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Journal ArticleDOI

DeepLab: Semantic Image Segmentation with Deep Convolutional Nets, Atrous Convolution, and Fully Connected CRFs

01 Apr 2018-IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (IEEE)-Vol. 40, Iss: 4, pp 834-848

TL;DR: This work addresses the task of semantic image segmentation with Deep Learning and proposes atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP), which is proposed to robustly segment objects at multiple scales, and improves the localization of object boundaries by combining methods from DCNNs and probabilistic graphical models.

AbstractIn this work we address the task of semantic image segmentation with Deep Learning and make three main contributions that are experimentally shown to have substantial practical merit. First , we highlight convolution with upsampled filters, or ‘atrous convolution’, as a powerful tool in dense prediction tasks. Atrous convolution allows us to explicitly control the resolution at which feature responses are computed within Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. It also allows us to effectively enlarge the field of view of filters to incorporate larger context without increasing the number of parameters or the amount of computation. Second , we propose atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP) to robustly segment objects at multiple scales. ASPP probes an incoming convolutional feature layer with filters at multiple sampling rates and effective fields-of-views, thus capturing objects as well as image context at multiple scales. Third , we improve the localization of object boundaries by combining methods from DCNNs and probabilistic graphical models. The commonly deployed combination of max-pooling and downsampling in DCNNs achieves invariance but has a toll on localization accuracy. We overcome this by combining the responses at the final DCNN layer with a fully connected Conditional Random Field (CRF), which is shown both qualitatively and quantitatively to improve localization performance. Our proposed “DeepLab” system sets the new state-of-art at the PASCAL VOC-2012 semantic image segmentation task, reaching 79.7 percent mIOU in the test set, and advances the results on three other datasets: PASCAL-Context, PASCAL-Person-Part, and Cityscapes. All of our code is made publicly available online.

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Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
21 Jul 2017
TL;DR: This paper exploits the capability of global context information by different-region-based context aggregation through the pyramid pooling module together with the proposed pyramid scene parsing network (PSPNet) to produce good quality results on the scene parsing task.
Abstract: Scene parsing is challenging for unrestricted open vocabulary and diverse scenes. In this paper, we exploit the capability of global context information by different-region-based context aggregation through our pyramid pooling module together with the proposed pyramid scene parsing network (PSPNet). Our global prior representation is effective to produce good quality results on the scene parsing task, while PSPNet provides a superior framework for pixel-level prediction. The proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on various datasets. It came first in ImageNet scene parsing challenge 2016, PASCAL VOC 2012 benchmark and Cityscapes benchmark. A single PSPNet yields the new record of mIoU accuracy 85.4% on PASCAL VOC 2012 and accuracy 80.2% on Cityscapes.

5,721 citations


Book ChapterDOI
Liang-Chieh Chen1, Yukun Zhu1, George Papandreou1, Florian Schroff1, Hartwig Adam1 
08 Sep 2018
TL;DR: This work extends DeepLabv3 by adding a simple yet effective decoder module to refine the segmentation results especially along object boundaries and applies the depthwise separable convolution to both Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling and decoder modules, resulting in a faster and stronger encoder-decoder network.
Abstract: Spatial pyramid pooling module or encode-decoder structure are used in deep neural networks for semantic segmentation task. The former networks are able to encode multi-scale contextual information by probing the incoming features with filters or pooling operations at multiple rates and multiple effective fields-of-view, while the latter networks can capture sharper object boundaries by gradually recovering the spatial information. In this work, we propose to combine the advantages from both methods. Specifically, our proposed model, DeepLabv3+, extends DeepLabv3 by adding a simple yet effective decoder module to refine the segmentation results especially along object boundaries. We further explore the Xception model and apply the depthwise separable convolution to both Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling and decoder modules, resulting in a faster and stronger encoder-decoder network. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model on PASCAL VOC 2012 and Cityscapes datasets, achieving the test set performance of 89% and 82.1% without any post-processing. Our paper is accompanied with a publicly available reference implementation of the proposed models in Tensorflow at https://github.com/tensorflow/models/tree/master/research/deeplab.

2,887 citations


Cites background or methods from "DeepLab: Semantic Image Segmentatio..."

  • ...We refer interested readers to [9] for more details....

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  • ...Spatial pyramid pooling: Models, such as PSPNet [81] or DeepLab [9, 10], perform spatial pyramid pooling [23, 40] at several grid scales (including image-level pooling [47]) or apply several parallel atrous convolution with different rates (called Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling, or ASPP)....

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  • ...In this subsection, we evaluate the segmentation accuracy with the trimap experiment [36, 37, 9] to quantify the accuracy of the proposed decoder module near object boundaries....

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  • ..., image pyramid) [18, 16, 58, 44, 11, 9] or those that adopt probabilistic graphical models (such as DenseCRF [37] with efficient inference algorithm [2]) [8, 4, 82, 44, 48, 55, 63, 34, 72, 6, 7, 9]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
17 Mar 2017
Abstract: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are inherently limited to model geometric transformations due to the fixed geometric structures in their building modules. In this work, we introduce two new modules to enhance the transformation modeling capability of CNNs, namely, deformable convolution and deformable RoI pooling. Both are based on the idea of augmenting the spatial sampling locations in the modules with additional offsets and learning the offsets from the target tasks, without additional supervision. The new modules can readily replace their plain counterparts in existing CNNs and can be easily trained end-to-end by standard back-propagation, giving rise to deformable convolutional networks. Extensive experiments validate the performance of our approach. For the first time, we show that learning dense spatial transformation in deep CNNs is effective for sophisticated vision tasks such as object detection and semantic segmentation. The code is released at https://github.com/msracver/Deformable-ConvNets.

2,316 citations


Book ChapterDOI
08 Oct 2016
TL;DR: This paper proposes a fully automatic approach to colorization that produces vibrant and realistic colorizations and shows that colorization can be a powerful pretext task for self-supervised feature learning, acting as a cross-channel encoder.
Abstract: Given a grayscale photograph as input, this paper attacks the problem of hallucinating a plausible color version of the photograph. This problem is clearly underconstrained, so previous approaches have either relied on significant user interaction or resulted in desaturated colorizations. We propose a fully automatic approach that produces vibrant and realistic colorizations. We embrace the underlying uncertainty of the problem by posing it as a classification task and use class-rebalancing at training time to increase the diversity of colors in the result. The system is implemented as a feed-forward pass in a CNN at test time and is trained on over a million color images. We evaluate our algorithm using a “colorization Turing test,” asking human participants to choose between a generated and ground truth color image. Our method successfully fools humans on 32 % of the trials, significantly higher than previous methods. Moreover, we show that colorization can be a powerful pretext task for self-supervised feature learning, acting as a cross-channel encoder. This approach results in state-of-the-art performance on several feature learning benchmarks.

1,949 citations


Cites methods from "DeepLab: Semantic Image Segmentatio..."

  • ...use a two-stream architecture in which they fuse global and local features, and we use a single-stream, VGG-styled network with added depth and dilated convolutions [26,27]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
15 Jun 2019
TL;DR: New state-of-the-art segmentation performance on three challenging scene segmentation datasets, i.e., Cityscapes, PASCAL Context and COCO Stuff dataset is achieved without using coarse data.
Abstract: In this paper, we address the scene segmentation task by capturing rich contextual dependencies based on the self-attention mechanism. Unlike previous works that capture contexts by multi-scale features fusion, we propose a Dual Attention Networks (DANet) to adaptively integrate local features with their global dependencies. Specifically, we append two types of attention modules on top of traditional dilated FCN, which model the semantic interdependencies in spatial and channel dimensions respectively. The position attention module selectively aggregates the features at each position by a weighted sum of the features at all positions. Similar features would be related to each other regardless of their distances. Meanwhile, the channel attention module selectively emphasizes interdependent channel maps by integrating associated features among all channel maps. We sum the outputs of the two attention modules to further improve feature representation which contributes to more precise segmentation results. We achieve new state-of-the-art segmentation performance on three challenging scene segmentation datasets, i.e., Cityscapes, PASCAL Context and COCO Stuff dataset. In particular, a Mean IoU score of 81.5% on Cityscapes test set is achieved without using coarse data.

1,797 citations


Cites background or methods from "DeepLab: Semantic Image Segmentatio..."

  • ...We employ a pretrained residual network with the dilated strategy [3] as the backbone....

    [...]

  • ...First, Deeplabv2 [3] and Deeplabv3 [4] adopt atrous spatial pyramid pooling to embed contextual information, which consist of parallel dilated convolutions with different dilated rates....

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  • ...For example, some works [3, 4, 29] aggregate multi-scale contexts via combining feature maps generated by different dilated convolutions and pooling operations....

    [...]

  • ...Following [3], we adopt multi-loss on the end of the network when both two attention modules are used....

    [...]


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