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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ANNEPIDEM.2021.02.012

COVID-19 fatality rates in hospitalized patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.

02 Mar 2021-Annals of Epidemiology (Elsevier)-Vol. 57, pp 14-21
Abstract: Background Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Although general and local public health report deathly cases, case fatality rates are still largely unknown. Thus, we sought to evaluate the mortality of COVID-19. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases for articles evaluating the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients that included clinical outcomes, between December 2020 and 24 April 2020. Two authors performed an independent selection using predefined terms of search. Results We retrieved 33 studies with a total of 13,398 patients with COVID-19 diagnosis. The mortality rate of the COVID‐19 patients was 17.1% (95% CI 12.7; 22.7, I2 = 96.9%). For general patients admitted to the hospital (excluding critical care-only studies) the mortality rate of the COVID‐19 was 11.5% (95% CI 7.7; 16.9, I2 = 96.7%). Among critical illness studies (n = 7) we found a 40.5% mortality (95% CI 31.2; 50.6, I2 = 91.8%). Conclusion High COVID-19 mortality among general admitted patients and critical care cases should guide resources allocations and economic burden calculations during the pandemics.

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Topics: Case fatality rate (60%), Mortality rate (56%)
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21 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(21)00151-X
Waasila Jassat1, Cheryl Cohen1, Stefano Tempia, Maureen Masha  +1553 moreInstitutions (9)
01 Sep 2021-The Lancet HIV
Abstract: Summary Background The interaction between COVID-19, non-communicable diseases, and chronic infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis is unclear, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries in Africa. South Africa has a national HIV prevalence of 19% among people aged 15–49 years and a tuberculosis prevalence of 0·7% in people of all ages. Using a nationally representative hospital surveillance system in South Africa, we aimed to investigate the factors associated with in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19. Methods In this cohort study, we used data submitted to DATCOV, a national active hospital surveillance system for COVID-19 hospital admissions, for patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 5, 2020, and March 27, 2021. Age, sex, race or ethnicity, and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, chronic cardiac disease, chronic pulmonary disease and asthma, chronic renal disease, malignancy in the past 5 years, HIV, and past and current tuberculosis) were considered as risk factors for COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality. COVID-19 in-hospital mortality, the main outcome, was defined as a death related to COVID-19 that occurred during the hospital stay and excluded deaths that occurred because of other causes or after discharge from hospital; therefore, only patients with a known in-hospital outcome (died or discharged alive) were included. Chained equation multiple imputation was used to account for missing data and random-effects multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the role of HIV status and underlying comorbidities on COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. Findings Among the 219 265 individuals admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and known in-hospital outcome data, 51 037 (23·3%) died. Most commonly observed comorbidities among individuals with available data were hypertension in 61 098 (37·4%) of 163 350, diabetes in 43 885 (27·4%) of 159 932, and HIV in 13 793 (9·1%) of 151 779. Tuberculosis was reported in 5282 (3·6%) of 146 381 individuals. Increasing age was the strongest predictor of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. Other factors associated were HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio 1·34, 95% CI 1·27–1·43), past tuberculosis (1·26, 1·15–1·38), current tuberculosis (1·42, 1·22–1·64), and both past and current tuberculosis (1·48, 1·32–1·67) compared with never tuberculosis, as well as other described risk factors for COVID-19, such as male sex; non-White race; underlying hypertension, diabetes, chronic cardiac disease, chronic renal disease, and malignancy in the past 5 years; and treatment in the public health sector. After adjusting for other factors, people with HIV not on antiretroviral therapy (ART; adjusted odds ratio 1·45, 95% CI 1·22–1·72) were more likely to die in hospital than were people with HIV on ART. Among people with HIV, the prevalence of other comorbidities was 29·2% compared with 30·8% among HIV-uninfected individuals. Increasing number of comorbidities was associated with increased COVID-19 in-hospital mortality risk in both people with HIV and HIV-uninfected individuals. Interpretation Individuals identified as being at high risk of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality (older individuals and those with chronic comorbidities and people with HIV, particularly those not on ART) would benefit from COVID-19 prevention programmes such as vaccine prioritisation as well as early referral and treatment. Funding South African National Government.

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Topics: Cohort study (54%), Tuberculosis (54%), Odds ratio (53%) ... show more

7 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2020.12.21.20248409
Waasila Jassat1, Cheryl Cohen1, Stefano Tempia2, Stefano Tempia3  +29 moreInstitutions (9)
04 Jul 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Background The interaction between COVID-19, non-communicable diseases, and chronic infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are unclear, particularly in low- and middle-income countries in Africa. South Africa has a national adult HIV prevalence of 19% and TB prevalence of 0.7%. Using a nationally representative hospital surveillance system in South Africa, we investigated the factors associated with in-hospital mortality among individuals with COVID-19. Methods Using data from national active hospital surveillance, we describe the demographic characteristics, clinical features, and in-hospital mortality among hospitalised individuals testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, during 5 March 2020 to 27 March 2021. Chained equation multiple imputation was used to account for missing data and random effect multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the role of HIV-status and underlying comorbidities on in-hospital COVID-19 mortality. Findings Among the 219,265 individuals admitted with laboratory confirmed SARS-Cov-2, 51,037 (23.3%) died. Most commonly observed comorbidities among individuals with available data were hypertension (61,098/163,350; 37.4%), diabetes (43,885/159,932; 27.4%), and HIV (13,793/151,779; %), while TB was reported in 3.6% (5,282/146,381) of individuals. While age was the most important predictor, other factors associated with in-hospital COVID-19 mortality were HIV infection [aOR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.27-1.43), past TB [aOR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.15-1.38), current TB [aOR 1.42, 95% CI: 1.22-1.64) and both past and current TB [aOR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.32-1.67) compared to never TB, as well as other described risk factors for COVID-19, such as male sex, non-white race, and chronic underlying hypertension, diabetes, chronic cardiac disease, chronic renal disease, and malignancy. After adjusting for other factors, PLWH not on ART [aOR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22-1.72] were more likely to die in-hospital compared to PLWH on ART. Among PLWH, the prevalence of other comorbidities was 29.2% compared to 30.8% among HIV-uninfected individuals. Increasing number of comorbidities was associated with increased mortality risk in both PLWH and HIV-uninfected individuals. Interpretation Identified high risk individuals (older individuals and those with chronic comorbidities and PLWH, particularly those not on ART) would benefit from COVID-19 prevention programmes such as vaccine prioritisation, as well as early referral and treatment. Funding South African National Government Research in context Evidence before this study Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, studies have identified older age, male sex and presence of underlying comorbidities including heart disease and diabetes as risk factors for severe disease and death. There are very few studies, however, carried out in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Africa, many of whom have high poverty rates, limited access to healthcare, and high prevalence of chronic communicable diseases, such as HIV and tuberculosis (TB). Data are also limited from settings with limited access to HIV treatment programmes. Early small cohort studies mainly from high income countries were not conclusive on whether HIV or TB are risk factors for disease severity and death in COVID-19 patients. Large population cohort studies from South Africa’s Western Cape province and the United Kingdom (UK) have found people living with HIV (PLWH) to have a moderately increased risk of COVID-19 associated mortality. Of these, only the Western Cape study presented data on mortality risk associated with presence of high viral load or immunosuppression, and found similar levels of severity irrespective of these factors. Recent meta-analyses have confirmed the association of HIV with COVID-19 mortality. No studies reported on the interaction between HIV-infection and other non-communicable comorbidities on COVID-19 associated mortality. We performed separate literature searches on PubMed using the following terms: “COVID-19” “risk factors” and “mortality”; “HIV” “COVID-19” and “mortality”; “TB” “COVID-19” and “mortality”. All searches included publications from December 1, 2019 until May 5, 2021, without language restrictions. Pooled together, we identified 2,786 published papers. Additionally, we performed two literature searches on MedRxiv using the terms “HIV” “COVID-19” and “mortality”, and “TB” “COVID-19” and “mortality” from April 25, 2020 until May 5, 2021, without language restrictions. Pooled together, we identified 7,744 pre-prints. Added value of this study Among a large national cohort of almost 220,000 individuals hospitalised with COVID-19 in a setting with 19% adult HIV prevalence and 0.7%TB prevalence, we found that along with age, sex and other comorbidities, HIV and TB were associated with a moderately increased risk of in-hospital mortality. We found increasing risk of in-hospital mortality among PLWH not on ART compared to those on ART. Among PLWH, the prevalence of other comorbidities was high (29%) and the effect of increasing numbers of comorbidities on mortality was similar in PLWH and HIV-uninfected individuals. Our study included 13,793 PLWH from all provinces in the country with varying levels of access to HIV treatment programmes. Implications of all the available evidence The evidence suggests that PLWH and TB-infected individuals should be prioritised for COVID-19 prevention and treatment programmes, particularly those with additional comorbidities. Increasing age and presence of chronic underlying illness are important additional factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in a middle-income African setting. The completeness of data is a limitation of this national surveillance system, and additional data are needed to confirm these findings.

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Topics: Cohort study (53%)

3 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.25.21257505
25 May 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: This study has been funded by Pharmamar, S.A. (Madrid, Spain). This work was supported by grants from the Government of Spain (PIE_INTRAMURAL_ LINEA 1 - 202020E079; PIE_INTRAMURAL_CSIC-202020E043). The research of CBIG consortium (constituted by IRTA-CReSA, BSC, & IrsiCaixa) is supported by Grifols pharmaceutical. We also acknowledge the crowdfunding initiative #Yomecorono (https://www.yomecorono.com). N.I.U. has non-restrictive funding from PharmaMar to study the antiviral effect of Plitidepsin. N.J.K. was funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health (P50AI150476, U19AI135990, U19AI135972, R01AI143292, R01AI120694, and P01AI063302); by the Excellence in Research Award (ERA) from the Laboratory for Genomics Research (LGR), a collaboration between UCSF, UCB, and GSK (#133122P); by the Roddenberry Foundation, and gifts from QCRG philanthropic donors. This work was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under Cooperative Agreement #HR0011-19-2-0020. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this material are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. This research was partly funded by CRIP (Center for Research for Influenza Pathogenesis), a NIAID supported Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS, contract # HHSN272201400008C), by DARPA grant HR0011-19-2-0020, by supplements to NIAID grants U19AI142733, U19AI135972 and DoD grant W81XWH-20-1-0270, and by the generous support of the JPB Foundation, the Open Philanthropy Project (research grant 2020-215611 (5384)), and anonymous donors to AG-S. S.Y. received funding from a Swiss National Foundation (SNF) Early Postdoc Mobility fellowship (P2GEP3_184202).

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41375-021-01450-8
01 Nov 2021-Leukemia
Abstract: Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be more susceptible to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to age, disease, and treatment-related immunosuppression. We aimed to assess risk factors of outcome and elucidate the impact of CLL-directed treatments on the course of COVID-19. We conducted a retrospective, international study, collectively including 941 patients with CLL and confirmed COVID-19. Data from the beginning of the pandemic until March 16, 2021, were collected from 91 centers. The risk factors of case fatality rate (CFR), disease severity, and overall survival (OS) were investigated. OS analysis was restricted to patients with severe COVID-19 (definition: hospitalization with need of oxygen or admission into an intensive care unit). CFR in patients with severe COVID-19 was 38.4%. OS was inferior for patients in all treatment categories compared to untreated (p < 0.001). Untreated patients had a lower risk of death (HR = 0.54, 95% CI:0.41-0.72). The risk of death was higher for older patients and those suffering from cardiac failure (HR = 1.03, 95% CI:1.02-1.04; HR = 1.79, 95% CI:1.04-3.07, respectively). Age, CLL-directed treatment, and cardiac failure were significant risk factors of OS. Untreated patients had a better chance of survival than those on treatment or recently treated.

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Topics: Lower risk (54%), Case fatality rate (54%), Intensive care unit (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/CTR.14376
Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been wide heterogeneity in the medical management of transplant recipients. We aimed to pragmatically capture immunosuppression practices globally following the early months of the pandemic. From June to September 2020, we surveyed 1267 physicians; 40.5% from 71 countries participated. Management decisions were made on a case-by-case basis by the majority (69.6%) of the programs. Overall, 76.8% performed ≥1 transplantation and many commented on avoiding high-risk transplantations. For induction, 26.5% were less likely to give T-cell depletion and 14.8% were more likely to give non-depleting agents. These practices varied by program-level factors more so than the COVID-19 burden. In patients with mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 symptoms 59.7%, 76.0%, and 79.5% decreased/stopped anti-metabolites, 23.2%, 45.4%, and 68.2% decreased/stopped calcineurin inhibitors, and 25.7%, 43.9%, and 57.7% decreased/stopped mTOR inhibitors, respectively. Also, 2.1%, 30.6%, and 46.0% increased steroids in patients with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 symptoms. For prevalent transplant recipients, some programs also reported decreasing/stopping steroids (1.8%), anti-metabolites (10.3%), calcineurin inhibitors (4.1%), and mTOR inhibitors (5.5%). Transplant programs changed immunosuppression practices but also avoided high-risk transplants and increased maintenance steroids. The long-term ramifications of these practices remain to be seen as programs face the aftermath of the pandemic.

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Topics: Transplantation (51%)

2 Citations


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46 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.D5928
18 Oct 2011-BMJ
Abstract: Flaws in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of randomised trials can cause the effect of an intervention to be underestimated or overestimated. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias aims to make the process clearer and more accurate

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16,113 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
Fei Zhou1, Ting Yu, Ronghui Du, Guohui Fan2  +16 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

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Topics: Cohort study (56%), Retrospective cohort study (56%), Odds ratio (53%) ... show more

15,279 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.1585
Dawei Wang1, Bo Hu1, Chang Hu1, Fangfang Zhu1  +10 moreInstitutions (1)
17 Mar 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited. Objective To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective, single-center case series of the 138 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to January 28, 2020; final date of follow-up was February 3, 2020. Exposures Documented NCIP. Main Outcomes and Measures Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients were compared. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. Results Of 138 hospitalized patients with NCIP, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 42-68; range, 22-92 years) and 75 (54.3%) were men. Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). Common symptoms included fever (136 [98.6%]), fatigue (96 [69.6%]), and dry cough (82 [59.4%]). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]). Thirty-six patients (26.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 [61.1%]), arrhythmia (16 [44.4%]), and shock (11 [30.6%]). The median time from first symptom to dyspnea was 5.0 days, to hospital admission was 7.0 days, and to ARDS was 8.0 days. Patients treated in the ICU (n = 36), compared with patients not treated in the ICU (n = 102), were older (median age, 66 years vs 51 years), were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (26 [72.2%] vs 38 [37.3%]), and were more likely to have dyspnea (23 [63.9%] vs 20 [19.6%]), and anorexia (24 [66.7%] vs 31 [30.4%]). Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). As of February 3, 47 patients (34.1%) were discharged and 6 died (overall mortality, 4.3%), but the remaining patients are still hospitalized. Among those discharged alive (n = 47), the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR, 7.0-14.0). Conclusions and Relevance In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%.

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Topics: Interquartile range (51%)

13,270 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.2648
Zunyou Wu1, Jennifer M. McGoogan1Institutions (1)
07 Apr 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Background: Hospitalised COVID-19 patients are frequently elderly subjects with co-morbidities receiving polypharmacy, all of which are known risk factors for d

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Topics: Outbreak (56%)

10,464 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30079-5
Xiaobo Yang1, Yuan Yu1, Jiqian Xu1, Huaqing Shu1  +14 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Summary Background An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December, 2019, in Wuhan, China. Information about critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 52 critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital (Wuhan, China) between late December, 2019, and Jan 26, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, as of Feb 9, 2020. Secondary outcomes included incidence of SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Findings Of 710 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 52 critically ill adult patients were included. The mean age of the 52 patients was 59·7 (SD 13·3) years, 35 (67%) were men, 21 (40%) had chronic illness, 51 (98%) had fever. 32 (61·5%) patients had died at 28 days, and the median duration from admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) to death was 7 (IQR 3–11) days for non-survivors. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were older (64·6 years [11·2] vs 51·9 years [12·9]), more likely to develop ARDS (26 [81%] patients vs 9 [45%] patients), and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (30 [94%] patients vs 7 [35%] patients), either invasively or non-invasively. Most patients had organ function damage, including 35 (67%) with ARDS, 15 (29%) with acute kidney injury, 12 (23%) with cardiac injury, 15 (29%) with liver dysfunction, and one (2%) with pneumothorax. 37 (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Hospital-acquired infection occurred in seven (13·5%) patients. Interpretation The mortality of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is considerable. The survival time of the non-survivors is likely to be within 1–2 weeks after ICU admission. Older patients (>65 years) with comorbidities and ARDS are at increased risk of death. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia poses great strain on critical care resources in hospitals, especially if they are not adequately staffed or resourced. Funding None.

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Topics: Pneumonia (56%), ARDS (55%), Intensive care unit (54%) ... show more

5,846 Citations


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