scispace - formally typeset

ReportDOI

CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Final Report

28 Sep 2011-

Abstract: The goal of this project was to establish an innovation center to accelerate the transition to a 'hydrogen economy' an infrastructure of vehicles, fuel resources, and maintenance capabilities based on hydrogen as the primary energy carrier The specific objectives of the proposed project were to: (a) define the essential attributes of the innovation center; (b) validate the concept with potential partners; (c) create an implementation plan; and (d) establish a pilot center and demonstrate its benefits via a series of small scale projects

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

CU-ICAR HYDROGEN INFRASTRUCTURE
FINAL REPORT
September 2011
PREPARED BY
Robert Leitner
David Bodde
Dennis Wiese
John Skardon
Bethany Carter
PREPARED FOR
Department of Energy
Golden Field Office
Award No.
DE-FG36-08GO88115
DOE PROJECT OFFICER
James Alkire

CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Final Report DE-FG36-08GO88115
ii
Disclaimer
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States
Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their
employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for
the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed,
or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific
commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does
not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States
Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of the authors expressed herein do not
necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge the following significant contributions to this project:
Innovation Center Study Mr. Manmohan Pozhickal performed the early study of
innovation center attributes.
AutoVenture Forum The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) provided both
financial and staff support to the planning and execution of the AutoVenture Forum. Mr.
Ethan Byler managed the ASME efforts. Ms. Patti Jo Snyder of ASME managed the logistical
arrangements for the first forum. The AVF team would also like to acknowledge the support
provided by USCAR in organizing and hosting the many planning meetings and the
encouragement offered by numerous auto industry executives.
Test Vehicle Conversion Conversion of the test vehicles was performed by the Mechanical
Engineering senior design class and graduate students from the Clemson University
International Center for Automotive Research (Frank Richardson, Dave Anderson, Neeraj
Chirmulay, and Harish Kohli).
Fuel System Controller Grafton Standifer, a student in the Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering, performed the design and fabrication of the demonstration fuel
system controller.
Liquid Carrier and Reactor Testing Dr. David Bruce and graduate student, Ha Nguyen, of
the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering provided assistance with all
aspects of the liquid carrier portion of the project.

CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Final Report DE-FG36-08GO88115
iii
Table of Contents
1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1. The Need ............................................................................................................................................ 1
1.2. Project Objective ................................................................................................................................ 2
2. Defining the Innovation Center Attributes ............................................................................................... 3
3. Key Process Pilot Demonstrations ............................................................................................................ 7
3.1. Industry-Wide Open Innovation Process Demonstration .................................................................. 7
3.1.1. Background ................................................................................................................................. 7
3.1.2. AutoVenture Forum™ Demonstration ........................................................................................ 9
3.1.3. Results and Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 12
3.1.4. Recommendations .................................................................................................................... 13
3.2. Technology Demonstration and Validation Process ........................................................................ 15
3.2.1. Background ............................................................................................................................... 15
3.2.2. Hydrnol Prototype Fuel System Demonstration ....................................................................... 17
3.2.3. Air Products Liquid Carrier Fuel System Demonstration .......................................................... 22
3.2.4. Conclusions and Recommendations ......................................................................................... 49
Works Cited ................................................................................................................................................. 52
List of Figures
Figure 1 Non-Attainment Areas ................................................................................................................. 1
Figure 2 Transportation Impacts on GHG Emissions .................................................................................. 2
Figure 3 Functions Performed by University Based Innovation Centers ................................................... 4
Figure 4 Functions Performed by Community Based Non-Profit Innovation Centers ............................... 4
Figure 5 Characteristics of University Based Innovation Centers .............................................................. 5
Figure 6 Characteristics of Community Based Non-Profit Innovation Centers .......................................... 5
Figure 7 Electric Vehicle Powertrain Business Model Convergence .......................................................... 8
Figure 8 Auto Company Participants in the Pilot AVF .............................................................................. 10
Figure 9 Technology Transition Valley of Death ...................................................................................... 15
Figure 10 Liquid Carrier Molecules Used For Prototype Fuel System Demonstration ............................ 17
Figure 11 Experimental Reactor ............................................................................................................... 18
Figure 12 Process Flow Diagram .............................................................................................................. 20
Figure 13 Air Products Liquid Carrier Process .......................................................................................... 22
Figure 14 Gas Chromatogram After 9 Hours Reaction Time.................................................................... 23
Figure 15 2,3,4,4a,9,9a-hexahydro-1H-Fluorene Partial Hydrogenation Byproduct .............................. 24
Figure 16 Gas Chromatogram After 15 Hour Reaction Time ................................................................... 25
Figure 17 H NMR Spectrum for Perhydrofluorene. ................................................................................. 26
Figure 18 GC Analysis of 1% Pt Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at 220
o
C .................................................. 28
Figure 19 GC Analysis of 5% Pt Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at 220
o
C .................................................. 29

CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Final Report DE-FG36-08GO88115
iv
Figure 20 Reaction Products for 5% Pt Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at 220
o
C ...................................... 30
Figure 21 GC Analysis of 1% Pd Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at 250
o
C ................................................. 30
Figure 22 Reaction Products for 1% Pd Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at 250
o
C ..................................... 31
Figure 23 GC Analysis of 5% Pd Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at T=250
o
C ............................................. 32
Figure 24 Reaction Products for 5% Pd Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at 250
o
C ..................................... 33
Figure25 Comparison of Fluorene Production Results for Three Monoliths ........................................... 33
Figure 26 GC Analysis of 5% Pd Monolith Reactor with Neat Fuel .......................................................... 34
Figure 27 GC Analysis of 5% Pd Monolith Reactor with Neat Fuel at 270 °C ........................................... 35
Figure 28 Comparison of Diluted and Neat Fuel Test Results .................................................................. 36
Figure 29 SCIES Hybrid Electric Test Vehicle ............................................................................................ 37
Figure 30 Fuel System States ................................................................................................................... 38
Figure 31 Demonstration Fuel System Schematic ................................................................................... 39
Figure 32 Demonstration Reactor Build-up ............................................................................................. 40
Figure 33 Fuel System Controller Schematic ........................................................................................... 41
Figure 34 Demonstration Fuel System ..................................................................................................... 42
Figure 35 Demonstration Fuel System Test Installation .......................................................................... 43
Figure 36 Demonstration Fuel System Test Results Test 1 (T=235
o
C) .................................................. 44
Figure 37 Demonstration Fuel System Test Results Test 2 (T=250
o
C) .................................................. 44
Figure 38 Comparison of Experimental and Demonstration Reactor Test Results (T=250
o
C) ................. 45
Figure 39 Demonstration Fuel System Test Results Test 3 (T=270
o
C) .................................................. 46
Figure 40 Comparison of Experimental and Demonstration Reactor Test Results (T=270
o
C) ................. 46
Figure 41 Demonstration Fuel System Test Results Test 4 (Fanfold) .................................................... 47
Figure 42 Comparison of Demonstration Fuel System Test Results ........................................................ 48
Figure 43 Fuel System Installation ........................................................................................................... 49
List of Tables
Table 1 Composition of American Cyanamid Catalysts ........................................................................... 19
Table 2 Dehydrogenation results for HDS-20A Catalyst (07July2010) ..................................................... 19
Table 3 Dehydrogenation results for HDS-20A Catalyst (08July2010) ..................................................... 19
Table 4 Dehydrogenation results for HDS-2A Catalyst ............................................................................ 20
Table 5 Dehydrogenation results for HDS-2A Catalyst with Reactor Bypass ........................................... 21
Table 6 Dehydrogenation Results for In-house Catalyst with Reactor Bypass ........................................ 21
Table 7 Product Peaks After 9 Hours Reaction Time ............................................................................... 24
Table 8 Product Peaks After 15 Hour Reaction Time ............................................................................... 25
Table 9 Product Peaks for 1% Pt Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at 220
o
C (T=15 min) ............................. 28
Table 10 Product Peaks for 5% Pt Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at 220
o
C (T=90 min) ........................... 29
Table 11 Product Peaks for 1% Pd Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at 250
o
C (T=0 min) ............................ 31
Table 12 Product Peaks for 5% Pd Monolith and 50/50 Fuel Mix at T=250
o
C (T=30 min)....................... 32
Table 13 Product Peaks for 5% Pd and Neat Fuel at 250
o
C (T=60 min) ................................................... 34
Table 14 Product Peaks for 5% Pd Monolith Reactor at 270°C (T=0 min) ............................................... 35
Table 15 Effect of Temperature on Reactor Performance ....................................................................... 36

CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Final Report DE-FG36-08GO88115
1
1. Introduction
1.1. The Need
Automobiles and trucks, powered by internal combustion engines and fueled by abundant, low cost
petroleum, have served as the foundation for the prosperity and growth of our geographically
dispersed, yet highly interconnected nation for the past century. However, recently, the negative
impacts of this mode of transportation on our society have become more apparent. These impacts
include:
AIR QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses six
"criteria pollutants" as indicators of air quality, and has established a maximum
concentration for each of them based on human health concerns. Vehicles are a major
source of several criteria pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide and
ozone. Despite large reductions in vehicle emissions, approximately 300 counties across the
US, shown in Figure 1, are non-attainment areas today.
Figure 1 Non-Attainment Areas
CLIMATE CHANGE. The transportation sector is the second largest source of Greenhouse
Gas (GHG) emissions in the US, and with substantial increases in vehicle demand in large
developing nations, such as China, it is one of the fastest growing sources globally, as shown
in Figure 2.
Source: US EPA Green Book

Citations
More filters

Posted Content
Abstract: How much credit can be given to entrepreneurship for the unprecedented innovation and growth of free-enterprise economies? In this book, some of the world's leading economists tackle this difficult and understudied question, and their responses shed new light on how free-market economies work--and what policies most encourage their growth. The contributors take as their starting point William J. Baumol's 2002 book The Free-Market Innovation Machine (Princeton), which argued that independent entrepreneurs are far more important to growth than economists have traditionally thought, and that an implicit partnership between such entrepreneurs and large corporations is critical to the success of market economies. The contributors include the editors and Robert M. Solow, Kenneth J. Arrow, Michael M. Weinstein, Douglass C. North, Barry R. Weingast, Ying Lowrey, Nathan Rosenberg, Melissa A. Schilling, Corey Phelps, Sylvia Nasar, Boyan Jovanovic, Peter L. Rousseau, Edward N. Wolff, Deepak Somaya, David J. Teece, Naomi R. Lamoreaux, Kenneth L. Sokoloff, Yochanan Shachmurove, Ralph E. Gomory, Jonathan Eaton, Samuel S. Kortum, Alan S. Blinder, Robert J. Shiller, Burton G. Malkiel, and Edmund S. Phelps.

7 citations


References
More filters

Book
James M. Utterback1Institutions (1)
01 Oct 1996
Abstract: The dymanics of onnovation in industry dominant designs and the survival of firms product innovation as a creative force innovation and industrial evolution innovation in non-assembled products invasion of a stable business by radical innovation the creative power of technology in process innovation innovation as a game of chutes and ladders innovation and corporate renewal.

3,032 citations


"CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Fin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(9) Such improvements tend to be the domain of the established company....

    [...]


Book
01 Dec 2006
Abstract: In his landmark book Open Innovation, Henry Chesbrough demonstrated that because useful knowledge is no longer concentrated in a few large organizations, business leaders must adopt a new, "open" model of innovation. Using this model, companies look outside their boundaries for ideas and intellectual property (IP) they can bring in, as well as license their unutilized home-grown IP to other organizations. In Open Business Models, Chesbrough takes readers to the next step--explaining how to make money in an open innovation landscape. He provides a diagnostic instrument enabling you to assess your company's current business model, and explains how to overcome common barriers to creating a more open model. He also offers compelling examples of companies that have developed such models--including Procter & Gamble, IBM, and Air Products. In addition, Chesbrough introduces a new set of players--"innovation intermediaries"--who facilitate companies' access to external technologies. He explores the impact of stronger IP protection on intermediate markets for innovation, and profiles firms (such as Intellectual Ventures and Qualcomm) that center their business model on innovation and IP. This vital resource provides a much-needed road map to connect innovation with IP management, so companies can create and capture value from ideas and technologies--wherever in the world they are found.

2,004 citations


"CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Fin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(4) What has yet to be accomplished is the application of open innovation at the industry level rather than the company level, a strategy most appropriate when a common industry-wide solution is beneficial to the public – as is the case with vehicles and fuels....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Many believe the electric power system is undergoing a profound change driven by a number of needs. There's the need for environmental compliance and energy conservation. We need better grid reliability while dealing with an aging infrastructure. And we need improved operational effi ciencies and customer service. The changes that are happening are particularly signifi cant for the electricity distribution grid, where "blind" and manual operations, along with the electromechanical components, will need to be transformed into a "smart grid." This transformation will be necessary to meet environmental targets, to accommodate a greater emphasis on demand response (DR), and to support plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as distributed generation and storage capabilities. It is safe to say that these needs and changes present the power industry with the biggest challenge it has ever faced. On one hand, the transition to a smart grid has to be evolutionary to keep the lights on; on the other hand, the issues surrounding the smart grid are signifi cant enough to demand major changes in power systems operating philosophy.

1,611 citations


"CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Fin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...And with smart grid technology, (11) any parking lot so equipped could become a marketplace where vehicles exchange electric energy with each other, with the grid, and with local renewable electric generation....

    [...]


Journal Article
Abstract: Overhaul your approach to innovation, or get out of the race. It's that simple-and that urgent.

805 citations


Journal Article
Abstract: As competition intensifies and profit margins shrink, managers are under overwhelming pressure to create value. Traditional prescriptions such as cost reduction, reengineering and outsourcing, while critically important, cannot solve the problem. The need to innovate is greater than ever, but the focus of innovation must change, say the authors. Managers are discovering that neither value nor innovation can any longer be successfully and sustainably generated through a company-centric, product-and-service-focused prism. By synthesizing societal trends and early experimentation in companies such as General Motors, LEGO and Medtronic, the authors paint a picture of the "next practices" of innovation in which the locus of value creation will inevitably shift from products and services to "experience environments." The intent of experience innovation is not to improve a product or service, per se, but to enable the co-creation of an environment in which personalized, evolvable experiences are the goal, and products and services are a means to that end. Profitable company growth will then result from individual consumers co-creating their own unique value, supported by a network of companies and consumer communities. From that perspective, say the authors, managers must learn to view existing and emerging technologies not as enhancers of products, features and functions, but as facilitators of experiences. They offer examples of how technological capabilities such as miniaturization, networked communication and adaptive learning are fostering experience innovation at companies such as Sony, Apple, Microsoft and TiVo, illustrating their contention that technology will be the key facilitator of the nascent trend toward experience innovation.

705 citations