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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.019259

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Hospitalizations Attributable to Cardiometabolic Conditions in the United States: A Comparative Risk Assessment Analysis.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of the American Heart Association (J Am Heart Assoc)-Vol. 10, Iss: 5
Abstract: BACKGROUND Risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization is robustly linked to cardiometabolic health. We estimated the absolute and proportional COVID-19 hospitalizations in US adults attributable to 4 major US cardiometabolic conditions, separately and jointly, and by race/ethnicity, age, and sex. METHODS AND RESULTS We used the best available estimates of independent associations of cardiometabolic conditions with a risk of COVID-19 hospitalization; nationally representative data on cardiometabolic conditions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015 to 2018; and US COVID-19 hospitalizations stratified by age, sex, and race/ethnicity from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network database and from the COVID Tracking Project to estimate the numbers and proportions of COVID-19 hospitalizations attributable to diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, and heart failure. Inputs were combined in a comparative risk assessment framework, with probabilistic sensitivity analyses and 1000 Monte Carlo simulations to jointly incorporate stratum-specific uncertainties in data inputs. As of November 18, 2020, an estimated 906 849 COVID-19 hospitalizations occurred in US adults. Of these, an estimated 20.5% (95% uncertainty interval [UIs], 18.9-22.1) of COVID-19 hospitalizations were attributable to diabetes mellitus, 30.2% (UI, 28.2-32.3) to total obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2), 26.2% (UI, 24.3-28.3) to hypertension, and 11.7% (UI, 9.5-14.1) to heart failure. Considered jointly, 63.5% (UI, 61.6-65.4) or 575 419 (UI, 559 072-593 412) of COVID-19 hospitalizations were attributable to these 4 conditions. Large differences were seen in proportions of cardiometabolic risk-attributable COVID-19 hospitalizations by age and race/ethnicity, with smaller differences by sex. CONCLUSIONS A substantial proportion of US COVID-19 hospitalizations appear attributable to major cardiometabolic conditions. These results can help inform public health prevention strategies to reduce COVID-19 healthcare burdens.

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33 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12020-021-02734-W
08 May 2021-Endocrine
Abstract: COVID-19 has completely changed our daily clinical practice as well as our social relations. Many organs and biological systems are involved in SARS-Cov-2 infection, either due to direct virus-induced damage or to indirect effects that can have systemic consequences. Endocrine system is not only an exception but its involvement in COVID-19 is so relevant that an “endocrine phenotype” of COVID-19 has progressively acquired clinical relevance. We have been appointed by the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) to update with the current statement ESE members and the whole endocrine community on the emerging endocrine phenotype of COVID-19 and its implication for the prevention and management of the disease. Diabetes has a major role in this phenotype since it is one of the most frequent comorbidities associated with severity and mortality of COVID-19. Careful management including treatment modifications may be required for protecting our patients rather with known diabetes from the most dangerous consequences of COVID-19 or hospitalized with COVID-19, but also in patients with SARS-CoV-2 induced newly onset diabetes. Obesity increases susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and the risk for COVID-19 adverse outcome. Adequate nutritional management needs to be granted to patients with obesity or undernourishment in order to limit their increased susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection. Lack of vitamin D, hypocalcemia and vertebral fractures have also emerged as frequent findings in the hospitalized COVID-19 population and may negatively impact on the outcome of such patients. Also, in patients with adrenal insufficiency prompt adaptation of glucocorticoid doses may be needed. Moreover, in this updated statement role of sex hormones as well as peculiar pituitary and thyroid aspects of COVID-19 have been included. Finally, in view of the mass vaccination, potential implications for endocrine patients should be considered.

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Topics: Endocrine system (52%), Population (52%), Disease (51%)

10 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11596-021-2395-1
09 Jul 2021-
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused more than 179 million infections and 3.8 million deaths worldwide. Throughout the past year, multiple vaccines have already been developed and used, while some others are in the process of being developed. However, the emergence of new mutant strains of SARS-CoV-2 that have demonstrated immune-evading characteristics and an increase in infective capabilities leads to potential ineffectiveness of the vaccines against these variants. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the current understanding of the immunological mechanisms of the virus and vaccines, as well as to investigate some key variants and mutations of the virus driving the current pandemic and their impacts on current management guidelines. We also discussed new technologies being developed for the prevention, treatment, and detection of SARS-CoV-2. In this paper, we thoroughly reviewed and provided crucial information on SARS-CoV-2 virology, vaccines and drugs being used and developed for its prevention and treatment, as well as important variant strains. Our review paper will be beneficial to health care professionals and researchers so they can have a better understanding of the basic sciences, prevention, and clinical treatment of COVID-19 during the pandemic. This paper consists of the most updated information that has been available as of June 21, 2021.

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10 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/GUTJNL-2021-325353
Jordi Merino1, Amit Joshi1, Long H. Nguyen, Emily R Leeming2  +26 moreInstitutions (3)
06 Sep 2021-Gut
Abstract: Objective Poor metabolic health and unhealthy lifestyle factors have been associated with risk and severity of COVID-19, but data for diet are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association of diet quality with risk and severity of COVID-19 and its interaction with socioeconomic deprivation. Design We used data from 592 571 participants of the smartphone-based COVID-19 Symptom Study. Diet information was collected for the prepandemic period using a short food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was assessed using a healthful Plant-Based Diet Score, which emphasises healthy plant foods such as fruits or vegetables. Multivariable Cox models were fitted to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for COVID-19 risk and severity defined using a validated symptom-based algorithm or hospitalisation with oxygen support, respectively. Results Over 3 886 274 person-months of follow-up, 31 815 COVID-19 cases were documented. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of the diet score, high diet quality was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.94) and severe COVID-19 (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). The joint association of low diet quality and increased deprivation on COVID-19 risk was higher than the sum of the risk associated with each factor alone (Pinteraction=0.005). The corresponding absolute excess rate per 10 000 person/months for lowest vs highest quartile of diet score was 22.5 (95% CI 18.8 to 26.3) among persons living in areas with low deprivation and 40.8 (95% CI 31.7 to 49.8) among persons living in areas with high deprivation. Conclusions A diet characterised by healthy plant-based foods was associated with lower risk and severity of COVID-19. This association may be particularly evident among individuals living in areas with higher socioeconomic deprivation.

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Topics: Diet Surveys (55%), Lower risk (53%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10092293
Angelo D'Alessandro1, Tiffany Thomas2, Imo J. Akpan2, Julie A. Reisz1  +17 moreInstitutions (4)
02 Sep 2021-Cells
Abstract: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an ongoing worldwide challenge. The present large study sought to understand independent and overlapping metabolic features of samples from acutely ill patients (n = 831) that tested positive (n = 543) or negative (n = 288) for COVID-19. High-throughput metabolomics analyses were complemented with antigen and enzymatic activity assays on plasma from acutely ill patients collected while in the emergency department, at admission, or during hospitalization. Lipidomics analyses were also performed on COVID-19-positive or -negative subjects with the lowest and highest body mass index (n = 60/group). Significant changes in amino acid and fatty acid/acylcarnitine metabolism emerged as highly relevant markers of disease severity, progression, and prognosis as a function of biological and clinical variables in these patients. Further, machine learning models were trained by entering all metabolomics and clinical data from half of the COVID-19 patient cohort and then tested on the other half, yielding ~78% prediction accuracy. Finally, the extensive amount of information accumulated in this large, prospective, observational study provides a foundation for mechanistic follow-up studies and data sharing opportunities, which will advance our understanding of the characteristics of the plasma metabolism in COVID-19 and other acute critical illnesses.

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Topics: Prospective cohort study (51%), Cohort study (50%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TEM.2021.06.004
Abstract: Obesity is strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of severe illness and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathophysiological changes that result from elevated body weight lead to metabolic dysfunction, chronic inflammation, impaired immunological responses, and multisystem disorders, which increase vulnerability to severe illness from COVID-19. While vaccination strategies are under way across the world, the second and third waves of the pandemic, along with the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains, continue to threaten the stability of medical systems worldwide. Furthermore, evidence from previous pandemics suggests that vaccines are less effective in obese individuals than in their healthy-weight counterparts over the long term. Therefore, a consideration of lifestyle changes that can boost metabolic health and immunity is critical to reduce the risk of complications and severe illness from viral infection. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms linking excess body weight with COVID-19 morbidity. We also present evidence that intermittent fasting (IF), a dietary program that has gained popularity in recent years, may be an effective strategy to improve metabolic health and immunity and thus reduce the impact of obesity on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.

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Topics: Intermittent fasting (55%)

2 Citations


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43 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2002032
Wei-jie Guan1, Zhengyi Ni1, Yu Hu1, Wenhua Liang1  +33 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of...

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16,855 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
Fei Zhou1, Ting Yu, Ronghui Du, Guohui Fan2  +16 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

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Topics: Cohort study (56%), Retrospective cohort study (56%), Odds ratio (53%) ... read more

15,279 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8
Stephen S Lim1, Theo Vos, Abraham D. Flaxman1, Goodarz Danaei2  +207 moreInstitutions (92)
15 Dec 2012-The Lancet
Abstract: Methods We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent eff ects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010. W e estimated exposure distributions for each year, region, sex, and age group, and relative risks per unit of exposure by systematically reviewing and synthesising published and unpublished data. We used these estimates, together with estimates of cause-specifi c deaths and DALYs from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, to calculate the burden attributable to each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. We incorporated uncertainty in disease burden, relative risks, and exposures into our estimates of attributable burden. Findings In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7·0% [95% uncertainty interval 6·2–7·7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·3% [5·5–7·0]), and alcohol use (5·5% [5·0–5·9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7·9% [6·8–9·4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7·0% [5·6–8·3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·1% [5·4–6·8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10·0% (95% UI 9·2–10·8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily aff ect childhood communicable diseases, including unimproved water and sanitation and childhood micronutrient defi ciencies, fell in rank between 1990 and 2010, with unimproved water

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Topics: Disease burden (62%), Risk factor (54%), Years of potential life lost (53%) ... read more

8,301 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30079-5
Xiaobo Yang1, Yuan Yu1, Jiqian Xu1, Huaqing Shu1  +14 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Summary Background An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December, 2019, in Wuhan, China. Information about critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 52 critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital (Wuhan, China) between late December, 2019, and Jan 26, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, as of Feb 9, 2020. Secondary outcomes included incidence of SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Findings Of 710 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 52 critically ill adult patients were included. The mean age of the 52 patients was 59·7 (SD 13·3) years, 35 (67%) were men, 21 (40%) had chronic illness, 51 (98%) had fever. 32 (61·5%) patients had died at 28 days, and the median duration from admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) to death was 7 (IQR 3–11) days for non-survivors. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were older (64·6 years [11·2] vs 51·9 years [12·9]), more likely to develop ARDS (26 [81%] patients vs 9 [45%] patients), and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (30 [94%] patients vs 7 [35%] patients), either invasively or non-invasively. Most patients had organ function damage, including 35 (67%) with ARDS, 15 (29%) with acute kidney injury, 12 (23%) with cardiac injury, 15 (29%) with liver dysfunction, and one (2%) with pneumothorax. 37 (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Hospital-acquired infection occurred in seven (13·5%) patients. Interpretation The mortality of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is considerable. The survival time of the non-survivors is likely to be within 1–2 weeks after ICU admission. Older patients (>65 years) with comorbidities and ARDS are at increased risk of death. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia poses great strain on critical care resources in hospitals, especially if they are not adequately staffed or resourced. Funding None.

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Topics: Pneumonia (56%), ARDS (55%), Intensive care unit (54%) ... read more

5,846 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.6775
26 May 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a US health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants Case series of patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12 hospitals in New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County, New York, within the Northwell Health system. The study included all sequentially hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, inclusive of these dates. Exposures Confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing of a nasopharyngeal sample among patients requiring admission. Main Outcomes and Measures Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy, and death. Demographics, baseline comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and test results were also collected. Results A total of 5700 patients were included (median age, 63 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 52-75; range, 0-107 years]; 39.7% female). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (3026; 56.6%), obesity (1737; 41.7%), and diabetes (1808; 33.8%). At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/min, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen. The rate of respiratory virus co-infection was 2.1%. Outcomes were assessed for 2634 patients who were discharged or had died at the study end point. During hospitalization, 373 patients (14.2%) (median age, 68 years [IQR, 56-78]; 33.5% female) were treated in the intensive care unit care, 320 (12.2%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, 81 (3.2%) were treated with kidney replacement therapy, and 553 (21%) died. As of April 4, 2020, for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 1151, 20.2%), 38 (3.3%) were discharged alive, 282 (24.5%) died, and 831 (72.2%) remained in hospital. The median postdischarge follow-up time was 4.4 days (IQR, 2.2-9.3). A total of 45 patients (2.2%) were readmitted during the study period. The median time to readmission was 3 days (IQR, 1.0-4.5) for readmitted patients. Among the 3066 patients who remained hospitalized at the final study follow-up date (median age, 65 years [IQR, 54-75]), the median follow-up at time of censoring was 4.5 days (IQR, 2.4-8.1). Conclusions and Relevance This case series provides characteristics and early outcomes of sequentially hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the New York City area.

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Topics: Interquartile range (55%), Respiratory virus (51%)

5,140 Citations


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