01 Apr 2006-
TL;DR: Advances in understanding and treatment of cystic fibrosis are summarized, focusing on pulmonary disease, which accounts for most morbidity and deaths.
Abstract: Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in white people, with a frequency of about 1 in 2500 livebirths. Discovery of the mutated gene encoding a defective chloride channel in epithelial cells--named cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)--has improved our understanding of the disorder's pathophysiology and has aided diagnosis, but has shown the disease's complexity. Gene replacement therapy is still far from being used in patients with cystic fibrosis, mostly because of difficulties of targeting the appropriate cells. Life expectancy of patients with the disorder has been greatly increased over past decades because of better notions of symptomatic treatment strategies. Here, we summarise advances in understanding and treatment of cystic fibrosis, focusing on pulmonary disease, which accounts for most morbidity and deaths.
TL;DR: This review summarizes the current knowledge of RPE functions and describes how failure of these functions causes loss of visual function.
Abstract: Located between vessels of the choriocapillaris and light-sensitive outer segments of the photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) closely interacts with photoreceptors in the maintenance of visual function. Increasing knowledge of the multiple functions performed by the RPE improved the understanding of many diseases leading to blindness. This review summarizes the current knowledge of RPE functions and describes how failure of these functions causes loss of visual function. Mutations in genes that are expressed in the RPE can lead to photoreceptor degeneration. On the other hand, mutations in genes expressed in photoreceptors can lead to degenerations of the RPE. Thus both tissues can be regarded as a functional unit where both interacting partners depend on each other.
TL;DR: Linda Nici, Claudio Donner, Emiel Wouters, Richard Zuwallack, Nicolino Ambrosino, Jean Bourbeau, Mauro Carone, Bartolome Celli, Marielle Engelen, Bonnie Fahy, Chris Garvey, Roger Goldstein, Rik Gosselink, Suzanne Lareau, Neil MacIntyre, Francois Maltais, Mike Morgan, Denis O’Donnell, Christian Prefault, Jane Reardon, Carolyn Rochester
Abstract: Linda Nici, Claudio Donner, Emiel Wouters, Richard Zuwallack, Nicolino Ambrosino, Jean Bourbeau, Mauro Carone, Bartolome Celli, Marielle Engelen, Bonnie Fahy, Chris Garvey, Roger Goldstein, Rik Gosselink, Suzanne Lareau, Neil MacIntyre, Francois Maltais, Mike Morgan, Denis O’Donnell, Christian Prefault, Jane Reardon, Carolyn Rochester, Annemie Schols, Sally Singh, and Thierry Troosters, on behalf of the ATS/ERS Pulmonary Rehabilitation Writing Committee
Seattle Children's1, National Health Service2, Beaumont Hospital3, University of Toronto4, University of Queensland5, Charles University in Prague6, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich7, University College Dublin8, Case Western Reserve University9, Stanford University10, University of Paris11, University of Alabama at Birmingham12, Vertex Pharmaceuticals13, Queen's University Belfast14
TL;DR: Ivacaftor was associated with improvements in lung function at 2 weeks that were sustained through 48 weeks and substantial improvements were also observed in the risk of pulmonary exacerbations, patient-reported respiratory symptoms, weight, and concentration of sweat chloride.
Abstract: Background Increasing the activity of defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a potential treatment for cystic fibrosis. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate ivacaftor (VX-770), a CFTR potentiator, in subjects 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis and at least one G551D-CFTR mutation. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 150 mg of ivacaftor every 12 hours (84 subjects, of whom 83 received at least one dose) or placebo (83, of whom 78 received at least one dose) for 48 weeks. The primary end point was the estimated mean change from baseline through week 24 in the percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Results The change from baseline through week 24 in the percent of predicted FEV1 was greater by 10.6 percentage points in the ivacaftor group than in the placebo group (P<0.001). Effects on pulmonary function were noted by 2 weeks, and a significant treatment effect was maintained...
TL;DR: These data show that lumacaftor in combination with ivacaftors provided a benefit for patients with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation.
Abstract: A total of 1108 patients underwent randomization and received study drug. The mean baseline FEV 1 was 61% of the predicted value. In both studies, there were significant improvements in the primary end point in both lumacaftor–ivacaftor dose groups; the difference between active treatment and placebo with respect to the mean absolute improvement in the percentage of predicted FEV 1 ranged from 2.6 to 4.0 percentage points (P<0.001), which corresponded to a mean relative treatment difference of 4.3 to 6.7% (P<0.001). Pooled analyses showed that the rate of pulmonary exacerbations was 30 to 39% lower in the lumacaftor–ivacaftor groups than in the placebo group; the rate of events leading to hospitalization or the use of intravenous antibiotics was lower in the lumacaftor–ivacaftor groups as well. The incidence of adverse events was generally similar in the lumacaftor–ivacaftor and placebo groups. The rate of discontinuation due to an adverse event was 4.2% among patients who received lumacaftor–ivacaftor versus 1.6% among those who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS These data show that lumacaftor in combination with ivacaftor provided a benefit for patients with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and others; TRAFFIC and TRANSPORT ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01807923 and NCT01807949.)
TL;DR: The CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system is used to correct the CFTR locus by homologous recombination in cultured intestinal stem cells of CF patients and the corrected allele is expressed and fully functional as measured in clonally expanded organoids.
Abstract: Single murine and human intestinal stem cells can be expanded in culture over long time periods as genetically and phenotypically stable epithelial organoids Increased cAMP levels induce rapid swelling of such organoids by opening the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor receptor (CFTR) This response is lost in organoids derived from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients Here we use the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system to correct the CFTR locus by homologous recombination in cultured intestinal stem cells of CF patients The corrected allele is expressed and fully functional as measured in clonally expanded organoids This study provides proof of concept for gene correction by homologous recombination in primary adult stem cells derived from patients with a single-gene hereditary defect
TL;DR: It is now clear that CFTR genotype alone does not account for the wide diversity in CF pulmonary phenotype and evidence is accumulating that secondary genetic factors separate from the CFTR locus significantly influence the severity of CF lung disease.
Abstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and is characterized by progressive bronchiectatic lung disease and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. A broad spectrum of disease severity exists; some individuals with CF die early in childhood, whereas others live well into adulthood with only mild lung disease. It is now clear that CFTR genotype alone does not account for the wide diversity in CF pulmonary phenotype. Evidence is accumulating that secondary genetic factors separate from the CFTR locus significantly influence the severity of CF lung disease. The general classes of these potential modifier genes include inflammatory and antiinflammatory mediators, antioxidants, mediators of airway reactivity, molecules involved in CFTR trafficking, and alternative ion channels. The best-studied CF candidate modifiers include mannose-binding lectin, glutathione- S -transferase, transforming growth factor-β1, tumor necrosis factor-α, β2-adrenegic receptor, and HLA class II antigens. Ongoing studies designed to identify genetic modifiers of CF pulmonary phenotype may offer new insights into the pathophysiology of CF lung disease and provide leads for new CF therapeutic interventions. (J Lab Clin Med 2003;141:237-41)
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What did Dorothy Anderson do to discover cystic fibrosis?
Dorothy Anderson did not discover cystic fibrosis. The mutated gene encoding a defective chloride channel in epithelial cells was discovered.