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Journal ArticleDOI

Cutting-edge terahertz technology

01 Feb 2007-Nature Photonics (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 1, Iss: 2, pp 97-105

Abstract: Research into terahertz technology is now receiving increasing attention around the world, and devices exploiting this waveband are set to become increasingly important in a very diverse range of applications. Here, an overview of the status of the technology, its uses and its future prospects are presented.
Topics: Terahertz gap (53%), Photomixing (51%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Virendra Singh1, Daeha Joung1, Lei Zhai1, Soumen Das1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Graphene, a two dimensional monoatomic thick building block of a carbon allotrope, has emerged as an exotic material of the 21st century, and received world-wide attention due to its exceptional charge transport, thermal, optical, and mechanical properties. Graphene and its derivatives are being studied in nearly every field of science and engineering. Recent progress has shown that the graphene-based materials can have a profound impact on electronic and optoelectronic devices, chemical sensors, nanocomposites and energy storage. The aim of this review article is to provide a comprehensive scientific progress of graphene to date and evaluate its future perspective. Various synthesis processes of single layer graphene, graphene nanoribbons, chemically derived graphene, and graphene-based polymer and nano particle composites are reviewed. Their structural, thermal, optical, and electrical properties were also discussed along with their potential applications. The article concludes with a brief discussion on the impact of graphene and related materials on the environment, its toxicological effects and its future prospects in this rapidly emerging field.

2,776 citations


Cites background from "Cutting-edge terahertz technology"

  • ...hertz technology [191], infrared nanophotonics [192], pseudospintronics [193], and laser....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview and evaluation of state-of-the-art photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials, and hybrid systems based on the combination of differentTwo-dimensional crystals or of two- dimensional crystals and other (nano)materials, such as plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductors, quantum dots, or their integration with (silicon) waveguides are provided.
Abstract: Graphene and other two-dimensional materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, have rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for optoelectronic applications, with a strong focus on various photodetection platforms The versatility of these material systems enables their application in areas including ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and terahertz frequency ranges These detectors can be integrated with other photonic components based on the same material, as well as with silicon photonic and electronic technologies Here, we provide an overview and evaluation of state-of-the-art photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials, and hybrid systems based on the combination of different two-dimensional crystals or of two-dimensional crystals and other (nano)materials, such as plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductors, quantum dots, or their integration with (silicon) waveguides

2,458 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
04 Mar 2015-Nanoscale
TL;DR: An overview of the key aspects of graphene and related materials, ranging from fundamental research challenges to a variety of applications in a large number of sectors, highlighting the steps necessary to take GRMs from a state of raw potential to a point where they might revolutionize multiple industries are provided.
Abstract: We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European Graphene Flagship and outlines the main targets and research areas as best understood at the start of this ambitious project. We provide an overview of the key aspects of graphene and related materials (GRMs), ranging from fundamental research challenges to a variety of applications in a large number of sectors, highlighting the steps necessary to take GRMs from a state of raw potential to a point where they might revolutionize multiple industries. We also define an extensive list of acronyms in an effort to standardize the nomenclature in this emerging field.

2,215 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2010-Nature Photonics
Abstract: Although silicon has dominated solid-state electronics for more than four decades, a variety of other materials are used in photonic devices to expand the wavelength range of operation and improve performance. For example, gallium-nitride based materials enable light emission at blue and ultraviolet wavelengths1, and high index contrast silicon-on-insulator facilitates ultradense photonic devices2,3. Here, we report the first use of a photodetector based on graphene4,5, a two-dimensional carbon material, in a 10 Gbit s−1 optical data link. In this interdigitated metal–graphene–metal photodetector, an asymmetric metallization scheme is adopted to break the mirror symmetry of the internal electric-field profile in conventional graphene field-effect transistor channels6,7,8,9, allowing for efficient photodetection. A maximum external photoresponsivity of 6.1 mA W−1 is achieved at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. Owing to the unique band structure of graphene10,11 and extensive developments in graphene electronics12,13 and wafer-scale synthesis13, graphene-based integrated electronic–photonic circuits with an operational wavelength range spanning 300 nm to 6 µm (and possibly beyond) can be expected in the future. A graphene-based photodetector with unprecedented photoresponsivity and the ability to perform error-free detection of 10 Gbit s−1s data streams is demonstrated. The results suggest that graphene-based photonic devices have a bright future in telecommunications and other optical applications.

1,982 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Benjamin S. Williams1Institutions (1)
01 Sep 2007-Nature Photonics
Abstract: Six years after their birth, terahertz quantum-cascade lasers can now deliver milliwatts or more of continuous-wave coherent radiation throughout the terahertz range — the spectral regime between millimetre and infrared wavelengths, which has long resisted development. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and future prospects for these lasers, including efforts to increase their operating temperatures, deliver higher output powers and emit longer wavelengths.

1,331 citations


References
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PatentDOI
28 Aug 2001-Science
Abstract: The invention concerns a quantum cascade laser comprising in particular a gain region (14) consisting of several layers (20) each including: alternating strata of a first type (28) defining each an AllnAs quantum barrier and strata of a second type (28) defining each an InGaAs quantum barrier, and injection barriers (22), interposed between two of the layers (20). The layers of the gain region (14) form each an active zone extending from one to the other of the injection barriers (22) adjacent thereto. The strata (26, 28) are dimensioned such that: each of the wells comprises, in the presence of an electric field, at least a first upper subband, a second median subband, and a third lower subband, and the probability of an electron being present in the first subband is highest in the proximity of one of the adjacent injection barriers, in the second subband in the median part of the zone and in the third subband in the proximity of the other adjacent barriers. The laser is formed by a succession of active zones and injection barriers, without interposition of a relaxation zone.

3,910 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Bradley Ferguson1, Xi-Cheng Zhang1Institutions (1)
01 Sep 2002-Nature Materials
TL;DR: Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging provide a powerful tool for the characterization of a broad range of materials, including semiconductors and biomolecules, as well as novel, higher-power terahertz sources.
Abstract: Terahertz spectroscopy systems use far-infrared radiation to extract molecular spectral information in an otherwise inaccessible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Materials research is an essential component of modern terahertz systems: novel, higher-power terahertz sources rely heavily on new materials such as quantum cascade structures. At the same time, terahertz spectroscopy and imaging provide a powerful tool for the characterization of a broad range of materials, including semiconductors and biomolecules.

2,390 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
R. Kohler1, Alessandro Tredicucci1, Fabio Beltram1, Harvey E. Beere2  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
09 May 2002-Nature
TL;DR: A monolithic terahertz injection laser that is based on interminiband transitions in the conduction band of a semiconductor (GaAs/AlGaAs) heterostructure is reported, which is very promising for extending the present laser concept to continuous-wave and high-temperature operation, which would lead to implementation in practical photonic systems.
Abstract: Semiconductor devices have become indispensable for generating electromagnetic radiation in everyday applications. Visible and infrared diode lasers are at the core of information technology, and at the other end of the spectrum, microwave and radio-frequency emitters enable wireless communications. But the terahertz region (1-10 THz; 1 THz = 10(12) Hz) between these ranges has remained largely underdeveloped, despite the identification of various possible applications--for example, chemical detection, astronomy and medical imaging. Progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of compact, low-consumption, solid-state terahertz sources. Here we report a monolithic terahertz injection laser that is based on interminiband transitions in the conduction band of a semiconductor (GaAs/AlGaAs) heterostructure. The prototype demonstrated emits a single mode at 4.4 THz, and already shows high output powers of more than 2 mW with low threshold current densities of about a few hundred A cm(-2) up to 50 K. These results are very promising for extending the present laser concept to continuous-wave and high-temperature operation, which would lead to implementation in practical photonic systems.

2,284 citations


R. Kohler1, Alessandro Tredicucci1, Fabio Beltram1, Harvey E. Beere2  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Jan 2003-
Abstract: Semiconductor devices have become indispensable for generating electromagnetic radiation in everyday applications. Visible and infrared diode lasers are at the core of information technology, and at the other end of the spectrum, microwave and radio-frequency emitters enable wireless communications. But the terahertz region (1-10 THz; 1 THz = 10(12) Hz) between these ranges has remained largely underdeveloped, despite the identification of various possible applications--for example, chemical detection, astronomy and medical imaging. Progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of compact, low-consumption, solid-state terahertz sources. Here we report a monolithic terahertz injection laser that is based on interminiband transitions in the conduction band of a semiconductor (GaAs/AlGaAs) heterostructure. The prototype demonstrated emits a single mode at 4.4 THz, and already shows high output powers of more than 2 mW with low threshold current densities of about a few hundred A cm(-2) up to 50 K. These results are very promising for extending the present laser concept to continuous-wave and high-temperature operation, which would lead to implementation in practical photonic systems.

2,132 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
06 Oct 2003-Optics Express
TL;DR: A novel basic technology for terahertz imaging is developed, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis.
Abstract: The absence of non-destructive inspection techniques for illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes has resulted in such drugs being smuggled across international borders freely. We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz imaging, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the targets are obtained from terahertz multispectral transillumination images, using absorption spectra measured with a tunable terahertz-wave source. The samples we used were methamphetamine and MDMA, two of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in Japan, and aspirin as a reference.

1,192 citations


Network Information
Related Papers (5)
01 Sep 2002, Nature Materials

Bradley Ferguson, Xi-Cheng Zhang

09 May 2002, Nature

R. Kohler, Alessandro Tredicucci +7 more

01 Sep 2007, Nature Photonics

Benjamin S. Williams

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2021368
2020406
2019472
2018399
2017438