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Journal ArticleDOI

Correlating karyomorphology and molecular marker analyses in turmeric: a case study

22 Jun 2018-Journal of Crop Improvement (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 32, Iss: 5, pp 657-680
TL;DR: It was concluded that although significant genetic variability that exists among the turmeric cultivars can be utilized for examining their authenticity, practicality of the use of karyomorphological characters for identification is significantly limited by the gross karyotypic similarity.
Abstract: India is the largest producer and exporter of turmeric (Curcuma longa), and different cultivars of this crop are traditionally characterized using agronomic traits, such as rhizome weight, yield po...
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2020-Nucleus
TL;DR: Genetic variation revealed in this study could indicate chemotypic differences in Kaempferia and will direct future research for a wider cytogenetic and phytochemical investigation including all the Indian species that would open up avenues for judicious exploitation of these medicinally important plants.
Abstract: The genus Kaempferia L., consisting of aromatic and ornamental species found in east and south-east Asia, have profound ethno-medicinal usages as antimicrobial and anticancer agents, attributable to presence of novel cyclohexane derivatives, flavonoids and di-terpenes. Represented by only 7 species in India, a comprehensive genetic study of Kaempferia from the country is lacking. We present here a study of 4 species of this genus from India, namely, K. rotunda, K. galanga, K. elegans and K. angustifolia. Cytological analyses revealed distinct inter-specific ploidy and consequent somatic chromosome number variations (2n = 22 to 2n = 54). High inter- and intra-chromosomal variability was observed with chromosome lengths ranging from 0.87 to 6.63 µm, constriction types varying from median to sub-median range and different secondary constrictions, along with contrasting values of asymmetry indices. RAPD and ISSR analyses of 8 accessions produced 1,398 polymorphic bands, their sizes ranging from 100 to 2000 bp; percentage polymorphism varying from 84 to 100%. UPGMA dendrogram generated using the polymorphic fragments showed Jaccard's similarity coefficient value varying between 0.07 and 0.93, producing 3 separate clusters for the studied Kaempferia species. ITS, matK and rbcL loci sequence analyses also confirmed high level of inter-specific variability of Kaempferia. Genetic variation revealed in this study could indicate chemotypic differences in Kaempferia and will direct our future research for a wider cytogenetic and phytochemical investigation including all the Indian species that would open up avenues for judicious exploitation of these medicinally important plants.

2 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new DNA polymorphism assay based on the amplification of random DNA segments with single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence is described, suggesting that these polymorphisms be called RAPD markers, after Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA.
Abstract: Molecular genetic maps are commonly constructed by analyzing the segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) among the progeny of a sexual cross. Here we describe a new DNA polymorphism assay based on the amplification of random DNA segments with single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. These polymorphisms, simply detected as DNA segments which amplify from one parent but not the other, are inherited in a Mendelian fashion and can be used to construct genetic maps in a variety of species. We suggest that these polymorphisms be called RAPD markers, after Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA.

13,764 citations


"Correlating karyomorphology and mol..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Arbitrary marker analyses detect cryptic heterogeneity among the studied cultivars Genetic polymorphism can be detected among closely related taxa using arbitrarily amplified DNA markers (Williams et al. 1990)....

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  • ...Genetic polymorphism can be detected among closely related taxa using arbitrarily amplified DNA markers (Williams et al. 1990)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: At the present time, with the immense increase in research activity in mammalian cytology, the terminology of the centromeric position has become burdened by much obscurity and confusion.
Abstract: N the inorphologic identification of chromosomes, the location of the I centromere is the most useful landmark, and one which is characterized by great constancy. It would seem that not much could be added to the definitions by E. B. WILSON (1928) of the locations on the chromosome of the centrornere or, in the terminology of that time, the spindle attachment: “Attachment of the chromosome to the spindle is commonly limited to a small area, and is of two general types, namely: (1) terminnl or telomitic and (2) non-ferminal or atelomitic, being in the former case at one end, and in the latter at some other point or points. Non-terminal attachment may be at the middle point (median) or at an intermediate point (submedian, sub-terminal). All gradations exist between these various cases;” (I.c., p. 130-131). In the acconipanying picture (l.c., Fig. 56, p. 132), here reprinted as Fig. l., the four locations of median, submedian, subterminal and terminal are represented, and, in addition, “lateral”, which corresponds to the modern term “diffuse centromere”. Nevertheless, at the present time, with the immense increase in research activity in mammalian cytology, the terminology of the centromeric position has become burdened by much obscurity and confusion. One cause of confusion is that different authors, and even the same author on different occasions, have used the terms median, submedian etc. with great amplitude, and it is often difficult to know in a specific case what each term signifies. Another cause of confusion is that a set of terms for chromosomes with specific centromeric positions, such as metacentric, acrocentric, telocentric, have come into wide usage without being clearly defined in relation to the positional terms median, submedian, subterminal and terminal. During the spring of 1963 the present writers exchanged epistolary

5,352 citations

Book
01 Jan 1971

2,701 citations


"Correlating karyomorphology and mol..." refers background in this paper

  • ...A karyotype is generally recognized as asymmetric when the chromosomes of a genome are highly heterogeneous in size and they possess terminal or subterminal primary constrictions (Levitsky 1931; Stebbins 1971)....

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  • ...…(e) BSR 2, (f) IISR, Kedaram, (g) IISR Alleppy Supreme, (h) Rashmi, (i) IISR Pratibha (bar = 10 μm). to Stebbins’ classification of chromosomes (Stebbins 1971) (that takes into account both inter- and intrachromosomal asymmetry), plants of C. longa were found to belong to the more…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that ISSR-PCR provides a quick, reliable and highly informative system for DNA fingerprinting that is amenable for routine applications.
Abstract: Commercial scale fingerprinting of potato cultivars is made difficult by the need for speed, reliability and the ability to distinguish between large numbers of genotypes. There are also problems in extrapolating the results of small experimental studies to predict the performance of techniques or primers for larger applications. The potential of ISSR-PCR for fingerprinting purposes was evaluated using four primers on 34 potato cultivars. The complex band profiles generated were reproducible between repeat PCRs, DNA extractions, electrophoreses and gel scorings. Two primers were each able to distinguish all cultivars. The combined use of any two of the four primers also allowed complete diagnosis. It is concluded that ISSR-PCR provides a quick, reliable and highly informative system for DNA fingerprinting that is amenable for routine applications. Two possible correlates of the ability of primers to distinguish between genotypes were then examined. Marker Index failed to correlate significantly with genotype diagnosis, but a strong and seemingly linear relationship was observed between Resolving Power of a primer and its ability to distinguish genotypes (r2=0.98). Resolving Power of one or a pair of primers was found to provide a moderately accurate estimate of the number of genotypes identified. Possible implications for future studies on DNA fingerprinting are discussed.

1,173 citations


"Correlating karyomorphology and mol..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The resolving power (Rp) of the primers was calculated using the following formula: Rp ¼ 1 2 0:5 pð Þ½ ; where p = proportion of the taxa containing the band (Prevost and Wilkinson 1999)....

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