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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-83938-Y

Curcumin promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and their protection against TNF-α through the activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ.

02 Mar 2021-Scientific Reports (Sci Rep)-Vol. 11, Iss: 1, pp 4952-4952
Abstract: Curcumin is a compound found in the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) with a large repertoire of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. The current study aims to assess the effects of this natural compound on oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) differentiation, particularly in inflammatory conditions. We found that curcumin can promote the differentiation of OPs and to counteract the maturation arrest of OPs induced by TNF-α by a mechanism involving PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor), a ligand-activated transcription factor with neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory capabilities. Furthermore, curcumin induces the phosphorylation of the protein kinase ERK1/2 known to regulate the transition from OPs to immature oligodendrocytes (OLs), by a mechanism only partially dependent on PPAR-γ. Curcumin is also able to raise the levels of the co-factor PGC1-α and of the cytochrome c oxidase core protein COX1, even when OPs are exposed to TNF-α, through a PPAR-γ-mediated mechanism, in line with the known ability of PPAR-γ to promote mitochondrial integrity and functions, which are crucial for OL differentiation to occur. Altogether, this study provides evidence for a further mechanism of action of curcumin besides its well-known anti-inflammatory properties and supports the suggested therapeutic potential of this nutraceutical in demyelinating diseases.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10061346
Icksoo Lee1Institutions (1)
29 May 2021-Cells
Abstract: Numerous naturally occurring molecules have been studied for their beneficial health effects. Many compounds have received considerable attention for their potential medical uses. Among them, several substances have been found to improve mitochondrial function. This review focuses on resveratrol, (-)-epicatechin, and betaine and summarizes the published data pertaining to their effects on cytochrome c oxidase (COX) which is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is considered to play an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration. In a variety of experimental model systems, these compounds have been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis in addition to increased COX amount and/or its enzymatic activity. Given that they are inexpensive, safe in a wide range of concentrations, and effectively improve mitochondrial and COX function, these compounds could be attractive enough for possible therapeutic or health improvement strategies.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIOX10081188
Fabiola Paciello1, Anna Pisani1, Rolando Rolesi1, Vincent Escarrat1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
26 Jul 2021-Antioxidants
Abstract: The cross-talk between oxidative stress and inflammation seems to play a key role in noise-induced hearing loss. Several studies have addressed the role of PPAR receptors in mediating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and, although its protective activity has been demonstrated in several tissues, less is known about how PPARs could be involved in cochlear dysfunction induced by noise exposure. In this study, we used an in vivo model of noise-induced hearing loss to investigate how oxidative stress and inflammation participate in cochlear dysfunction through PPAR signaling pathways. Specifically, we found a progressive decrease in PPAR expression in the cochlea after acoustic trauma, paralleled by an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation. By comparing an antioxidant (Q-ter) and an anti-inflammatory (Anakinra) treatment, we demonstrated that oxidative stress is the primary element of damage in noise-induced cochlear injury and that increased inflammation can be considered a consequence of PPAR down-regulation induced by ROS production. Indeed, by decreasing oxidative stress, PPARs returned to control values, reactivating the negative control on inflammation in a feedback loop.

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Topics: Oxidative stress (54%), Inflammation (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12035-021-02574-9
Abstract: Glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia) are critical for the central nervous system (CNS) in both physiological and pathological conditions. With this in mind, several studies have indicated that glial cells play key roles in the development and progression of CNS diseases. In this sense, gliotoxicity can be referred as the cellular, molecular, and neurochemical changes that can mediate toxic effects or ultimately lead to impairment of the ability of glial cells to protect neurons and/or other glial cells. On the other hand, glioprotection is associated with specific responses of glial cells, by which they can protect themselves as well as neurons, resulting in an overall improvement of the CNS functioning. In addition, gliotoxic events, including metabolic stresses, inflammation, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress, as well as their related mechanisms, are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of neurological, psychiatric and infectious diseases. However, glioprotective molecules can prevent or improve these glial dysfunctions, representing glial cells-targeting therapies. Therefore, this review will provide a brief summary of types and functions of glial cells and point out cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with gliotoxicity and glioprotection, potential glioprotective molecules and their mechanisms, as well as gliotherapy. In summary, we expect to address the relevance of gliotoxicity and glioprotection in the CNS homeostasis and diseases.

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Topics: Microglia (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.12688/F1000RESEARCH.74198.1
22 Nov 2021-F1000Research
Abstract: Background: Foam cells are markers of atherosclerosis and characterise advanced atherosclerotic plaque, stimulated by inflammation caused by high lipid levels in macrophages. The combination of decaffeinated coffee and green tea extract (DCGTE) has been suggested to have a role in foam cell inhibition. Objective : we investigated the inhibiting role of DCGTE against foam cell formation, through modulation of the inflammation process and cholesterol metabolism in macrophage colony stimulating factor- (M-CSF) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-exposed macrophages. Methods : Coffee and green tea were extracted by filtration and infusion respectively, and underwent decaffeination using active carbon and blanching methods, respectively. Cells were administered 160/160 and 320/320μg/ml of DCGTE. Foam cell formation was observed using a light microscope after staining with Oil Red O (ORO), and the accumulation of lipids in macrophages with ELISA. Observations of lipid influx and efflux were determined through semiquantitative cluster differentiation 36 (CD36) and ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression through immunofluorescence. The inflammation process was quantified using inflammatory/anti-inflammatory markers, e.g., tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 10 (IL10) with ELISA. Peroxisome proliferator activated response γ (PPARγ) expression and activity were assessed with PCR and ELISA, respectively. The expression of microRNA 155 (miR-155) was examined using qPCR. Results: DCGTE at the above concentrations tended to reduce foam cell numbers, significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (p=0.000), reduced CD36 expression (p=0.000) and TNFα secretion (p=0.000) in Raw264.7 exposed to M-CSF 50ng/ml and oxLDL 50μg/ml. PPARγ expression (p=0.00) and activity (p=0.001), miR-155 relative expression (p=0.000), and IL10 production (p=0.000) also increased. Conclusion: DCGTE lowered foam cell numbers, possibly through attenuation of the inflammatory process and improvement of lipid/efflux mechanisms in M-CSF and oxLDL-stimulated Raw264.7 cells, via upregulation of PPARγ and miR-155. Our results suggest DCGTE may help prevent atherosclerosis-based diseases.

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Topics: Foam cell (62%), Green tea extract (54%), Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (53%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNCEL.2021.777542
Peter Göttle1, Kira Schichel1, Laura Reiche1, Luisa Werner1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Myelin repair in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is driven by successful differentiation of resident oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) and thus constitutes a neuroregenerative process capable to compensate for functional deficits upon loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths as it is observed in multiple sclerosis (MS). The human endogenous retrovirus type W (HERV-W) represents a MS specific pathogenic entity and its envelope (ENV) protein was previously identified as negative regulator of OPC maturation – hence of relevance in the context of diminished myelin repair. We here focused on the activity of the ENV protein and investigated how it can be neutralized for an improved remyelination. ENV mediated activation of TLR4 increases inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, prompts nitrosative stress and results in myelin-associated deficits including decreased levels of oligodendroglial maturation marker expression and morphological alterations. Intervention of TLR4 surface expression represents a potential means to rescue such ENV dependent deficits. To this end, the rescue capacity of specific substances, either modulating V-ATPase activity or myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2) mediated TLR4 glycosylation status, such as compound 20 (C20), L48H437 or folimycin were analyzed, as these processes were demonstrated to be relevant for TLR4 surface expression. We found that pharmacological treatment can rescue the maturation arrest of oligodendroglial cells and their myelination capacity, and can prevent iNOS induction in the presence of the ENV protein. In addition, downregulation of TLR4 surface expression was observed. Furthermore, mitochondrial integrity crucial for oligodendroglial cell differentiation was affected in the presence of ENV and ameliorated upon pharmacological treatment. Our study therefore provides novel insights into possible means to overcome myelination deficits associated with HERV-W ENV mediated myelin deficits.

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Topics: Remyelination (55%), Myelin (53%)

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53 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PATH.2287
Abstract: TNF was originally described as a circulating factor that can cause necrosis of tumours, but has since been identified as a key regulator of the inflammatory response This review describes the known signalling pathways and cell biological effects of TNF, and our understanding of the role of TNF in human disease TNF interacts with two different receptors, designated TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are differentially expressed on cells and tissues and initiate both distinct and overlapping signal transduction pathways These diverse signalling cascades lead to a range of cellular responses, which include cell death, survival, differentiation, proliferation and migration Vascular endothelial cells respond to TNF by undergoing a number of pro-inflammatory changes, which increase leukocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration and vascular leak and promote thrombosis The central role of TNF in inflammation has been demonstrated by the ability of agents that block the action of TNF to treat a range of inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis The increased incidence of infection in patients receiving anti-TNF treatment has highlighted the physiological role of TNF in infectious diseases

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Topics: Cytokine (57%), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (56%), Inflammation (54%) ... read more

1,435 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-46401-5_1
Abstract: Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 Bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to curcumin. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses. These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multitargeted therapy is better than monotargeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life".

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Topics: Curcumin (55%), Curcuma (54%)

1,348 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CANLET.2008.03.025
18 Aug 2008-Cancer Letters
Abstract: Cancer is primarily a disease of old age, and that life style plays a major role in the development of most cancers is now well recognized. While plant-based formulations have been used to treat cancer for centuries, current treatments usually involve poisonous mustard gas, chemotherapy, radiation, and targeted therapies. While traditional plant-derived medicines are safe, what are the active principles in them and how do they mediate their effects against cancer is perhaps best illustrated by curcumin, a derivative of turmeric used for centuries to treat a wide variety of inflammatory conditions. Curcumin is a diferuloylmethane derived from the Indian spice, turmeric (popularly called "curry powder") that has been shown to interfere with multiple cell signaling pathways, including cell cycle (cyclin D1 and cyclin E), apoptosis (activation of caspases and down-regulation of antiapoptotic gene products), proliferation (HER-2, EGFR, and AP-1), survival (PI3K/AKT pathway), invasion (MMP-9 and adhesion molecules), angiogenesis (VEGF), metastasis (CXCR-4) and inflammation (NF-kappaB, TNF, IL-6, IL-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX). The activity of curcumin reported against leukemia and lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, genitourinary cancers, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, melanoma, neurological cancers, and sarcoma reflects its ability to affect multiple targets. Thus an "old-age" disease such as cancer requires an "age-old" treatment.

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Topics: Cancer (64%), Metastasis (60%), Ovarian cancer (54%) ... read more

939 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE07206
24 Jul 2008-Nature
Abstract: Inadequate physical activity is linked to many chronic diseases. But the mechanisms that tie muscle activity to health are unclear. The transcriptional coactivator PGC1alpha has recently been shown to regulate several exercise-associated aspects of muscle function. We propose that this protein controls muscle plasticity, suppresses a broad inflammatory response and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise.

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Topics: Physical exercise (52%), Inflammation (51%)

868 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CYTO.A.20896
Jeremy Adler1, Ingela Parmryd1Institutions (1)
01 Aug 2010-Cytometry Part A
Abstract: The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and the Mander's overlap coefficient (MOC) are used to quantify the degree of colocalization between fluorophores. The MOC was introduced to overcome perceived problems with the PCC. The two coefficients are mathematically similar, differing in the use of either the absolute intensities (MOC) or of the deviation from the mean (PCC). A range of correlated datasets, which extend to the limits of the PCC, only evoked a limited response from the MOC. The PCC is unaffected by changes to the offset while the MOC increases when the offset is positive. Both coefficients are independent of gain. The MOC is a confusing hybrid measurement, that combines correlation with a heavily weighted form of co-occurrence, favors high intensity combinations, downplays combinations in which either or both intensities are low and ignores blank pixels. The PCC only measures correlation. A surprising finding was that the addition of a second uncorrelated population can substantially increase the measured correlation, demonstrating the importance of excluding background pixels. Overall, since the MOC is unresponsive to substantial changes in the data and is hard to interpret, it is neither an alternative to nor a useful substitute for the PCC. The MOC is not suitable for making measurements of colocalization either by correlation or co-occurrence.

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548 Citations


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