accuracy, diversity and hierarchical structure of ImageNet can offer unparalleled opportunities to researchers in the computer vision community and beyond.

49,639 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Jun 2005
TL;DR: It is shown experimentally that grids of histograms of oriented gradient (HOG) descriptors significantly outperform existing feature sets for human detection, and the influence of each stage of the computation on performance is studied.
Abstract: We study the question of feature sets for robust visual object recognition; adopting linear SVM based human detection as a test case. After reviewing existing edge and gradient based descriptors, we show experimentally that grids of histograms of oriented gradient (HOG) descriptors significantly outperform existing feature sets for human detection. We study the influence of each stage of the computation on performance, concluding that fine-scale gradients, fine orientation binning, relatively coarse spatial binning, and high-quality local contrast normalization in overlapping descriptor blocks are all important for good results. The new approach gives near-perfect separation on the original MIT pedestrian database, so we introduce a more challenging dataset containing over 1800 annotated human images with a large range of pose variations and backgrounds.

31,952 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) as mentioned in this paper are a special type of Neural Networks, which has shown exemplary performance on several competitions related to Computer Vision and Image Processing.
Abstract: Deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is a special type of Neural Networks, which has shown exemplary performance on several competitions related to Computer Vision and Image Processing. Some of the exciting application areas of CNN include Image Classification and Segmentation, Object Detection, Video Processing, Natural Language Processing, and Speech Recognition. The powerful learning ability of deep CNN is primarily due to the use of multiple feature extraction stages that can automatically learn representations from the data. The availability of a large amount of data and improvement in the hardware technology has accelerated the research in CNNs, and recently interesting deep CNN architectures have been reported. Several inspiring ideas to bring advancements in CNNs have been explored, such as the use of different activation and loss functions, parameter optimization, regularization, and architectural innovations. However, the significant improvement in the representational capacity of the deep CNN is achieved through architectural innovations. Notably, the ideas of exploiting spatial and channel information, depth and width of architecture, and multi-path information processing have gained substantial attention. Similarly, the idea of using a block of layers as a structural unit is also gaining popularity. This survey thus focuses on the intrinsic taxonomy present in the recently reported deep CNN architectures and, consequently, classifies the recent innovations in CNN architectures into seven different categories. These seven categories are based on spatial exploitation, depth, multi-path, width, feature-map exploitation, channel boosting, and attention. Additionally, the elementary understanding of CNN components, current challenges, and applications of CNN are also provided.

1,328 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Jun 2016
TL;DR: A deep neural network topology that incorporates a simple to implement transformationinvariant pooling operator (TI-POOLING) that is able to efficiently handle prior knowledge on nuisance variations in the data, such as rotation or scale changes is presented.
Abstract: In this paper we present a deep neural network topology that incorporates a simple to implement transformationinvariant pooling operator (TI-POOLING). This operator is able to efficiently handle prior knowledge on nuisance variations in the data, such as rotation or scale changes. Most current methods usually make use of dataset augmentation to address this issue, but this requires larger number of model parameters and more training data, and results in significantly increased training time and larger chance of under-or overfitting. The main reason for these drawbacks is that that the learned model needs to capture adequate features for all the possible transformations of the input. On the other hand, we formulate features in convolutional neural networks to be transformation-invariant. We achieve that using parallel siamese architectures for the considered transformation set and applying the TI-POOLING operator on their outputs before the fully-connected layers. We show that this topology internally finds the most optimal "canonical" instance of the input image for training and therefore limits the redundancy in learned features. This more efficient use of training data results in better performance on popular benchmark datasets with smaller number of parameters when comparing to standard convolutional neural networks with dataset augmentation and to other baselines.

272 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new method of combining Orthogonal Fourier–Mellin moments (OFMMs) with centroid bounding circle scaling is introduced, which is shown to be useful in characterizing images with large variability.

239 citations