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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Deep Neural Networks for YouTube Recommendations

Paul Covington1, Jay Adams1, Emre Sargin1
07 Sep 2016-pp 191-198
TL;DR: This paper details a deep candidate generation model and then describes a separate deep ranking model and provides practical lessons and insights derived from designing, iterating and maintaining a massive recommendation system with enormous user-facing impact.
Abstract: YouTube represents one of the largest scale and most sophisticated industrial recommendation systems in existence. In this paper, we describe the system at a high level and focus on the dramatic performance improvements brought by deep learning. The paper is split according to the classic two-stage information retrieval dichotomy: first, we detail a deep candidate generation model and then describe a separate deep ranking model. We also provide practical lessons and insights derived from designing, iterating and maintaining a massive recommendation system with enormous user-facing impact.
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
19 Jul 2018
TL;DR: A novel method based on highly efficient random walks to structure the convolutions and a novel training strategy that relies on harder-and-harder training examples to improve robustness and convergence of the model are developed.
Abstract: Recent advancements in deep neural networks for graph-structured data have led to state-of-the-art performance on recommender system benchmarks. However, making these methods practical and scalable to web-scale recommendation tasks with billions of items and hundreds of millions of users remains an unsolved challenge. Here we describe a large-scale deep recommendation engine that we developed and deployed at Pinterest. We develop a data-efficient Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) algorithm, which combines efficient random walks and graph convolutions to generate embeddings of nodes (i.e., items) that incorporate both graph structure as well as node feature information. Compared to prior GCN approaches, we develop a novel method based on highly efficient random walks to structure the convolutions and design a novel training strategy that relies on harder-and-harder training examples to improve robustness and convergence of the model. We also develop an efficient MapReduce model inference algorithm to generate embeddings using a trained model. Overall, we can train on and embed graphs that are four orders of magnitude larger than typical GCN implementations. We show how GCN embeddings can be used to make high-quality recommendations in various settings at Pinterest, which has a massive underlying graph with 3 billion nodes representing pins and boards, and 17 billion edges. According to offline metrics, user studies, as well as A/B tests, our approach generates higher-quality recommendations than comparable deep learning based systems. To our knowledge, this is by far the largest application of deep graph embeddings to date and paves the way for a new generation of web-scale recommender systems based on graph convolutional architectures.

2,647 citations


Cites background from "Deep Neural Networks for YouTube Re..."

  • ...We also do not consider non-deep learning approaches for generating item/content embeddings, since other works have already proven state-of-the-art performance of deep learning approaches for generating such embeddings [9, 12, 24]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
19 Aug 2017
TL;DR: This paper shows that it is possible to derive an end-to-end learning model that emphasizes both low- and high-order feature interactions, and combines the power of factorization machines for recommendation and deep learning for feature learning in a new neural network architecture.
Abstract: Learning sophisticated feature interactions behind user behaviors is critical in maximizing CTR for recommender systems. Despite great progress, existing methods seem to have a strong bias towards low- or high-order interactions, or require expertise feature engineering. In this paper, we show that it is possible to derive an end-to-end learning model that emphasizes both low- and high-order feature interactions. The proposed model, DeepFM, combines the power of factorization machines for recommendation and deep learning for feature learning in a new neural network architecture. Compared to the latest Wide & Deep model from Google, DeepFM has a shared input to its "wide" and "deep" parts, with no need of feature engineering besides raw features. Comprehensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of DeepFM over the existing models for CTR prediction, on both benchmark data and commercial data.

1,695 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Guorui Zhou1, Xiaoqiang Zhu1, Chenru Song1, Ying Fan1, Han Zhu1, Xiao Ma1, Yan Yanghui1, Junqi Jin1, Han Li1, Kun Gai1 
19 Jul 2018
TL;DR: A novel model: Deep Interest Network (DIN) is proposed which tackles this challenge by designing a local activation unit to adaptively learn the representation of user interests from historical behaviors with respect to a certain ad.
Abstract: Click-through rate prediction is an essential task in industrial applications, such as online advertising. Recently deep learning based models have been proposed, which follow a similar Embedding&MLP paradigm. In these methods large scale sparse input features are first mapped into low dimensional embedding vectors, and then transformed into fixed-length vectors in a group-wise manner, finally concatenated together to fed into a multilayer perceptron (MLP) to learn the nonlinear relations among features. In this way, user features are compressed into a fixed-length representation vector, in regardless of what candidate ads are. The use of fixed-length vector will be a bottleneck, which brings difficulty for Embedding&MLP methods to capture user's diverse interests effectively from rich historical behaviors. In this paper, we propose a novel model: Deep Interest Network (DIN) which tackles this challenge by designing a local activation unit to adaptively learn the representation of user interests from historical behaviors with respect to a certain ad. This representation vector varies over different ads, improving the expressive ability of model greatly. Besides, we develop two techniques: mini-batch aware regularization and data adaptive activation function which can help training industrial deep networks with hundreds of millions of parameters. Experiments on two public datasets as well as an Alibaba real production dataset with over 2 billion samples demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed approaches, which achieve superior performance compared with state-of-the-art methods. DIN now has been successfully deployed in the online display advertising system in Alibaba, serving the main traffic.

1,317 citations


Cites background or methods from "Deep Neural Networks for YouTube Re..."

  • ...Most of the popular model structures [3, 4, 21] share a similar Embedding&MLP paradigm, which we refer to as base model, as shown in the left of Fig....

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  • ...Deep Crossing [21], Wide&Deep Learning [4] and YouTube Recommendation CTR model [3] extend LS-PLM and FM by replacing the transformation function with complex MLP network, which enhances the model capability greatly....

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  • ...As fully connected networks can only handle fixed-length inputs, it is a common practice [3, 4] to transform the list of embedding vectors via a pooling layer to get a fixed-length vector:...

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  • ...Recently, inspired by the success of deep learning in computer vision [14] and natural language processing [1], deep learning based methods have been proposed for CTR prediction task [3, 4, 21, 26]....

    [...]

  • ..., searched terms or watched videos in YouTube recommender system [3]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of recent research efforts on deep learning-based recommender systems is provided in this paper, along with a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art.
Abstract: With the growing volume of online information, recommender systems have been an effective strategy to overcome information overload. The utility of recommender systems cannot be overstated, given their widespread adoption in many web applications, along with their potential impact to ameliorate many problems related to over-choice. In recent years, deep learning has garnered considerable interest in many research fields such as computer vision and natural language processing, owing not only to stellar performance but also to the attractive property of learning feature representations from scratch. The influence of deep learning is also pervasive, recently demonstrating its effectiveness when applied to information retrieval and recommender systems research. The field of deep learning in recommender system is flourishing. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of recent research efforts on deep learning-based recommender systems. More concretely, we provide and devise a taxonomy of deep learning-based recommendation models, along with a comprehensive summary of the state of the art. Finally, we expand on current trends and provide new perspectives pertaining to this new and exciting development of the field.

1,070 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: This work proposes a new model named LightGCN, including only the most essential component in GCN -- neighborhood aggregation -- for collaborative filtering, and is much easier to implement and train, exhibiting substantial improvements over Neural Graph Collaborative Filtering (NGCF) under exactly the same experimental setting.
Abstract: Graph Convolution Network (GCN) has become new state-of-the-art for collaborative filtering. Nevertheless, the reasons of its effectiveness for recommendation are not well understood. Existing work that adapts GCN to recommendation lacks thorough ablation analyses on GCN, which is originally designed for graph classification tasks and equipped with many neural network operations. However, we empirically find that the two most common designs in GCNs -- feature transformation and nonlinear activation -- contribute little to the performance of collaborative filtering. Even worse, including them adds to the difficulty of training and degrades recommendation performance. In this work, we aim to simplify the design of GCN to make it more concise and appropriate for recommendation. We propose a new model named LightGCN, including only the most essential component in GCN -- neighborhood aggregation -- for collaborative filtering. Specifically, LightGCN learns user and item embeddings by linearly propagating them on the user-item interaction graph, and uses the weighted sum of the embeddings learned at all layers as the final embedding. Such simple, linear, and neat model is much easier to implement and train, exhibiting substantial improvements (about 16.0\% relative improvement on average) over Neural Graph Collaborative Filtering (NGCF) -- a state-of-the-art GCN-based recommender model -- under exactly the same experimental setting. Further analyses are provided towards the rationality of the simple LightGCN from both analytical and empirical perspectives.

1,020 citations


Cites background or methods from "Deep Neural Networks for YouTube Re..."

  • ...Collaborative Filtering (CF) is a prevalent technique in modern recommender systems [7, 45]....

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  • ...To alleviate information overload on the web, recommender system has been widely deployed to perform personalized information filtering [7, 45, 46]....

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References
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Book ChapterDOI

[...]

01 Jan 2012

139,059 citations


"Deep Neural Networks for YouTube Re..." refers background in this paper

  • ...We observe that the most important signals are those that describe a user’s previous interaction with the item itself and other similar items, matching others’ experience in ranking ads [7]....

    [...]

Proceedings Article
Sergey Ioffe1, Christian Szegedy1
06 Jul 2015
TL;DR: Applied to a state-of-the-art image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14 times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant margin.
Abstract: Training Deep Neural Networks is complicated by the fact that the distribution of each layer's inputs changes during training, as the parameters of the previous layers change. This slows down the training by requiring lower learning rates and careful parameter initialization, and makes it notoriously hard to train models with saturating nonlinearities. We refer to this phenomenon as internal covariate shift, and address the problem by normalizing layer inputs. Our method draws its strength from making normalization a part of the model architecture and performing the normalization for each training mini-batch. Batch Normalization allows us to use much higher learning rates and be less careful about initialization, and in some cases eliminates the need for Dropout. Applied to a state-of-the-art image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14 times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant margin. Using an ensemble of batch-normalized networks, we improve upon the best published result on ImageNet classification: reaching 4.82% top-5 test error, exceeding the accuracy of human raters.

30,843 citations

Proceedings Article
Tomas Mikolov1, Ilya Sutskever1, Kai Chen1, Greg S. Corrado1, Jeffrey Dean1 
05 Dec 2013
TL;DR: This paper presents a simple method for finding phrases in text, and shows that learning good vector representations for millions of phrases is possible and describes a simple alternative to the hierarchical softmax called negative sampling.
Abstract: The recently introduced continuous Skip-gram model is an efficient method for learning high-quality distributed vector representations that capture a large number of precise syntactic and semantic word relationships. In this paper we present several extensions that improve both the quality of the vectors and the training speed. By subsampling of the frequent words we obtain significant speedup and also learn more regular word representations. We also describe a simple alternative to the hierarchical softmax called negative sampling. An inherent limitation of word representations is their indifference to word order and their inability to represent idiomatic phrases. For example, the meanings of "Canada" and "Air" cannot be easily combined to obtain "Air Canada". Motivated by this example, we present a simple method for finding phrases in text, and show that learning good vector representations for millions of phrases is possible.

24,012 citations


"Deep Neural Networks for YouTube Re..." refers background in this paper

  • ...A key advantage of using deep neural networks as a generalization of matrix factorization is that arbitrary continuous and categorical features can be easily added to the model....

    [...]

Posted Content
Sergey Ioffe1, Christian Szegedy1
TL;DR: Batch Normalization as mentioned in this paper normalizes layer inputs for each training mini-batch to reduce the internal covariate shift in deep neural networks, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on ImageNet.
Abstract: Training Deep Neural Networks is complicated by the fact that the distribution of each layer's inputs changes during training, as the parameters of the previous layers change. This slows down the training by requiring lower learning rates and careful parameter initialization, and makes it notoriously hard to train models with saturating nonlinearities. We refer to this phenomenon as internal covariate shift, and address the problem by normalizing layer inputs. Our method draws its strength from making normalization a part of the model architecture and performing the normalization for each training mini-batch. Batch Normalization allows us to use much higher learning rates and be less careful about initialization. It also acts as a regularizer, in some cases eliminating the need for Dropout. Applied to a state-of-the-art image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14 times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant margin. Using an ensemble of batch-normalized networks, we improve upon the best published result on ImageNet classification: reaching 4.9% top-5 validation error (and 4.8% test error), exceeding the accuracy of human raters.

17,184 citations

Posted Content
Tomas Mikolov1, Ilya Sutskever1, Kai Chen1, Greg S. Corrado1, Jeffrey Dean1 
TL;DR: In this paper, the Skip-gram model is used to learn high-quality distributed vector representations that capture a large number of precise syntactic and semantic word relationships and improve both the quality of the vectors and the training speed.
Abstract: The recently introduced continuous Skip-gram model is an efficient method for learning high-quality distributed vector representations that capture a large number of precise syntactic and semantic word relationships. In this paper we present several extensions that improve both the quality of the vectors and the training speed. By subsampling of the frequent words we obtain significant speedup and also learn more regular word representations. We also describe a simple alternative to the hierarchical softmax called negative sampling. An inherent limitation of word representations is their indifference to word order and their inability to represent idiomatic phrases. For example, the meanings of "Canada" and "Air" cannot be easily combined to obtain "Air Canada". Motivated by this example, we present a simple method for finding phrases in text, and show that learning good vector representations for millions of phrases is possible.

11,343 citations