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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.47360/1995-4484-2021-5-30

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and autoimmunity

02 Mar 2021-Vol. 59, Iss: 1, pp 5-30
Abstract: The coronavirus 2019 pandemic (coronavirus disease, COVID-19), etiologically related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2), has once again reawakened healthcare professionals’ interest towards new clinical and conceptual issues of human immunology and immunopathology. An unprecedented number of clinical trials and fundamental studies of epidemiology, virology, immunology and molecular biology, of the COVID-19 clinical course polymorphism and pharmacotherapy have been conducted within one year since the outbreak of 2019 pandemic, bringing together scientists of almost all biological and physicians of almost all medical specialties. Their joint efforts have resulted in elaboration of several types of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection and, in general, fashioning of more rational approaches to patient management. Also important for COVID-19 management were all clinical trials of biologics and “targeted” anti-inflammatory drugs modulating intracellular cytokine signaling, which have been specifically developed for treatment immune-mediated inflammatory rheumatic disease (IMIRDs) over the past 20 years. It became obvious after a comprehensive analysis of the entire spectrum of clinical manifestations and immunopathological disorders in COVID-19 is accompanied by a wide range of extrapulmonary clinical and laboratory disorders, some of which are characteristic of IMIRDs and other autoimmune and auto-in-flammatory human diseases. All these phenomena substantiated the practice of anti-inflammatory drugs repurposing with off-label use of specific antirheumatic agents for treatment of COVID-19. This paper discusses potential use of glucocorticoids, biologics, JAK inhibitors, etc., blocking the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines for treatment of COVID-19.

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Topics: Coronavirus (50%), Disease (50%)
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Open access
Fei Zhou1, Ting Yu, Ronghui Du, Guohui Fan2  +16 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Jan 2020-
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

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Topics: Cohort study (56%), Retrospective cohort study (56%), Odds ratio (53%) ... show more

536 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.47360/1995-4484-2021-119-128
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune rheumatic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by overproduction of organ-nonspecific autoantibodies to various components of the cell nucleus and cytoplasm and the development of immune-inflammatory damage to internal organs. The debut of SLE is preceded by an asymptomatic period, characterized by impaired immunological tolerance to its own autoantigens, determined by the multifaceted interaction of external, genetic and epigenetic factors, hormonal disorders, microbiome pathology, stress effects, etc. Development of a certain spectrum of clinical symptoms characteristic of SLE along with the detection of a reflects the progression of the immunopathological process in SLE, however, there is no generally accepted term that defines the patient’s condition, which has individual serological and clinical signs characteristic of this disease. In rheumatology, the concept of «incomplete» SLE is currently most often used. The problems of early diagnosis of SLE, clinical and laboratory predictors of the transformation of “incomplete” SLE into “reliable” SLE, difficulties in diagnosing SLE during the COVID-19 pandemic are considered. Particular attention is paid to the comparative characteristics of the immunopathological mechanisms of SLE and COVID-19.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.47360/1995-4484-2021-239-254
E. L. Nasonov1, A. M. Lila, Vadim I. Mazurov, B. S. Belov  +7 moreInstitutions (3)
13 Jul 2021-
Abstract: In mid-2021, the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory coronavirus 2) infection, which caused the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, affected more than 157 million people in all regions of the world and led to more than 3.2 million deaths. It is assumed that elderly age, uncontrolled inflammation, anti-inflammatory therapy, comorbid pathology, genetic and other factors can potentially lead to an increase in “sensitivity” to viral and bacterial infections, including SARS-CoV-2. The new version of the recommendations of the Association of Rheumatologists of Russia formulates the main provisions concerning the tactics of managing patients with Immune-mediated Rheumatic Diseases during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

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Topics: Coronavirus (53%), Disease (52%), Pandemic (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.47360/1995-4484-2021-384-393
05 Sep 2021-
Abstract: In patients with immune-mеdiated (autoimmune) rheumatic diseases (IMIRD), there are a number of factors (advanced age, uncontrolled inflammation, initially irreversible damage to internal organs, comorbid pathology, genetic and other factors) that can potentially lead to an increase in “sensitivity” to SARS-CoV -2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) and concomitant viral and bacterial infections, an increase in the risk of a severe course of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), a decrease in the effectiveness of therapy for both IMIRDs and COVID-19. An important area of pharmacotherapy for IMIRDs and other autoimmune diseases is associated with the use of anti-B-cell drugs, primarily rituximab (RTX), which is a chimeric (mouse/human) monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the CD20 antigen of B cells. At present, in Russia, the RTM biosimilar, acellbia (BIOCAD), is widely used, which is not inferior to RTX in terms of efficiency and safety. The problems of anti-B-cell therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic in relation to the risk of infection, severe course and insufficient effectiveness of vaccination against SARSCoV- 2 are considered. According to the recommendations of the Association of Rheumatologists of Russia, a more rigorous assessment of indications for induction and maintenance therapy of RTX therapy and harmonization of the timing of drug administration and vaccination is required.

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Topics: Rituximab (54%), Pharmacotherapy (54%), Maintenance therapy (53%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17816/MECHNIKOV72269
30 Aug 2021-
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a particular threat to patients suffering from immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases. New coronavirus infection has been found to be accompanied by the development of a wide range of extrapulmonary clinical and laboratory manifestations, which are characteristic of a number of immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases. AIM: To evaluate the features of the clinical course of immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases in patients who underwent new coronavirus infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical course of immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases was analyzed in 324 patients who underwent new coronavirus infection from March 2020 to February 2021 and were treated at the Clinical Rheumatology Hospital No. 25, Saint Petersburg, for exacerbation of the underlying disease. RESULTS: Analysis showed that the risk factors for severe new coronavirus infection in patients with immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases were: age over 60, comorbidities, use of prednisolone in a dose greater than 12,5 mg, and ESR values ≥40 mm/hour before the development of new coronavirus infection. There was no effect of immunosuppressive and biological therapy on the severity of the course of viral infection. There was no effect of immunosuppressive therapy and biological therapy on the severity of the course of viral infection in patients with immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases. The development of the postinfectious syndrome was observed in 1 / 4 of patients, which was characterized by the formation of postinfectious arthritis in 3,6% of patients, transformation of undifferentiated arthritis into various rheumatic diseases in 49% of patients (more often into early rheumatoid arthritis), as well as exacerbation of the underlying disease in 83,4% of patients with an advanced stage of rheumatoid arthritis. In patients with mixed connective tissue disease, there was a significant increase in immunologic activity due to antinuclear factor (up to a maximum of 1:163 840). Clinical cases of the development of arthritis associated with viral infection and the debut of rheumatoid arthritis after an new coronavirus infection are presented. CONCLUSIONS: New coronavirus infection in the cohort of patients with immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases observed in the Clinical Rheumatology Hospital No. 25, Saint Petersburg, proceeded in the variant of medium severity in half of patients, initiated the development of lung lesions in 68,6% of patients, arthritis associated with viral infection in 3,6% of patients, immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases which transformed from undifferentiated arthritis in 49% of cases and exacerbation of the main disease in an overwhelming number of patients. Patients with immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases have a high risk of adverse outcome of new coronavirus infection, especially in cases of unstable course of the disease or exacerbation of this group of diseases.

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Topics: Arthritis (57%), Exacerbation (53%), Mixed connective tissue disease (51%) ... show more

1 Citations


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357 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
Fei Zhou1, Ting Yu, Ronghui Du, Guohui Fan2  +16 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

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Topics: Cohort study (56%), Retrospective cohort study (56%), Odds ratio (53%) ... show more

15,279 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0
Puja Mehta1, Daniel F. McAuley2, Michael Brown3, Emilie Sanchez3  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Published online March 13, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0 1 Submissions should be made via our electronic submission system at http://ees.elsevier.com/ thelancet/ However, in hyperinflammation, immunosuppression is likely to be beneficial. Re-analysis of data from a phase 3 randomised controlled trial of IL-1 blockade (anakinra) in sepsis, showed significant survival benefit in patients with hyperinflammation, without increased adverse events. A multicentre, randomised con trolled trial of tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor blockade, licensed for cytokine release syndrome), has been approved in patients with COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression

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5,489 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2021436
Abstract: BackgroundCoronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with diffuse lung damage. Glucocorticoids may modulate inflammation-mediated lung injury and thereby reduce progression to respiratory failure and death.MethodsIn this controlled, open-label trial comparing a range of possible treatments in patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19, we randomly assigned patients to receive oral or intravenous dexamethasone (at a dose of 6 mg once daily) for up to 10 days or to receive usual care alone. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Here, we report the final results of this assessment.ResultsA total of 2104 patients were assigned to receive dexamethasone and 4321 to receive usual care. Overall, 482 patients (22.9%) in the dexamethasone group and 1110 patients (25.7%) in the usual care group died within 28 days after randomization (age-adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.93; P<0.001). The proportional and absolute between-group differences in mortality varied considerably according to the level of respiratory support that the patients were receiving at the time of randomization. In the dexamethasone group, the incidence of death was lower than that in the usual care group among patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (29.3% vs. 41.4%; rate ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.81) and among those receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation (23.3% vs. 26.2%; rate ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94) but not among those who were receiving no respiratory support at randomization (17.8% vs. 14.0%; rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.55).ConclusionsIn patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the use of dexamethasone resulted in lower 28-day mortality among those who were receiving either invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen alone at randomization but not among those receiving no respiratory support. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health Research and others; RECOVERY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04381936. opens in new tab; ISRCTN number, 50189673. opens in new tab.)

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Topics: Lung injury (55%), Mechanical ventilation (52%), Randomized controlled trial (52%) ... show more

4,501 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30937-5
02 May 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Vol 395 May 2, 202

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Topics: Endotheliitis (68%)

3,207 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2521-4
08 Jul 2020-Nature
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly affected mortality worldwide1. There is unprecedented urgency to understand who is most at risk of severe outcomes, and this requires new approaches for the timely analysis of large datasets. Working on behalf of NHS England, we created OpenSAFELY-a secure health analytics platform that covers 40% of all patients in England and holds patient data within the existing data centre of a major vendor of primary care electronic health records. Here we used OpenSAFELY to examine factors associated with COVID-19-related death. Primary care records of 17,278,392 adults were pseudonymously linked to 10,926 COVID-19-related deaths. COVID-19-related death was associated with: being male (hazard ratio (HR) 1.59 (95% confidence interval 1.53-1.65)); greater age and deprivation (both with a strong gradient); diabetes; severe asthma; and various other medical conditions. Compared with people of white ethnicity, Black and South Asian people were at higher risk, even after adjustment for other factors (HR 1.48 (1.29-1.69) and 1.45 (1.32-1.58), respectively). We have quantified a range of clinical factors associated with COVID-19-related death in one of the largest cohort studies on this topic so far. More patient records are rapidly being added to OpenSAFELY, we will update and extend our results regularly.

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Topics: Cohort study (53%), Hazard ratio (51%), Risk assessment (50%)

2,257 Citations


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