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Book ChapterDOI

Cultural and Historical Values in Landscape Planning: Locals’ Perception

01 Jan 2003-pp 125-145
TL;DR: Culture is the hidden hand of land use planning as discussed by the authors, it marks the corners and edges of place; it selects which places will be sacred and which will be sacrificed; it yields maps of place and bestows place names; and it decides the aesthetics and ethics of the land.
Abstract: Culture is the hidden hand of land use planning. Culture bounds the land in diverse ways. Culture marks the corners and edges of place; it selects which places will be sacred and which will be sacrificed; it yields maps of place and bestows place names; and it decides the aesthetics and ethics of the land (Geisler 2000). Cultural heritage has been discussed by many authors of different disciplines for many decades (e.g. Meinig 1979; Lowenthal 1985; Daniels & Cosgrove 1988; Graham et al. 2000; Claval 2002; Maaranen 2003). The relationships between land use and culture are of perennial interest in such disciplines as cultural anthropology, human geography, natural history, landscape architecture and human ecology. In recent years also the landscape ecologists have started to realize the importance of cultural heritage and its role in the landscape planning process and landscape management, and a large number of works have been published in this field of research (Nassauer 1997; Stenseke 1999; Luz 2000; Oreszczyn 2000; Cantwell & Adams 2003; Fry 2003).
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that it is possible to identify indicators and match them with verifier variables to support inclusion of social and cultural values in planning.
Abstract: Policies on economic use of natural resources require considerations to social and cultural values. In order to make those concrete in a planning context, this paper aims to interpret social and cultural criteria, identify indicators, match these with verifier variables and visualize them on maps. Indicators were selected from a review of scholarly work and natural resource policies, and then matched with verifier variables available for Sweden’s 290 municipalities. Maps of the spatial distribution of four social and four cultural verifier variables were then produced. Consideration of social and cultural values in the studied natural resource use sectors was limited. The spatial distribution of the verifier variables exhibited a general divide between northwest and south Sweden, and regional rural and urban areas. We conclude that it is possible to identify indicators and match them with verifier variables to support inclusion of social and cultural values in planning.

179 citations


Cites background from "Cultural and Historical Values in L..."

  • ...Applied research on cultural values is most often associated with cultural heritage objects and cultural landscapes, described as the ‘‘bearers of the place identity, or genius loci’’ (Dramstad et al. 2001; Aluame et al. 2003)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that Central and Eastern European landscapes are much more diverse in time (layers) than Western European ones, and that this diversity reduces the readability of landscapes, creating miscommunication and a transformation of meanings.
Abstract: Interactions between nature and man – the underlying forces in landscape – have over time caused diversity. Usually, geographers and landscape ecologists deal with spatial diversity; in this paper, we would like to also consider temporal diversity. We argue that Central and Eastern European landscapes (using the examples of Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia) are much more diverse in time (layers) than Western European ones. This difference requires the use of different indicators in order to measure and study landscapes and special problems, threats, and possibilities of management and future development – but most important is the consideration of different perceptions. We also show that this diversity reduces the readability of landscapes, creating miscommunication and a transformation of meanings. We further argue that the link between humans and landscape is lost in Central and Eastern European countries due to temporal diversity, and that this link will be created anew in a globalizing world. To overcome alienation, we need slightly different classifications/typologies for each country in this region, with the aim of a sound future management of cultural landscapes.

131 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an empirical study was conducted in areas of intensive agricultural use in Quebec (Canada) to measure and compare the ability of an expert-based approach and of a lay people based approach, also named experiential approach, to capture the most valued components of ordinary landscapes.

120 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors give an overview of how place meanings are created and how they influence people's sense of belonging, and the authors suggest that these different perspectives need to be united in order to fully grasp the character of place making and place meanings.
Abstract: This article aims to give an overview of how place meanings are created and how they influence people’s sense of belonging. It should be noted that the current literature has various shortcomings which mostly result from the lack of interdisciplinary research. The studies in place attachment usually focus on personal sense of belonging leaving aside those extending over various scales – such as, for instance, national identity. Also, place meanings and identity are primarily discussed as the very personal phenomena. On the contrary, place making and shaping is usually seen through more structural viewpoint by claiming that places mainly change in result of political or economic processes. Nowadays, there are even claims that due to the influx of globalization place no more matters and similar processes will happen everywhere. This notion does not take into account the special character of every place and the fact that outside forces come together in different ways in every place. Authors suggest that these different perspectives need to be united in order to fully grasp the character of place making and place meanings. In current articles, authors have adopted the multi-disciplinary approach and understood the place as uniting different processes starting from deeply personal meaning creation and ending with changes happening in global scale.

58 citations


Cites background from "Cultural and Historical Values in L..."

  • ...For lay people landscape is often too large a concept and they prefer to speak about places (see Soini, 2001; Alumäe et al., 2003; Kaur et al., 2004, etc.). Hence it might be useful to look across the disciplinary boundaries and see what has been achieved in other realms in the field of place studies. Various authors have discussed over the importance of involving place meanings and attachment to participatory planning (Selman, 2006; Manzo and Perkins, 2006, etc.). Manzo (2003) argues, that when understanding place meanings the roots of some community conflicts can be manifested. There is a body of substantiated literature (see Yuen, 2005; Cook et al., 2007; Fried, 2000; Daniel and Vining, 1983) which also stresses on the need to more closely relate place attachment studies in participatory planning by indicating various positive effects that such involvement has, for instance, the fact that place attachment increases residential satisfaction. However, one should also be aware of the calls by, e.g., Healey (1996) and (1998) to change the planning paradigm and move on to the collaborative discourse....

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  • ...For lay people landscape is often too large a concept and they prefer to speak about places (see Soini, 2001; Alumäe et al., 2003; Kaur et al., 2004, etc.)....

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  • ...For lay people landscape is often too large a concept and they prefer to speak about places (see Soini, 2001; Alumäe et al., 2003; Kaur et al., 2004, etc.). Hence it might be useful to look across the disciplinary boundaries and see what has been achieved in other realms in the field of place studies. Various authors have discussed over the importance of involving place meanings and attachment to participatory planning (Selman, 2006; Manzo and Perkins, 2006, etc.). Manzo (2003) argues, that when understanding place meanings the roots of some community conflicts can be manifested....

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Dissertation
01 Jan 2004

38 citations


Cites background or methods from "Cultural and Historical Values in L..."

  • ...As noted by Alumäe et al. (2003) and Palang et al. (2004a), local people play a central role in identifying valuable landscapes in the study area....

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  • ...” The identity value is defined by Alumäe et al. (2003: 9) as the “ability of landscape to allow local people to delimit their territory, to identify themselves with landscape. /.../ Landscape identity also encompasses the concept of genius loci and knowledge about local oral heritage, such as story telling.” In other words, the nationwide identity value shows the authentic landscapes peculiar to that particular county in the context of the entire Estonia. The defining of the valuable landscapes of Saare County was launched in 2002 by the County Government. The outcomes of the project and the process of identifying places with identity value on Saaremaa have been reported by Merila (2003). During the project local governments were asked to express their opinions, since they are the ones who have the best knowledge of the domestic...

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  • ...Preference in the surveys was given to open questions, which would help to avoid the prejudices that can be caused by pre-given answers (Alumäe et al. 2003)....

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  • ...As noted by Alumäe et al. (2003) and Palang et al. (2004a), local people play a central role in identifying valuable landscapes in the study area. Being part of the working group of the Saare County plan Evaluating Valuable Cultural Landscapes of Saaremaa (2003), I conducted the questionnaire survey and processed the data received from it....

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  • ...At the same time, multiple studies on a synthesis of human and historical geography, in which landscape is read and interpreted as a form of cultural praxis, have been created (Peil 1999; Peil et al. 2002; Alumäe et al. 2003; Kaur 22 et al. 2004; Palang et al. 2003; Sooväli et al. 2003a, 2003b)....

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References
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01 Jan 1976

4,224 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the look of age and the benefits and burdens of the past are discussed in the context of anachronism and changing the past in an attempt to understand how we know the past.
Abstract: List of illustrations Introduction Part I. Wanting The Past: 1. Reliving the past: dreams and nightmares 2. Benefits and burdens of the past 3. Ancients vs. moderns 4. The look of age Part II. Knowing The Past: 5. How we know the past Part III. Changing The Past: 6. Changing the past 7. Creative anachronism Bibliography and citation index General index.

2,295 citations

Book
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1,520 citations

Book
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: Schama's "Search for his cultural origins in the landscape which surrounds him", a search which is as old as civilization itself, is described in this article, where Schama shows how each of the great European cultures imagined their woodlands in ways which spoke to their collective needs.
Abstract: Written by the author of "The Embarrassment of Riches" and "Citizens", this book is about man's search for his cultural origins in the landscape which surrounds him, a search which is as old as civilization itself Forests, rivers, mountains, islands - what meanings have men invested in them, and how have they in turn shaped men's imaginations? For example, in five opening chapters, Schama shows how each of the great European cultures imagined their woodlands in ways which spoke to their collective needs In Poland, the last great primeval forest in Europe, the woods represented liberty against the oppression of Russia and Germany In Germany, they represented the shrine of the Teutonic spirit In England, justice, the "King's Peace" under the greenwood In France, order In America, among the glades of the giant redwoods, the oldest living things in the world, the possibility of making a heaven on Earth

1,439 citations

Book
19 May 2011
TL;DR: Ong as mentioned in this paper argued that the interiorizing force of the oral word relates in a special way to the sacral, to the ultimate concerns of existence, and that hearing binds people together in community; vision isolates the individual vis-a-vis the world.
Abstract: and context-independent; and focused on persons rather than things. Hearing binds people together in community; vision isolates the individual vis-a-vis the world. Finally, ‘the interiorizing force of the oral word relates in a special way to the sacral, to the ultimate concerns of existence’. With the ascendancy of vision, however, religion gives way to secular science (Ong 1982: 73–4). 1 2 3 4 5

869 citations