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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PRO.4050

Crystallographic molecular replacement using an in silico-generated search model of SARS-CoV-2 ORF8.

04 Mar 2021-Protein Science (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 30, Iss: 4, pp 728-734
Abstract: The majority of crystal structures are determined by the method of molecular replacement (MR). The range of application of MR is limited mainly by the need for an accurate search model. In most cases, pre-existing experimentally determined structures are used as search models. In favorable cases, ab initio predicted structures have yielded search models adequate for MR. The ORF8 protein of SARS-CoV-2 represents a challenging case for MR using an ab initio prediction because ORF8 has an all β-sheet fold and few orthologs. We previously determined experimentally the structure of ORF8 using the single anomalous dispersion (SAD) phasing method, having been unable to find an MR solution to the crystallographic phase problem. Following a report of an accurate prediction of the ORF8 structure, we assessed whether the predicted model would have succeeded as an MR search model. A phase problem solution was found, and the resulting structure was refined, yielding structural parameters equivalent to the original experimental solution.

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Topics: Molecular replacement (50%)
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-021-03828-1
Kathryn Tunyasuvunakool, Jonas Adler, Zachary Wu, Tim Green  +29 moreInstitutions (1)
22 Jul 2021-Nature
Abstract: Protein structures can provide invaluable information, both for reasoning about biological processes and for enabling interventions such as structure-based drug development or targeted mutagenesis. After decades of effort, 17% of the total residues in human protein sequences are covered by an experimentally-determined structure1. Here we dramatically expand structural coverage by applying the state-of-the-art machine learning method, AlphaFold2, at scale to almost the entire human proteome (98.5% of human proteins). The resulting dataset covers 58% of residues with a confident prediction, of which a subset (36% of all residues) have very high confidence. We introduce several metrics developed by building on the AlphaFold model, and use them to interpret the dataset, identifying strong multi-domain predictions as well as regions likely to be disordered. Finally, we provide some case studies illustrating how high-quality predictions may be used to generate biological hypotheses. Importantly, we are making our predictions freely available to the community via a public database (hosted by the European Bioinformatics Institute at https://alphafold.ebi.ac.uk/ ). We anticipate that routine large-scale and high-accuracy structure prediction will become an important tool, allowing new questions to be addressed from a structural perspective.

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163 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.18.444614
Airlie J. McCoy1, Sammito1, Randy J. Read1Institutions (1)
18 May 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: The AlphaFold2 results in the 14th edition of Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP14) showed that accurate (low root-mean-square deviation) in silico models of protein structure domains are on the horizon, whether or not the protein is related to known structures through high- coverage sequence similarity. As highly accurate models become available, generated by harnessing the power of correlated mutations and deep learning, one of the aspects of structural biology to be impacted will be methods of phasing in crystallography. We here use the data from CASP14 to explore the prospect for changes in phasing methods, and in particular to explore the prospects for molecular replacement phasing using in silico models. Synopsis We discuss the implications of the AlphaFold2 protein structure modelling software for crystallographic phasing strategies.

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9 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JMB.2021.167127
Gal Masrati1, Meytal Landau2, Meytal Landau3, Nir Ben-Tal1  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Characterizing the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules is central to understanding their function. Traditionally, structures of proteins and their complexes have been determined using experimental techniques such as X-ray crystallography, NMR, or cryo-electron microscopy—applied individually or in an integrative manner. Meanwhile, however, computational methods for protein structure prediction have been improving their accuracy, gradually, then suddenly, with the breakthrough advance by AlphaFold2, whose models of monomeric proteins are often as accurate as experimental structures. This breakthrough foreshadows a new era of computational methods that can build accurate models for most monomeric proteins. Here, we envision how such accurate modeling methods can combine with experimental structural biology techniques, enhancing integrative structural biology. We highlight the challenges that arise when considering multiple structural conformations, protein complexes, and polymorphic assemblies. These challenges will motivate further developments, both in modeling programs and in methods to solve experimental structures, towards better and quicker investigation of structure-function relationships.

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7 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.10.443524
Meghna Gupta1, Caleigh M. Azumaya1, Michelle Moritz1, Sergei Pourmal1  +77 moreInstitutions (2)
11 May 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: The SARS-CoV-2 protein Nsp2 has been implicated in a wide range of viral processes, but its exact functions, and the structural basis of those functions, remain unknown. Here, we report an atomic model for full-length Nsp2 obtained by combining cryo-electron microscopy with deep learning-based structure prediction from AlphaFold2. The resulting structure reveals a highly-conserved zinc ion-binding site, suggesting a role for Nsp2 in RNA binding. Mapping emerging mutations from variants of SARS-CoV-2 on the resulting structure shows potential host-Nsp2 interaction regions. Using structural analysis together with affinity tagged purification mass spectrometry experiments, we identify Nsp2 mutants that are unable to interact with the actin-nucleation-promoting WASH protein complex or with GIGYF2, an inhibitor of translation initiation and modulator of ribosome-associated quality control. Our work suggests a potential role of Nsp2 in linking viral transcription within the viral replication-transcription complexes (RTC) to the translation initiation of the viral message. Collectively, the structure reported here, combined with mutant interaction mapping, provides a foundation for functional studies of this evolutionary conserved coronavirus protein and may assist future drug design.

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7 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.09.19.460937
20 Sep 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: AlphaFold changed the field of structural biology by achieving three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction from protein sequence at experimental quality. The astounding success even led to claims that the protein folding problem is "solved". However, protein folding problem is more than just structure prediction from sequence. Presently, it is unknown if the AlphaFold-triggered revolution could help to solve other problems related to protein folding. Here we assay the ability of AlphaFold to predict the impact of single mutations on protein stability ({Delta}{Delta}G) and function. To study the question we extracted metrics from AlphaFold predictions before and after single mutation in a protein and correlated the predicted change with the experimentally known {Delta}{Delta}G values. Additionally, we correlated the AlphaFold predictions on the impact of a single mutation on structure with a large scale dataset of single mutations in GFP with the experimentally assayed levels of fluorescence. We found a very weak or no correlation between AlphaFold output metrics and change of protein stability or fluorescence. Our results imply that AlphaFold cannot be immediately applied to other problems or applications in protein folding.

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Topics: Protein folding (53%), Structural biology (51%)

4 Citations


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30 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0907444910007493
Abstract: Coot is a molecular-graphics application for model building and validation of biological macromolecules. The program displays electron-density maps and atomic models and allows model manipulations such as idealization, real-space refinement, manual rotation/translation, rigid-body fitting, ligand search, solvation, mutations, rotamers and Ramachandran idealization. Furthermore, tools are provided for model validation as well as interfaces to external programs for refinement, validation and graphics. The software is designed to be easy to learn for novice users, which is achieved by ensuring that tools for common tasks are `discoverable' through familiar user-interface elements (menus and toolbars) or by intuitive behaviour (mouse controls). Recent developments have focused on providing tools for expert users, with customisable key bindings, extensions and an extensive scripting interface. The software is under rapid development, but has already achieved very widespread use within the crystallographic community. The current state of the software is presented, with a description of the facilities available and of some of the underlying methods employed.

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Topics: Software design (52%), Scripting language (51%), Software (50%)

17,770 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0021889807021206
Abstract: Phaser is a program for phasing macromolecular crystal structures by both molecular replacement and experimental phasing methods. The novel phasing algorithms implemented in Phaser have been developed using maximum likelihood and multivariate statistics. For molecular replacement, the new algorithms have proved to be significantly better than traditional methods in discriminating correct solutions from noise, and for single-wavelength anomalous dispersion experimental phasing, the new algorithms, which account for correlations between F+ and F−, give better phases (lower mean phase error with respect to the phases given by the refined structure) than those that use mean F and anomalous differences ΔF. One of the design concepts of Phaser was that it be capable of a high degree of automation. To this end, Phaser (written in C++) can be called directly from Python, although it can also be called using traditional CCP4 keyword-style input. Phaser is a platform for future development of improved phasing methods and their release, including source code, to the crystallographic community.

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Topics: Phaser (58%)

15,505 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-019-1923-7
15 Jan 2020-Nature
Abstract: Protein structure prediction can be used to determine the three-dimensional shape of a protein from its amino acid sequence1. This problem is of fundamental importance as the structure of a protein largely determines its function2; however, protein structures can be difficult to determine experimentally. Considerable progress has recently been made by leveraging genetic information. It is possible to infer which amino acid residues are in contact by analysing covariation in homologous sequences, which aids in the prediction of protein structures3. Here we show that we can train a neural network to make accurate predictions of the distances between pairs of residues, which convey more information about the structure than contact predictions. Using this information, we construct a potential of mean force4 that can accurately describe the shape of a protein. We find that the resulting potential can be optimized by a simple gradient descent algorithm to generate structures without complex sampling procedures. The resulting system, named AlphaFold, achieves high accuracy, even for sequences with fewer homologous sequences. In the recent Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction5 (CASP13)-a blind assessment of the state of the field-AlphaFold created high-accuracy structures (with template modelling (TM) scores6 of 0.7 or higher) for 24 out of 43 free modelling domains, whereas the next best method, which used sampling and contact information, achieved such accuracy for only 14 out of 43 domains. AlphaFold represents a considerable advance in protein-structure prediction. We expect this increased accuracy to enable insights into the function and malfunction of proteins, especially in cases for which no structures for homologous proteins have been experimentally determined7.

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1,063 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S2059798318006551
Pavel V. Afonine1, Pavel V. Afonine2, Billy K. Poon1, Randy J. Read3  +6 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: This article describes the implementation of real-space refinement in the phenixreal_space_refine program from the PHENIX suite The use of a simplified refinement target function enables very fast calculation, which in turn makes it possible to identify optimal data-restraint weights as part of routine refinements with little runtime cost Refinement of atomic models against low-resolution data benefits from the inclusion of as much additional information as is available In addition to standard restraints on covalent geometry, phenixreal_space_refine makes use of extra information such as secondary-structure and rotamer-specific restraints, as well as restraints or constraints on internal molecular symmetry The re-refinement of 385 cryo-EM-derived models available in the Protein Data Bank at resolutions of 6 A or better shows significant improvement of the models and of the fit of these models to the target maps

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926 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0365110X62000067
Abstract: In this paper, Rossmann & Blow describe how they have detected the existence of partial, approximate symmetry from a knowledge of the intensities alone. The effect of noncrystallographic symmetry, whether partial or total, results in decreasing the size of the structure to be determined, while the number of observable intensities remains the same.

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Topics: Symmetry (geometry) (56%)

858 Citations