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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Data security

09 Apr 1979-pp 154-154
TL;DR: The need for computer security has grown every year since the creation of computer systems, but yet with such a high demand, there are many systems that are, by no means, adecuetly protected.
Abstract: The need for computer security has grown every year since the creation of computer systems, but yet with such a high demand, there are many systems that are, by no means, adecuetly protected.This paper will discuss the three classes of vulnerabilities of security. The three classes are: those that threaten the physical integrity of the computer installation and its data, those that threaten the loss or compromise of the data from outside the computersite, and those that threaten loss or compromise of data from inside the computer site.The chief physical risk to a computer site is fire, acts of sabotage, industrial accidents, natural disasters, and mechanical or electrial malfunction of the computer system. Outside threats are those people who do not work for a particular firm, but yet wish to gain information about it that is not readily accessible to them. Inside threats come from employees who wish to compromise the computer system weither for gain, accident, or past time. Each one of these topics will be dealt withThe next part of the paper deals with the subject of setting up a security program. The first step in this subject is the study to access the probability of an event occuring, and determining it as either fatal to the business, very serious, moderately serious, relatively unimportant, or seriousness unknown. Some of the security techniques of checks and tests on the system are then discused.
Citations
More filters
01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: In this paper, the main definitions relating to dependability, a generic concept including a special case of such attributes as reliability, availability, safety, integrity, maintainability, etc.
Abstract: This paper gives the main definitions relating to dependability, a generic concept including a special case of such attributes as reliability, availability, safety, integrity, maintainability, etc. Security brings in concerns for confidentiality, in addition to availability and integrity. Basic definitions are given first. They are then commented upon, and supplemented by additional definitions, which address the threats to dependability and security (faults, errors, failures), their attributes, and the means for their achievement (fault prevention, fault tolerance, fault removal, fault forecasting). The aim is to explicate a set of general concepts, of relevance across a wide range of situations and, therefore, helping communication and cooperation among a number of scientific and technical communities, including ones that are concentrating on particular types of system, of system failures, or of causes of system failures.

4,335 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using an analogy between product manufacturing and data manufacturing, this paper develops a framework for analyzing data quality research, and uses it as the basis for organizing the data quality literature.
Abstract: Organizational databases are pervaded with data of poor quality. However, there has not been an analysis of the data quality literature that provides an overall understanding of the state-of-art research in this area. Using an analogy between product manufacturing and data manufacturing, this paper develops a framework for analyzing data quality research, and uses it as the basis for organizing the data quality literature. This framework consists of seven elements: management responsibilities, operation and assurance costs, research and development, production, distribution, personnel management, and legal function. The analysis reveals that most research efforts focus on operation and assurance costs, research and development, and production of data products. Unexplored research topics and unresolved issues are identified and directions for future research provided. >

694 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the basic concepts behind access control design and enforcement are investigated, and different security requirements that may need to be taken into consideration, and several access control policies and models formalizing them are discussed.
Abstract: Access control is the process of mediating every request to resources and data maintained by a system and determining whether the request should be granted or denied. The access control decision is enforced by a mechanism implementing regulations established by a security policy. Different access control policies can be applied, corresponding to different criteria for defining what should, and what should not, be allowed, and, in some sense, to different definitions of what ensuring security means. In this chapter we investigate the basic concepts behind access control design and enforcement, and point out different security requirements that may need to be taken into consideration. We discuss several access control policies, and models formalizing them, that have been proposed in the literature or that are currently under investigation.

639 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review introduces future innovations and a research agenda for cloud computing supporting the transformation of the volume, velocity, variety and veracity into values of Big Data for local to global digital earth science and applications.
Abstract: Big Data has emerged in the past few years as a new paradigm providing abundant data and opportunities to improve and/or enable research and decision-support applications with unprecedented value for digital earth applications including business, sciences and engineering. At the same time, Big Data presents challenges for digital earth to store, transport, process, mine and serve the data. Cloud computing provides fundamental support to address the challenges with shared computing resources including computing, storage, networking and analytical software; the application of these resources has fostered impressive Big Data advancements. This paper surveys the two frontiers – Big Data and cloud computing – and reviews the advantages and consequences of utilizing cloud computing to tackling Big Data in the digital earth and relevant science domains. From the aspects of a general introduction, sources, challenges, technology status and research opportunities, the following observations are offered: (i...

545 citations


Cites background from "Data security"

  • ...The increasing dependence on computers and Internet over the past decades makes businesses and individuals vulnerable to data breach and abuse (Denning and Denning 1979; Abraham and Paprzycki 2004; Redlich and Nemzow 2006)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper introduces data distortion by probability distribution, a probability distortion that involves three steps to identify the underlying density function of the original series and to estimate the parameters of this density function.
Abstract: This paper introduces data distortion by probability distribution, a probability distortion that involves three steps. The first step is to identify the underlying density function of the original series and to estimate the parameters of this density function. The second step is to generate a series of data from the estimated density function. And the final step is to map and replace the generated series for the original one. Because it is replaced by the distorted data set, probability distortion guards the privacy of an individual belonging to the original data set. At the same time, the probability distorted series provides asymptotically the same statistical properties as those of the original series, since both are under the same distribution. Unlike conventional point distortion, probability distortion is difficult to compromise by repeated queries, and provides a maximum exposure for statistical analysis.

215 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim is to explicate a set of general concepts, of relevance across a wide range of situations and, therefore, helping communication and cooperation among a number of scientific and technical communities, including ones that are concentrating on particular types of system, of system failures, or of causes of systems failures.
Abstract: This paper gives the main definitions relating to dependability, a generic concept including a special case of such attributes as reliability, availability, safety, integrity, maintainability, etc. Security brings in concerns for confidentiality, in addition to availability and integrity. Basic definitions are given first. They are then commented upon, and supplemented by additional definitions, which address the threats to dependability and security (faults, errors, failures), their attributes, and the means for their achievement (fault prevention, fault tolerance, fault removal, fault forecasting). The aim is to explicate a set of general concepts, of relevance across a wide range of situations and, therefore, helping communication and cooperation among a number of scientific and technical communities, including ones that are concentrating on particular types of system, of system failures, or of causes of system failures.

4,695 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using an analogy between product manufacturing and data manufacturing, this paper develops a framework for analyzing data quality research, and uses it as the basis for organizing the data quality literature.
Abstract: Organizational databases are pervaded with data of poor quality. However, there has not been an analysis of the data quality literature that provides an overall understanding of the state-of-art research in this area. Using an analogy between product manufacturing and data manufacturing, this paper develops a framework for analyzing data quality research, and uses it as the basis for organizing the data quality literature. This framework consists of seven elements: management responsibilities, operation and assurance costs, research and development, production, distribution, personnel management, and legal function. The analysis reveals that most research efforts focus on operation and assurance costs, research and development, and production of data products. Unexplored research topics and unresolved issues are identified and directions for future research provided. >

694 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the basic concepts behind access control design and enforcement are investigated, and different security requirements that may need to be taken into consideration, and several access control policies and models formalizing them are discussed.
Abstract: Access control is the process of mediating every request to resources and data maintained by a system and determining whether the request should be granted or denied. The access control decision is enforced by a mechanism implementing regulations established by a security policy. Different access control policies can be applied, corresponding to different criteria for defining what should, and what should not, be allowed, and, in some sense, to different definitions of what ensuring security means. In this chapter we investigate the basic concepts behind access control design and enforcement, and point out different security requirements that may need to be taken into consideration. We discuss several access control policies, and models formalizing them, that have been proposed in the literature or that are currently under investigation.

639 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review introduces future innovations and a research agenda for cloud computing supporting the transformation of the volume, velocity, variety and veracity into values of Big Data for local to global digital earth science and applications.
Abstract: Big Data has emerged in the past few years as a new paradigm providing abundant data and opportunities to improve and/or enable research and decision-support applications with unprecedented value for digital earth applications including business, sciences and engineering. At the same time, Big Data presents challenges for digital earth to store, transport, process, mine and serve the data. Cloud computing provides fundamental support to address the challenges with shared computing resources including computing, storage, networking and analytical software; the application of these resources has fostered impressive Big Data advancements. This paper surveys the two frontiers – Big Data and cloud computing – and reviews the advantages and consequences of utilizing cloud computing to tackling Big Data in the digital earth and relevant science domains. From the aspects of a general introduction, sources, challenges, technology status and research opportunities, the following observations are offered: (i...

545 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper introduces data distortion by probability distribution, a probability distortion that involves three steps to identify the underlying density function of the original series and to estimate the parameters of this density function.
Abstract: This paper introduces data distortion by probability distribution, a probability distortion that involves three steps. The first step is to identify the underlying density function of the original series and to estimate the parameters of this density function. The second step is to generate a series of data from the estimated density function. And the final step is to map and replace the generated series for the original one. Because it is replaced by the distorted data set, probability distortion guards the privacy of an individual belonging to the original data set. At the same time, the probability distorted series provides asymptotically the same statistical properties as those of the original series, since both are under the same distribution. Unlike conventional point distortion, probability distortion is difficult to compromise by repeated queries, and provides a maximum exposure for statistical analysis.

215 citations