Abstract: Male and female Wistar rats were fed bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) at 0, 5, 20, 80, or 320 mg/kg diet for 4 weeks. Clinical signs and decreases in feed and water consumption were observed in the 80 and 320 mg/kg groups. The serum transferase activities (alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase were increased at 20 (males only), 80, and 320 mg/kg. The serum glucose and liver glycogen concentrations were lowered in the 320 mg/kg group. At 80 and 320 mg/kg the serum IgG level was reduced and IgM level was increased. Compared to controls the mean relative weight of the thymus was decreased at 20 (males), 80, and 320 mg/kg. In the groups receiving 80 or 320 mg/kg microcytic anemia was found. The white blood cell counts were decreased, due to the reduction in the number of lymphocytes in the 80 (males) and 320 mg/kg groups. The concentration of neutrophilic granulocytes was increased in the highest dose group. Histopathologic effects included a dose-related lymphocyte depletion of thymic cortex and of T lymphocytes in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. In the spleen also depletion of iron stores was found, and in the medullary sinuses of mesenteric lymph nodes, rosettes of erythrocytes were found around mononuclear cells; the occurrence of rosettes increased with dose from 5 to 80 mg/kg, and appeared to be the most sensitive parameter. A low incidence of areas of liver necrosis with inflammatory reaction and bile duct hyperplasia was found in the 320 mg/kg group. A viral or bacterial etiology could not be demonstrated for these liver lesions, but they appeared associated with TBTO-induced ulcerative inflammation of the common bile duct as shown in an additional study. In 6-week studies exposure of male weanlings to the 0, 20, and 80 mg/kg diets, the serum insulin concentration in the treated groups was decreased, although the response to glucose challenge was unaffected. The serum thyroxin and thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were reduced, whereas the luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration was increased in the 80 mg/kg group. The concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and corticosterone were not changed. The release of LH and FSH was enhanced in the 80 mg/kg group and a tendency toward reduced release was found for TSH. Using immunocytochemistry a dose-related reduction was found in the number and staining intensity of TSH-producing cells in the pituitary, correlating with histopathologically decreased activity of the thyroid. On the other hand, a dose-related increase was seen in the number of cells staining strongly for luteinizing hormone. No effect was observed on FSH, growth hormone and adrenocorticotropin-producing cells, nor on the pancreatic insulin and glucagon-producing cells. In tissues, a dose-dependent increase of the total tin concentration was found, with the highest residues in liver and kidney. Residues in adipose tissue and brain were 5–10 times lower. From these studies it is concluded that low-dose dietary TBTO exposure induces atrophy of the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs, depletion of splenic iron stores, erythrocyte rosettes in mesenteric lymph nodes, decreased activity of the pituitary-thyroid axis, and increased LH immunoreactivity and secretion.