Abstract: Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens are important public issues. In addition, due to the overuse of antibiotics, many multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens have been widely encountered in clinical settings. Thus, the fast identification of bacteria pathogens and profiling of antibiotic resistance could greatly facilitate the precise treatment strategy of infectious diseases. So far, many conventional and molecular methods, both manual or automatized, have been developed for in vitro diagnostics, which have been proven to be accurate, reliable, and time efficient. Although Raman spectroscopy is an established technique in various fields such as geochemistry and material science, it is still considered as an emerging tool in research and diagnosis of infectious diseases. Based on current studies, it is too early to claim that Raman spectroscopy may provide practical guidelines for microbiologists and clinicians because there is still a gap between basic research and clinical implementation. However, due to the promising prospects of label-free detection and non-invasive identification of bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance in several single steps, it is necessary to have an overview of the technique in terms of its strong points and shortcomings. Thus, in this review, we went through recent studies of Raman spectroscopy in the field of infectious diseases, highlighting the application potentials of the technique and also current challenges that prevent its real-world applications.
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