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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1728098

Coxiella effector protein CvpF subverts RAB26-dependent autophagy to promote vacuole biogenesis and virulence.

04 Mar 2021-Autophagy (Autophagy)-Vol. 17, Iss: 3, pp 706-722
Abstract: Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of the zoonosis Q fever, replicates inside host cells within a large vacuole displaying autolysosomal characteristics. The development of this compartment is mediated by bacterial effectors, which interfere with a number of host membrane trafficking pathways. By screening a Coxiella transposon mutant library, we observed that transposon insertions in cbu0626 led to intracellular replication and vacuole biogenesis defects. Here, we demonstrate that CBU0626 is a novel member of the Coxiella vacuolar protein (Cvp) family of effector proteins, which is translocated by the Dot/Icm secretion system and localizes to vesicles with autolysosomal features as well as Coxiella-containing vacuoles (CCVs). We thus renamed this effector CvpF for Coxiella vacuolar protein F. CvpF specifically interacts with the host small GTPase RAB26, leading to the recruitment of the autophagosomal marker MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta) to CCVs. Importantly, cvpF::Tn mutants were highly attenuated compared to wild-type bacteria in the SCID mouse model of infection, highlighting the importance of CvpF for Coxiella virulence. These results suggest that CvpF manipulates endosomal trafficking and macroautophagy/autophagy induction for optimal C. burnetii vacuole biogenesis.Abbreviations: ACCM: acidified citrate cystein medium; AP: adaptor related protein complex; CCV: Coxiella-containing vacuole; Cvp: Coxiella vacuolar protein; GDI: guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor; GDF: GDI dissociation factor; GEF: guanine exchange factor; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase MTOR complex 1; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PMA: phorbol myristate acetate; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; WT: wild-type.

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Topics: Sequestosome 1 (57%), MAP1LC3B (55%), Vacuole (55%) ... read more
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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12943-020-01279-2
Wei Gao, Guo Huina1, Min Niu1, Zheng Xiwang1  +11 moreInstitutions (1)
24 Nov 2020-Molecular Cancer
Abstract: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is the second most common malignant tumor in head and neck. Autophagy and circular RNAs (circRNAs) play critical roles in cancer progression and chemoresistance. However, the function and mechanism of circRNA in autophagy regulation of LSCC remain unclear. The autophagy-suppressive circRNA circPARD3 was identified via RNA sequencing of 107 LSCC tissues and paired adjacent normal mucosal (ANM) tissues and high-content screening. RT-PCR, Sanger sequencing, qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed to detect circPARD3 expression and subcellular localization. Biological functions of circPARD3 were assessed by proliferation, migration, invasion, autophagic flux, and chemoresistance assays using in vitro and in vivo models. The mechanism of circPARD3 was investigated by RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pulldown, luciferase reporter assays, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Autophagy was inhibited in LSCC, and circPARD3 was upregulated in the LSCC tissues (n = 100, p < 0.001). High circPARD3 level was associated with advanced T stages (p < 0.05), N stages (p = 0.001), clinical stages (p < 0.001), poor differentiation degree (p = 0.025), and poor prognosis (p = 0.002) of LSCC patients (n = 100). Functionally, circPARD3 inhibited autophagy and promoted LSCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and chemoresistance. We further revealed that activation of the PRKCI-Akt-mTOR pathway through sponging miR-145-5p was the main mechanism of circPARD3 inhibited autophagy, promoting LSCC progression and chemoresistance. Our study reveals that the novel autophagy-suppressive circPARD3 promotes LSCC progression and chemoresistance through the PRKCI-Akt-mTOR pathway, providing new insights into circRNA-mediated autophagy regulation and potential biomarker and target for LSCC treatment.

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Topics: Autophagy (51%), PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (51%)

29 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCIMB.2020.599762
Abstract: Autophagy is a fundamental and highly conserved eukaryotic process, responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis and releasing nutrients during times of starvation. An increasingly important function of autophagy is its role in the cell autonomous immune response; a process known as xenophagy. Intracellular pathogens are engulfed by autophagosomes and targeted to lysosomes to eliminate the threat to the host cell. To counteract this, many intracellular bacterial pathogens have developed unique approaches to overcome, evade, or co-opt host autophagy to facilitate a successful infection. The intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii are able to avoid destruction by the cell, causing Legionnaires' disease and Q fever, respectively. Despite being related and employing homologous Dot/Icm type 4 secretion systems (T4SS) to translocate effector proteins into the host cell, these pathogens have developed their own unique intracellular niches. L. pneumophila evades the host endocytic pathway and instead forms an ER-derived vacuole, while C. burnetii requires delivery to mature, acidified endosomes which it remodels into a large, replicative vacuole. Throughout infection, L. pneumophila effectors act at multiple points to inhibit recognition by xenophagy receptors and disrupt host autophagy, ensuring it avoids fusion with destructive lysosomes. In contrast, C. burnetii employs its effector cohort to control autophagy, hypothesized to facilitate the delivery of nutrients and membrane to support the growing vacuole and replicating bacteria. In this review we explore the effector proteins that these two organisms utilize to modulate the host autophagy pathway in order to survive and replicate. By better understanding how these pathogens manipulate this highly conserved pathway, we can not only develop better treatments for these important human diseases, but also better understand and control autophagy in the context of human health and disease.

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Topics: Xenophagy (60%), Autophagy (55%), Effector (54%) ... read more

10 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1074/JBC.RA119.010112
Abstract: The intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of the emerging zoonosis Q fever. Crucial to its pathogenesis is type 4b secretion system–mediated secretion of bacterial effectors into host cells that subvert host cell membrane trafficking, leading to the biogenesis of a parasitophorous vacuole for intracellular replication. The characterization of prokaryotic serine/threonine protein kinases in bacterial pathogens is emerging as an important strategy to better understand host–pathogen interactions. In this study, we investigated CstK (for Coxiella Ser/Thr kinase), a protein kinase identified in C. burnetii by in silico analysis. We demonstrate that this putative protein kinase undergoes autophosphorylation on Thr and Tyr residues and phosphorylates a classical eukaryotic protein kinase substrate in vitro. This dual Thr-Tyr kinase activity is also observed for a eukaryotic dual-specificity Tyr phosphorylation-regulated kinase class. We found that CstK is translocated during infections and localizes to Coxiella-containing vacuoles (CCVs). Moreover, a CstK-overexpressing C. burnetii strain displayed a severe CCV development phenotype, suggesting that CstK fine-tunes CCV biogenesis during the infection. Protein–protein interaction experiments identified the Rab7 GTPase-activating protein TBC1D5 as a candidate CstK-specific target, suggesting a role for this host GTPase-activating protein in Coxiella infections. Indeed, CstK co-localized with TBC1D5 in noninfected cells, and TBC1D5 was recruited to CCVs in infected cells. Accordingly, TBC1D5 depletion from infected cells significantly affected CCV development. Our results indicate that CstK functions as a bacterial effector protein that interacts with the host protein TBC1D5 during vacuole biogenesis and intracellular replication.

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Topics: Kinase activity (58%), Protein kinase A (57%), Host cell membrane (56%) ... read more

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1914892117
Abstract: The Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii uses a defect in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication (Dot/Icm) type 4b secretion system (T4SS) to silence the host innate immune response during infection. By investigating C. burnetii effector proteins containing eukaryotic-like domains, here we identify NopA (nucleolar protein A), which displays four regulator of chromosome condensation (RCC) repeats, homologous to those found in the eukaryotic Ras-related nuclear protein (Ran) guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) RCC1. Accordingly, NopA is found associated with the chromatin nuclear fraction of cells and uses the RCC-like domain to interact with Ran. Interestingly, NopA triggers an accumulation of Ran-GTP, which accumulates at nucleoli of transfected or infected cells, thus perturbing the nuclear import of transcription factors of the innate immune signaling pathway. Accordingly, qRT-PCR analysis on a panel of cytokines shows that cells exposed to the C. burnetii nopA::Tn or a Dot/Icm-defective dotA::Tn mutant strain present a functional innate immune response, as opposed to cells exposed to wild-type C. burnetii or the corresponding nopA complemented strain. Thus, NopA is an important regulator of the innate immune response allowing Coxiella to behave as a stealth pathogen.

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Topics: Coxiella burnetii (56%), Innate immune system (55%), Nuclear protein (52%) ... read more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS10020110
22 Jan 2021-Pathogenetics
Abstract: Autophagy is a highly conserved and fundamental cellular process to maintain cellular homeostasis through recycling of defective organelles or proteins. In a response to intracellular pathogens, autophagy further acts as an innate immune response mechanism to eliminate pathogens. This review will discuss recent findings on autophagy as a reaction to intracellular pathogens, such as Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, and pathogenic Escherichia coli. Interestingly, while some of these bacteria have developed methods to use autophagy for their own benefit within the cell, others have developed fascinating mechanisms to evade recognition, to subvert the autophagic pathway, or to escape from autophagy.

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Topics: Autophagy (58%), Xenophagy (56%), Cellular homeostasis (55%) ... read more

4 Citations


References
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47 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1462-5822.2007.00901.X
Daniel E. Voth1, Robert A. HeinzenInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Summary Most intracellular parasites employ sophisticated mechanisms to direct biogenesis of a vacuolar replicative niche that circumvents default maturation through the endolysosomal cascade. However, this is not the case of the Q fever bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. This hardy, obligate intracellular pathogen has evolved to not only survive, but to thrive, in the harshest of intracellular compartments: the phagolysosome. Following internalization, the nascent Coxiella phagosome ultimately develops into a large and spacious parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that acquires lysosomal characteristics such as acidic pH, acid hydrolases and cationic peptides, defences designed to rid the host of intruders. However, transit of Coxiella to this environment is initially stalled, a process that is apparently modulated by interactions with the autophagic pathway. Coxiella actively participates in biogenesis of its PV by synthesizing proteins that mediate phagosome stalling, autophagic interactions, and development and maintenance of the mature vacuole. Among the potential mechanisms mediating these processes is deployment of a type IV secretion system to deliver effector proteins to the host cytosol. Here we summarize our current understanding of the cellular events that occur during parasitism of host cells by Coxiella.

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Topics: Coxiella burnetii (60%), Phagosome (54%), Phagolysosome (54%) ... read more

886 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1247/CSF.08005
Abstract: Autophagy is a membrane trafficking pathway that carries cytosolic components to the lysosome for degradation. During this process, the autophagosome, a double-membraned organelle, is generated de novo, sequesters cytoplasmic proteins and organelles, and delivers them to lysosomes. However, the mechanism by which autophagosomes are targeted to lysosomes has not been determined. Here, we observed the real-time behavior of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), which localizes to autophagosomes, and showed that autophagosomes move in a microtubule- and dynein-dynactin motor complex-dependent manner. After formation, autophagosomes show a rapid vectorial movement in the direction of the centrosome, where lysosomes are usually concentrated. Microinjection of antibodies against LC3 inhibited this movement; furthermore, using FRAP, we showed that anti-LC3 antibody injection caused a defect in targeting of autophagosomes to lysosomes. Collectively, our data demonstrate the functional significance of autophagosome movement that enables effective delivery from the cytosol to lysosomes.

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Topics: Autophagosome (66%), Dynein (54%), Autophagy (51%)

345 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1462-5822.2005.00527.X
Abstract: Pathogens evolved mechanisms to invade host cells and to multiply in the cytosol or in compositionally and functionally customized membrane-bound compartments. Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever in man is a Gram-negative gamma-proteobacterium which multiplies in large, acidified, hydrolase-rich and fusogenic vacuoles with phagolysosomal-like characteristics. We reported previously that C. burnetii phase II replicative compartments are labelled by LC3, a protein specifically localized to autophagic vesicles. We show here that autophagy in Chinese hamster ovary cells, induced by amino acid deprivation prior to infection with Coxiella increased the number of infected cells, the size of the vacuoles, and their bacterial load. Furthermore, overexpression of GFP-LC3 or of GFP-Rab24 - a protein also localized to autophagic vacuoles - likewise accelerated the development of Coxiella-vacuoles at early times after infection. However, overexpression of mutants of those proteins that cannot be targeted to autophagosomes dramatically decreased the number and size of the vacuoles in the first hours of infection, although by 48 h the infection was similar to that of non-transfected controls. Overall, the results suggest that transit through the autophagic pathway increases the infection with Coxiella by providing a niche more favourable to their initial survival and multiplication.

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Topics: Coxiella burnetii (56%), Vacuole (55%)

241 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/CDD.2013.187
X Ao1, L Zou1, Yuanyuan Wu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Autophagy (macroautophagy) is a highly conserved intracellular and lysosome-dependent degradation process in which autophagic substrates are enclosed and degraded by a double-membrane vesicular structure in a continuous and dynamic vesicle transport process. The Rab protein is a small GTPase that belongs to the Ras-like GTPase superfamily and regulates the vesicle traffic process. Numerous Rab proteins have been shown to be involved in various stages of autophagy. Rab1, Rab5, Rab7, Rab9A, Rab11, Rab23, Rab32, and Rab33B participate in autophagosome formation, whereas Rab9 is required in non-canonical autophagy. Rab7, Rab8B, and Rab24 have a key role in autophagosome maturation. Rab8A and Rab25 are also involved in autophagy, but their role is unknown. Here, we summarize new findings regarding the involvement of Rabs in autophagy and provide insights regarding future research on the mechanisms of autophagy regulation.

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Topics: BAG3 (64%), Autophagosome maturation (63%), RAB1 (63%) ... read more

234 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1462-5822.2006.00838.X
Abstract: The etiologic agent of Q fever Coxiella burnetii, is an intracellular obligate parasite that develops large vacuoles with phagolysosomal characteristics, containing multiple replicating bacteria. We have previously shown that Phase II C. burnetii replicative vacuoles generated after 24-48 h post infection are decorated with the autophagic protein LC3. The aim of the present study was to examine, at earlier stages of infection, the distribution and roles of the small GTPases Rab5 and Rab7, markers of early and late endosomes respectively, as well as of the protein LC3 on C. burnetii trafficking. Our results indicate that: (i) Coxiella phagosomes (Cph) acquire the two Rab proteins sequentially during infection; (ii) overexpression of a dominant negative mutant form of Rab5, but not of Rab7, impaired Coxiella entry, whereas both Rab5 and Rab7 dominant negative mutants inhibited vacuole formation; (iii) Cph colocalized with the protein LC3 as early as 5 min after infection; acquisition of this protein appeared to be a bacterially driven process, because it was inhibited by the bacteriostatic antibiotic chloramphenicol and (iv) C. burnetii delayed the arrival of the typical lysosomal protease cathepsin D to the Cph, which delay is further increased by starvation-induced autophagy. Based on our results we propose that C. burnetii transits through the normal endo/phagocytic pathway but actively interacts with autophagosomes at early times after infection. This intersection with the autophagic pathway delays fusion with the lysosomal compartment possibly favouring the intracellular differentiation and survival of the bacteria.

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Topics: Coxiella burnetii (64%), Vacuole (51%), Phagosome (50%) ... read more

218 Citations


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