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Journal ArticleDOI

Cooperation of human and machines in assembly lines

01 Jan 2009-CIRP Annals (Elsevier)-Vol. 58, Iss: 2, pp 628-646

Abstract: Flexibility and changeability of assembly processes require a close cooperation between the worker and the automated assembly system. The interaction between human and robots improves the efficiency of individual complex assembly processes, particularly when a robot serves as an intelligent assistant. The paper gives a survey about forms of human–machine cooperation in assembly and available technologies that support the cooperation. Organizational and economic aspects of cooperative assembly including efficient component supply and logistics are also discussed.
Topics: Flexibility (engineering) (56%), Robot (54%), Component (UML) (52%), Robotics (51%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
S.J. Hu1, Jeonghan Ko2, L. Weyand3, Hoda A. ElMaraghy4  +6 moreInstitutions (8)
01 Jan 2011-CIRP Annals
Abstract: Assembly is the capstone process for product realization where component parts and subassemblies are integrated together to form the final products. As product variety increases due to the shift from mass production to mass customization, assembly systems must be designed and operated to handle such high variety. In this paper we first review the state of the art research in the areas of assembly system design, planning and operations in the presence of product variety. Methods for assembly representation, sequence generation and assembly line balancing are reviewed and summarized. Operational complexity and the role of human operators in assembly systems are then discussed in the context of product variety. Challenges in disassembly and remanufacturing in the presence of high variety are presented. We then conjecture a future manufacturing paradigm of personalized products and production and discuss the assembly challenge for such a paradigm. Opportunities for assembly system research are summarized at the end of the paper.

432 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Although the concept of industrial cobots dates back to 1999, most present day hybrid human-machine assembly systems are merely weight compensators. Here, we present results on the development of a collaborative human-robot manufacturing cell for homokinetic joint assembly. The robot alternates active and passive behaviours during assembly, to lighten the burden on the operator in the first case, and to comply to his/her needs in the latter. Our approach can successfully manage direct physical contact between robot and human, and between robot and environment. Furthermore, it can be applied to standard position (and not torque) controlled robots, common in the industry. The approach is validated in a series of assembly experiments. The human workload is reduced, diminishing the risk of strain injuries. Besides, a complete risk analysis indicates that the proposed setup is compatible with the safety standards, and could be certified.

341 citations


Cites background from "Cooperation of human and machines i..."

  • ...• In contrast with most existing human-machine manufacturing applications, where collision avoidance is guaranteed by a minimum security distance [2], our framework successfully manages direct physical contact between robot and human, and between robot and environment....

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  • ...A thorough state-of-theart on human-machine cooperation in manufacturing lines is provided in [2]....

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  • ...Although the welding assistance application targeted by these works also falls in the shared workplace paradigm evoked in [2], it differs from the one treated here, since the robot motion is driven by the human worker....

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  • ...But as in the previously cited survey [2], the paper exposes the absence of high level human-robot collaboration, apart from “Intelligent Lift Assistants”....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2018-Mechatronics
TL;DR: An extensive review on human–robot collaboration in industrial environment is provided, with specific focus on issues related to physical and cognitive interaction, and the commercially available solutions are presented.
Abstract: Easy-to-use collaborative robotics solutions, where human workers and robots share their skills, are entering the market, thus becoming the new frontier in industrial robotics. They allow to combine the advantages of robots, which enjoy high levels of accuracy, speed and repeatability, with the flexibility and cognitive skills of human workers. However, to achieve an efficient human–robot collaboration, several challenges need to be tackled. First, a safe interaction must be guaranteed to prevent harming humans having a direct contact with the moving robot. Additionally, to take full advantage of human skills, it is important that intuitive user interfaces are properly designed, so that human operators can easily program and interact with the robot. In this survey paper, an extensive review on human–robot collaboration in industrial environment is provided, with specific focus on issues related to physical and cognitive interaction. The commercially available solutions are also presented and the main industrial applications where collaborative robotic is advantageous are discussed, highlighting how collaborative solutions are intended to improve the efficiency of the system and which the open issue are.

331 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of recent research and progress on HRI, related to task planning/coordination and programming with emphasis on the manufacturing/production environment and a survey on multimodal communication frameworks is presented.
Abstract: The wide interest of research and industry in the human–robot interaction HRI related topics is proportional to the increased productivity and flexibility of the production lines, as it combines human and robot capabilities. This paper presents a review of recent research and progress on HRI, related to task planning/coordination and programming with emphasis on the manufacturing/production environment. Human–robot task allocation and scheduling, metrics for HRI, as well as the social aspects are reviewed. The role of digital human modelling systems for human–robot task planning related issues is also discussed. The process of learning by demonstration as well as the instructive systems is reviewed, focussing mainly on programming through visual guidance and imitation, voice commands and haptic interaction. The aspect of physical HRI as well as the safety related issues are also discussed. Additionally, a survey on multimodal communication frameworks is presented. Challenges encountered and directions for future research are discussed.

229 citations


Cites background from "Cooperation of human and machines i..."

  • ...The hybrid assembly cells are basically classified into (a) workspace sharing and (b) workspace and time sharing (Krüger, Lien, and Verl 2009; Bannat et al. 2009)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2018-Autonomous Robots
TL;DR: The main purpose of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art on intermediate human–robot interfaces (bi-directional), robot control modalities, system stability, benchmarking and relevant use cases, and to extend views on the required future developments in the realm of human-robot collaboration.
Abstract: Recent technological advances in hardware design of the robotic platforms enabled the implementation of various control modalities for improved interactions with humans and unstructured environments. An important application area for the integration of robots with such advanced interaction capabilities is human---robot collaboration. This aspect represents high socio-economic impacts and maintains the sense of purpose of the involved people, as the robots do not completely replace the humans from the work process. The research community's recent surge of interest in this area has been devoted to the implementation of various methodologies to achieve intuitive and seamless human---robot-environment interactions by incorporating the collaborative partners' superior capabilities, e.g. human's cognitive and robot's physical power generation capacity. In fact, the main purpose of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art on intermediate human---robot interfaces (bi-directional), robot control modalities, system stability, benchmarking and relevant use cases, and to extend views on the required future developments in the realm of human---robot collaboration.

223 citations


Cites background from "Cooperation of human and machines i..."

  • ...…2009,Evrard et al., 2009], object placing [Tsumugiwa et al., 2002a,Gams et al., 2014], object swinging [Donner and Buss, 2016a,Palunko et al., 2014], posture assistance [Ikemoto et al., 2012, Peternel and Babič, 2013], and industrial complex assembly processes [Krüger et al., 2009] (see also Fig....

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  • ...…of physical human-robot interaction (see [De Santis et al., 2008, Murphy, 2004, Alami et al., 2006]), is defined when human(s), robot(s) and the environment come to contact with each other and form a tightly coupled dynamical system to accomplish a task [Bauer et al., 2008, Krüger et al., 2009]....

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References
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Book
Berthold K. P. Horn1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 1986-
Abstract: From the Publisher: This book presents a coherent approach to the fast-moving field of computer vision, using a consistent notation based on a detailed understanding of the image formation process. It covers even the most recent research and will provide a useful and current reference for professionals working in the fields of machine vision, image processing, and pattern recognition. An outgrowth of the author's course at MIT, Robot Vision presents a solid framework for understanding existing work and planning future research. Its coverage includes a great deal of material that is important to engineers applying machine vision methods in the real world. The chapters on binary image processing, for example, help explain and suggest how to improve the many commercial devices now available. And the material on photometric stereo and the extended Gaussian image points the way to what may be the next thrust in commercialization of the results in this area. Chapters in the first part of the book emphasize the development of simple symbolic descriptions from images, while the remaining chapters deal with methods that exploit these descriptions. The final chapter offers a detailed description of how to integrate a vision system into an overall robotics system, in this case one designed to pick parts out of a bin. The many exercises complement and extend the material in the text, and an extensive bibliography will serve as a useful guide to current research. Errata (164k PDF)

3,780 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Richard Adams1, Blake Hannaford1Institutions (1)
19 Oct 1999-
TL;DR: By decoupling the haptic display control problem from the design of virtual environments, the use of a virtual coupling network frees the developer of haptic-enabled virtual reality models from issues of mechanical stability.
Abstract: This paper addresses fundamental stability and performance issues associated with haptic interaction. It generalizes and extends the concept of a virtual coupling network, an artificial link between the haptic display and a virtual world, to include both the impedance and admittance models of haptic interaction. A benchmark example exposes an important duality between these two cases. Linear circuit theory is used to develop necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of a haptic simulation, assuming the human operator and virtual environment are passive. These equations lead to an explicit design procedure for virtual coupling networks which give maximum performance while guaranteeing stability. By decoupling the haptic display control problem from the design of virtual environments, the use of a virtual coupling network frees the developer of haptic-enabled virtual reality models from issues of mechanical stability.

686 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
R. Sahai1, S. Avadhanula1, Richard E. Groff1, E. Steltz1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
15 May 2006-
TL;DR: This paper discusses the biomimetic design and assembly of a 3g self-contained crawling robot fabricated through the integrated use of various microrobot technologies and presents results of both the kinematic and static analyses of the driving mechanism that essentially consists of three slider cranks in series.
Abstract: This paper discusses the biomimetic design and assembly of a 3g self-contained crawling robot fabricated through the integrated use of various microrobot technologies. The hexapod structure is designed to move in an alternating tripod gait driven by two piezoelectric actuators connected by sliding plates to two sets of three legs. We present results of both the kinematic and static analyses of the driving mechanism that essentially consists of three slider cranks in series. This analysis confirmed the force differential needed to propel the device. We then review various other microrobot technologies that have been developed including actuator design and fabrication, power and control electronics design, programming via a finite state machine, and the development of bioinspired fiber arrays. These technologies were then successfully integrated into the device. The robot is now functioning and we have already fabricated three iterations of the proposed device. We hope with further design iterations to produce a fully operational model in the near future

618 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article considered the problem of designing joint-actuation mechanisms that can allow fast and accurate operation of a robot arm, while guaranteeing a suitably limited level of injury risk. Different approaches to the problem were presented, and a method of performance evaluation was proposed based on minimum-time optimal control with safety constraints. The variable stiffness transmission (VST) scheme was found to be one of a few different possible schemes that allows the most flexibility and potential performance. Some aspects related to the implementation of the mechanics and control of VST actuation were also reported.

600 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
J.E. Colgate1, Neville Hogan1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This paper describes an approach to the design of ‘interaction controllers’ and contrasts this with an Approach to the Design of Approaches toDynamic interaction with the environment is fundamental to the process of manipulation.
Abstract: Dynamic interaction with the environment is fundamental to the process of manipulation. This paper describes an approach to the design of ‘interaction controllers’ and contrasts this with an approa...

566 citations


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