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Journal ArticleDOI

Criminality among Second-Generation Immigrants in Western Europe: A Review of the Evidence:

01 May 1989-Criminal Justice Review (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 14, Iss: 1, pp 13-42
TL;DR: In this article, the available literature is reviewed under three aspects: 1) are immigrant youths subject to differential treatment by the police, prosecutors, or courts? 2) Are they disproportionately involved in crime and delinquency, compared to the native-born youths? 3) What are the factors that favor delinquent involvement among young immigrants?
Abstract: Since World War II, and particularly since the 1960s, there has been considerable migration from southern to northern Europe. As a result, a substantial second generation of young immigrants has emerged that has received considerable attention from criminologists in many countries over the last ten years. In this paper, the available literature is reviewed under three aspects: 1) Are immigrant youths subject to differential treatment by the police, prosecutors, or courts? 2) Are they disproportionately involved in crime and delinquency, compared to the native-born youths? 3) What are the factors that favor delinquent involvement among young immigrants? The evidence reviewed does not allow a satisfactory answer to these questions in light of existing methodological problems and inadequacy of data. It does suggest two things, however. The overrepresentation of young immigrants in the police statistics of many countries is not the result of discrimination against them; rather, some segments among the immigra...
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24 Aug 2014

162 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that the relationship between education and crime for African Americans and Whites is contingent on levels of intraracial income inequality, and that increasing educational attainment is associated with increased crime rates, but only during periods of growing income inequality.
Abstract: Rapid increases in crime in the United States in the 1960s and early 1970s have been puzzling in that they seem to coincide with economic growth and increased educational opportunity for disadvantaged groups, especially African Americans. We argue that these increases in crime may be more understandable in their historical context: Much of the economic expansion during the postwar period and the unprecedented gains in educational attainment for African Americans were accompanied by growing intraracial income inequality. Our annual time-series analysis of African American and White robbery, burglary, and homicide arrest rates from 1957 to 1990 confirms that intraracial income inequality is a consistent predictor of changes in arrest rates for both African Americans and Whites. An interaction analysis of dummy variables indicates that the relationship between education and crime for African Americans and Whites is contingent on levels of intraracial income inequality. For African Americans, increasing educational attainment is associated with rising arrest rates, but only during periods of growing income inequality; for Whites, increasing educational attainment is associated with reduced crime rates, but only during periods of declining inequality. (Abstract Adapted from Source: American Sociological Review, 1996. Copyright © 1996 by the American Sociological Association) 1950s 1960s 1970s African American Crime African American Adult African American Offender African American Violence Black-White Comparison Caucasian Crime Caucasian Adult Caucasian Offender Caucasian Violence Economic Growth Economic Inequality Socioeconomic Factors Educational Factors Arrest Rates Racial Differences Violence Causes Crime Causes Educational Attainment 07-02

115 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For instance, the authors found that foreign minorities' crime involvement is higher than that of the German population, even when crime data are adjusted to take account of demographic differences (age, sex, etc) and even if immigration offenses and nonresident foreigners' crime are disregarded.
Abstract: Research on ethnic minorities' involvement in crime is highly sensitive in Germany Most research is based on official statistics, which indicate that foreign minorities' crime involvement is higher than that of the German population, even when crime data are adjusted to take account of demographic differences (age, sex, etc) and even if immigration offenses and nonresident foreigners' crime are disregarded First-generation guest workers have had crime rates comparable to those of Germans The second and third generations display sharp upward crime trends Processing of foreign offenders by the justice system has received little attention Existing research does not confirm hypotheses of discriminatory treatment in police and criminal court decision making, including in sentencing The proportion of foreigners in the prison population has increased substantially, reaching 25 percent in 1994 In youth correctional facilities, the minority proportion has increased to 50 percent In pretrial detention the

96 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that both first and second-generation immigrants have higher crime rates than indigenous Swedes, but second-generational immigrants have lower rates than first-generative immigrants, a finding contradicting results in other countries, suggesting that these lower rates may be a consequence of Swedish social welfare policy.
Abstract: Immigrants generally have higher crime rates than do indigenous Swedes, particularly for violence and theft, and are likelier to be victims of violence. Both first- and second-generation immigrants have higher crime rates than indigenous Swedes, but second-generation immigrants have lower rates than first-generation immigrants-a finding contradicting results in other countries. These lower rates may be a consequence of Swedish social welfare policy. The offending pattern of second-generation immigrants is similar to the pattern of native Swedes. Groups with a high total crime rate in the first generation tend to have a relatively high total crime rate in the second generation and vice versa.

74 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a political economy of punishment for criminal justice and criminal justice matters, and present a framework for rethinking the criminal justice system of punishment, which they call Rethinking the Political Economy of Punishment.
Abstract: (2007). Rethinking the political economy of punishment. Criminal Justice Matters: Vol. 70, Politics, Economy and Crime, pp. 17-18.

57 citations

References
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01 Jan 1942

3,336 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that most of the racial disproportionality in criminal justice processing data is attributed to the substantially greater involvement of blacks in the common law personal crimes of rape, robbery, and assault.
Abstract: Most contemporary sociological theories of crime predict that blacks will be overrepresented among arrestees in common law personal crimes. These theories differ, however, in the extent to which this overrepresentation is attributed to disproportionate involvement in criminal offenses vs. criminal justice system selection biases. Studies that have relied upon official data have generally supported the differential involvement hypothesis, whereas studies relying on self-report techniques generally have supported the differential selection hypothesis. National victimization survey data on victims' reports of racial characteristics of offenders are introduced as a third measurement technique in order to shed additional light on this controversy. These data for rape, robbery, and assault, are generally consistent with official data on arrestees and support the differential involvement hypothesis. Some evidence of differential selection for criminal justice processing is found; however, most of the racial disproportionality in arrest data is shown by victimization survey data to be attributable to the substantially greater involvement of blacks in the common law personal crimes of rape, robbery, and assault. These results suggest that traditional admonitions against using arrest data as an index of involvement in these crimes may be overly cautious. In fact, the results imply that more caution should attend the use of self-report data in this vein and that more attention should be given to sampling and instrument concerns in self-report techniques. As currently used, the method may not be adequate for assessing the correlates of serious illegal conduct. The results also suggest that research emphasis be placed on those theories, such as the subcultural and differential opportunity perspectives, which attempt to explain differential racial involvement in these common law personal crimes. (Abstract Adapted from Source: American Sociological Review, 1978. Copyright © 1978 by the American Sociological Association) Minority Overrepresentation African American Adult African American Crime African American Offender African American Violence Rape Offender Sexual Assault Offender Robbery Offender Physical Assault Offender Racial Factors Arrest Rates Offender Arrest Violence Against Women 07-02

406 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of sample surveys of the general population to study crime has been discussed in detail many times (National Research Council, 1976; Biderman, 1967) as mentioned in this paper, and crime surveys have been conducted in many nations, a practice that is continuing despite their heavy cost.
Abstract: Since the mid-1960s there has been a great deal of interest around the world in the use of sample surveys of the general population to study crime. The advantages of doing so have been discussed in detail many times (National Research Council, 1976; Biderman, 1967). Crime surveys have been conducted in many nations, a practice that is continuing despite their heavy cost. Large-scale national surveys have been conducted in the United States, the Netherlands, Australia, Great Britain, and Sweden. Smaller but regular national studies have been carried out in the rest of Scandinavia, and there has been a national survey in Spain. There have been large surveys of victimization in individual cities in Germany, Switzerland, and England. Statistics Canada has completed very large studies of seven major cities, including two surveys of Vancouver, and the Israeli Census Bureau has added victimization questions to a national survey. In addition, small but useful city studies have been conducted in Mexico, Colombia, ...

337 citations