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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110171

COVID-19 pandemic impact on children and adolescents' mental health: Biological, environmental, and social factors.

02 Mar 2021-Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier)-Vol. 106, pp 110171-110171
Abstract: Since the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was announced, we had an unprecedented change in the way we organize ourselves socially and in our daily routine. Children and adolescents were also greatly impacted by the abrupt withdrawal from school, social life and outdoor activities. Some of them also experienced domestic violence growing. The stress they are subjected to directly impacts their mental health on account of increased anxiety, changes in their diets and in school dynamics, fear or even failing to scale the problem. Our aim is to bring up a discussion under different aspects and to alert public health and government agents about the need for surveillance and care of these individuals. We hope that the damage to their mental health as a result of the side effect of this pandemic can be mitigated by adequate and timely intervention.

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Topics: Public health (56%), Mental health (56%)
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59 results found


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Depression and anxiety are the most common psychiatric conditions in late life. Despite their prevalence, we know relatively little about their unique manifestation in older adults. And, Although the most common intervention for late-life depression and anxiety continues to be medication, research on psychosocial interventions for late-life depression and anxiety has burgeoned in the past several years. Unfortunately, this growing body of intervention research has yet to be widely translated into improved systems of care for late-life depression. This article is one step toward synthesizing the knowledge in this growing area of research. The review of literature presents the conclusions of several meta-analyses that have reviewed psychosocial interventions for late-life depression and anxiety. In addition, intervention studies concerning the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, reminiscence therapy, and alternative therapies with depressed and/or anxious older adults are reviewed. A brief description of various approaches to psychosocial intervention with anxious and/or depressed older adults is also presented.

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Topics: Anxiety (61%), Cognitive behavioral therapy (60%), Reminiscence therapy (59%) ... show more

583 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.11.21257037
11 May 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: BackroundPost-COVID19 complications such as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) and Long-COVID19 move increasingly into focus, potentially causing more harm in this age group than the acute infection. To better understand the symptoms of long-COVID19 in adolescents and to distinguish infection-associated symptoms from pandemic-associated symptoms, we conducted a Long-COVID19 survey, comparing responses from seropositive and seronegative adolescents. To our knowledge, data of Long-COVID19 surveys with seronegative control groups have not been published yet. MethodsSince May 2020 students grade 8-12 in fourteen secondary schools in Eastern Saxony were enrolled in the SchoolCovid19 study. Seroprevalence was assessed via serial SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing in all participants. Furthermore, during the March/April 2021 study visit all participants were asked to complete a 12 question Long-COVID19 survey regarding the occurrence and frequency of difficulties concentrating, memory loss, listlessness, headache, abdominal pain, myalgia/ arthralgia, fatigue, insomnia and mood (sadness, anger, happiness and tenseness). Findings1560 students with a median age of 15 years participated in this study. 1365 (88%) were seronegative, 188 (12%) were seropositive. Each symptom was present in at least 35% of the students within the last seven days before the survey. However, there was no statistical difference comparing the reported symptoms between seropositive students and seronegative students. Whether the infection was known or unknown to the participant did not influence the prevalence of symptoms. InterpretationThe lack of differences comparing the reported symptoms between seropositive and seronegative students suggests that Long-COVID19 might be less common than previously thought and emphasizing the impact of pandemic-associated symptoms regarding the well-being and mental health of young adolescents. FundingThis study was supported by a grant by the Federal State of Saxony. M.K.W. was supported by the Else Kroner-Fresenius Center for Digital Health (EKFZ), TU Dresden, Germany.

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13 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003328
Abstract: In children, the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID) being severe is low. However, the risk of persistent symptoms following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is uncertain in this age group, and the features of “long COVID” are poorly characterized. We reviewed the 14 studies to date that have reported persistent symptoms following COVID in children and adolescents. Almost all the studies have major limitations, including the lack of a clear case definition, variable follow-up times, inclusion of children without confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, reliance on self- or parent-reported symptoms without clinical assessment, nonresponse and other biases, and the absence of a control group. Of the 5 studies which included children and adolescents without SARS-CoV-2 infection as controls, 2 did not find persistent symptoms to be more prevalent in children and adolescents with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This highlights that long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection–associated symptoms are difficult to distinguish from pandemic-associated symptoms.

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PSYCHIATRYINT2030027
01 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and other affective disorders may surreptitiously arise in children and adolescents during their school period and impair their social and educational functioning. Besides the social and personal burden, which are increased during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the onset of depression may compromise the future of the growing person with chronicity and recurrence. In this context, educators’ training is essential to detect early the onset of a depressive disorder, to spare later consequences through the timely establishment of adequate treatment. The educational staff should receive adequate training to be able to work closely with healthcare providers and parents, thus directing the young person with an affective disorder to the right psychological and pharmacological treatment provider, i.e., a specialized psychologist or psychiatrist. The first approach should be to establish a trustful relationship with the adolescent and his/her classmates, to reduce social and self-stigma and inform about mental illness. If symptoms do not subside and the suffering child or adolescent fails to reintegrate within his/her school environment, cognitive–behavioral interventions are recommended that are individual, group, or computer-based. When needed, these should be implemented with individualized pharmacotherapy.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0257304
10 Sep 2021-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has enormously affected the psychological well-being, social and working life of millions of people across the world. This study aimed to investigate the psychological distress, fear and coping strategies as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated factors among Malaysian residents. Methods Participants were invited to an online cross-sectional survey from Aug-Sep 2020. The study assessed psychological distress using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, level of fear using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and coping strategies using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to adjust for potential confounders. Results The mean age (±SD) of the participants (N = 720) was 31.7 (±11.5) years, and most of them were females (67.1%). Half of the participants had an income source, while 216 (30%) identified themselves as frontline health or essential service workers. People whose financial situation was impacted due to COVID-19 (AOR 2.16, 95% CIs 1.54-3.03), people who drank alcohol in the last four weeks (3.43, 1.45-8.10), people who were a patient (2.02, 1.39-2.93), and had higher levels of fear of COVID-19 (2.55, 1.70-3.80) were more likely to have higher levels of psychological distress. Participants who self-isolated due to exposure to COVID-19 (3.12, 1.04-9.32) and who had moderate to very high levels of psychological distress (2.56, 1.71-3.83) had higher levels of fear. Participants who provided care to a family member/patient with a suspected case of COVID-19 were more likely to be moderately to highly resilient compared to those who did not. Conclusion Vulnerable groups of individuals such as patients and those impacted financially during COVID-19 should be supported for their mental wellbeing. Behavioural interventions should be targeted to reduce the impact of alcohol drinking during such crisis period.

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Topics: Coping (psychology) (54%), Anxiety (52%)

3 Citations


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111 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/ARCHPSYC.62.6.593
Ronald C. Kessler1, Patricia A. Berglund1, Olga Demler1, Robert Jin1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Context Little is known about lifetime prevalence or age of onset of DSM-IV disorders. Objective To estimate lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Design and Setting Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted between February 2001 and April 2003 using the fully structured World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants Nine thousand two hundred eighty-two English-speaking respondents aged 18 years and older. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse-control, and substance use disorders. Results Lifetime prevalence estimates are as follows: anxiety disorders, 28.8%; mood disorders, 20.8%; impulse-control disorders, 24.8%; substance use disorders, 14.6%; any disorder, 46.4%. Median age of onset is much earlier for anxiety (11 years) and impulse-control (11 years) disorders than for substance use (20 years) and mood (30 years) disorders. Half of all lifetime cases start by age 14 years and three fourths by age 24 years. Later onsets are mostly of comorbid conditions, with estimated lifetime risk of any disorder at age 75 years (50.8%) only slightly higher than observed lifetime prevalence (46.4%). Lifetime prevalence estimates are higher in recent cohorts than in earlier cohorts and have fairly stable intercohort differences across the life course that vary in substantively plausible ways among sociodemographic subgroups. Conclusions About half of Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM-IV disorder sometime in their life, with first onset usually in childhood or adolescence. Interventions aimed at prevention or early treatment need to focus on youth.

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Topics: National Comorbidity Survey (65%), Mood disorders (57%), Comorbidity (56%) ... show more

15,369 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
14 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.

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Topics: Quarantine (52%)

6,092 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2016.6361
07 Jun 2016-JAMA
Abstract: Importance Previous analyses of obesity trends among children and adolescents showed an increase between 1988-1994 and 1999-2000, but no change between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012, except for a significant decline among children aged 2 to 5 years. Objectives To provide estimates of obesity and extreme obesity prevalence for children and adolescents for 2011-2014 and investigate trends by age between 1988-1994 and 2013-2014. Design, Setting, and Participants Children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years with measured weight and height in the 1988-1994 through 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Exposures Survey period. Main Outcomes and Measures Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex-specific 95th percentile on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI-for-age growth charts. Extreme obesity was defined as a BMI at or above 120% of the sex-specific 95th percentile on the CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. Detailed estimates are presented for 2011-2014. The analyses of linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were conducted using 9 survey periods. Trend analyses between 2005-2006 and 2013-2014 also were conducted. Results Measurements from 40 780 children and adolescents (mean age, 11.0 years; 48.8% female) between 1988-1994 and 2013-2014 were analyzed. Among children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, the prevalence of obesity in 2011-2014 was 17.0% (95% CI, 15.5%-18.6%) and extreme obesity was 5.8% (95% CI, 4.9%-6.8%). Among children aged 2 to 5 years, obesity increased from 7.2% (95% CI, 5.8%-8.8%) in 1988-1994 to 13.9% (95% CI, 10.7%-17.7%) ( P P = .03) in 2013-2014. Among children aged 6 to 11 years, obesity increased from 11.3% (95% CI, 9.4%-13.4%) in 1988-1994 to 19.6% (95% CI, 17.1%-22.4%) ( P P = .44). Obesity increased among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years between 1988-1994 (10.5% [95% CI, 8.8%-12.5%]) and 2013-2014 (20.6% [95% CI, 16.2%-25.6%]; P P = .02) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (2.6% [95% CI, 1.7%-3.9%] in 1988-1994 to 9.1% [95% CI, 7.0%-11.5%] in 2013-2014; P P value range, .09-.87). Conclusions and Relevance In this nationally representative study of US children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, the prevalence of obesity in 2011-2014 was 17.0% and extreme obesity was 5.8%. Between 1988-1994 and 2013-2014, the prevalence of obesity increased until 2003-2004 and then decreased in children aged 2 to 5 years, increased until 2007-2008 and then leveled off in children aged 6 to 11 years, and increased among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years.

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1,716 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/377530A0
12 Oct 1995-Nature
Abstract: Recently Zhang et al. cloned a gene that is expressed only in adipose tissue of the mouse. The obese phenotype of the ob/ob mouse is linked to a mutation in the obese gene that results in expression of a truncated inactive protein. Human and rat homologues for this gene are known. Previous experiments predict such a hormone to have a hypothalamic target. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y stimulates food intake, decreases thermogenesis, and increases plasma insulin and corticosterone levels making it a potential target. Here we express the obese protein in Escherichia coli and find that it suppresses food intake and decreases body weight dramatically when administered to normal and ob/ob mice but not db/db (diabetic) mice, which are thought to lack the appropriate receptor. High-affinity binding was detected in the rat hypothalamus. One mechanism by which this protein regulated food intake and metabolism was inhibition of neuropeptide-Y synthesis and release.

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Topics: Neuropeptide Y receptor (57%), Leptin (54%), Gene product (53%) ... show more

1,551 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.PSYCH.58.110405.085605
Megan R. Gunnar, Karina Quevedo1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Stress is a part of every life to varying degrees, but individuals differ in their stress vulnerability. Stress is usefully viewed from a biological perspective; accordingly, it involves activation of neurobiological systems that preserve viability through change or allostasis. Although they are necessary for survival, frequent neurobiological stress responses increase the risk of physical and mental health problems, perhaps particularly when experienced during periods of rapid brain development. Recently, advances in noninvasive measurement techniques have resulted in a burgeoning of human developmental stress research. Here we review the anatomy and physiology of stress responding, discuss the relevant animal literature, and briefly outline what is currently known about the psychobiology of stress in human development, the critical role of social regulation of stress neurobiology, and the importance of individual differences as a lens through which to approach questions about stress experiences during development and child outcomes.

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Topics: Allostasis (53%)

1,516 Citations