scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Proceedings Article

Deformable DETR: Deformable Transformers for End-to-End Object Detection

TL;DR: Deformable DETR as discussed by the authors proposes to only attend to a small set of key sampling points around a reference, which can achieve better performance than DETR with 10× less training epochs.
Abstract: DETR has been recently proposed to eliminate the need for many hand-designed components in object detection while demonstrating good performance. However, it suffers from slow convergence and limited feature spatial resolution, due to the limitation of Transformer attention modules in processing image feature maps. To mitigate these issues, we proposed Deformable DETR, whose attention modules only attend to a small set of key sampling points around a reference. Deformable DETR can achieve better performance than DETR (especially on small objects) with 10× less training epochs. Extensive experiments on the COCO benchmark demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Code shall be released.

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters
Posted Content
Ze Liu1, Yutong Lin1, Yue Cao1, Han Hu1, Yixuan Wei1, Zheng Zhang1, Stephen Lin1, Baining Guo1 
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper proposed a new vision Transformer called Swin Transformer, which is computed with shifted windows to address the differences between the two domains, such as large variations in the scale of visual entities and the high resolution of pixels in images compared to words in text.
Abstract: This paper presents a new vision Transformer, called Swin Transformer, that capably serves as a general-purpose backbone for computer vision. Challenges in adapting Transformer from language to vision arise from differences between the two domains, such as large variations in the scale of visual entities and the high resolution of pixels in images compared to words in text. To address these differences, we propose a hierarchical Transformer whose representation is computed with shifted windows. The shifted windowing scheme brings greater efficiency by limiting self-attention computation to non-overlapping local windows while also allowing for cross-window connection. This hierarchical architecture has the flexibility to model at various scales and has linear computational complexity with respect to image size. These qualities of Swin Transformer make it compatible with a broad range of vision tasks, including image classification (86.4 top-1 accuracy on ImageNet-1K) and dense prediction tasks such as object detection (58.7 box AP and 51.1 mask AP on COCO test-dev) and semantic segmentation (53.5 mIoU on ADE20K val). Its performance surpasses the previous state-of-the-art by a large margin of +2.7 box AP and +2.6 mask AP on COCO, and +3.2 mIoU on ADE20K, demonstrating the potential of Transformer-based models as vision backbones. The code and models will be made publicly available at~\url{this https URL}.

3,518 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: Huang et al. as discussed by the authors proposed Pyramid Vision Transformer (PVT), which is a simple backbone network useful for many dense prediction tasks without convolutions, and achieved state-of-the-art performance on the COCO dataset.
Abstract: Although using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as backbones achieves great successes in computer vision, this work investigates a simple backbone network useful for many dense prediction tasks without convolutions. Unlike the recently-proposed Transformer model (e.g., ViT) that is specially designed for image classification, we propose Pyramid Vision Transformer~(PVT), which overcomes the difficulties of porting Transformer to various dense prediction tasks. PVT has several merits compared to prior arts. (1) Different from ViT that typically has low-resolution outputs and high computational and memory cost, PVT can be not only trained on dense partitions of the image to achieve high output resolution, which is important for dense predictions but also using a progressive shrinking pyramid to reduce computations of large feature maps. (2) PVT inherits the advantages from both CNN and Transformer, making it a unified backbone in various vision tasks without convolutions by simply replacing CNN backbones. (3) We validate PVT by conducting extensive experiments, showing that it boosts the performance of many downstream tasks, e.g., object detection, semantic, and instance segmentation. For example, with a comparable number of parameters, RetinaNet+PVT achieves 40.4 AP on the COCO dataset, surpassing RetinNet+ResNet50 (36.3 AP) by 4.1 absolute AP. We hope PVT could serve as an alternative and useful backbone for pixel-level predictions and facilitate future researches. Code is available at this https URL.

845 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: A taxonomy that groups existing techniques into coherent categories in attention models is proposed, and how attention has been used to improve the interpretability of neural networks is described.
Abstract: Attention Model has now become an important concept in neural networks that has been researched within diverse application domains. This survey provides a structured and comprehensive overview of the developments in modeling attention. In particular, we propose a taxonomy which groups existing techniques into coherent categories. We review salient neural architectures in which attention has been incorporated, and discuss applications in which modeling attention has shown a significant impact. We also describe how attention has been used to improve the interpretability of neural networks. Finally, we discuss some future research directions in attention. We hope this survey will provide a succinct introduction to attention models and guide practitioners while developing approaches for their applications.

355 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of attention mechanisms in computer vision can be found in this article, which categorizes them according to approach, such as channel attention, spatial attention, temporal attention and branch attention.
Abstract: Humans can naturally and effectively find salient regions in complex scenes. Motivated by this observation, attention mechanisms were introduced into computer vision with the aim of imitating this aspect of the human visual system. Such an attention mechanism can be regarded as a dynamic weight adjustment process based on features of the input image. Attention mechanisms have achieved great success in many visual tasks, including image classification, object detection, semantic segmentation, video understanding, image generation, 3D vision, multi-modal tasks and self-supervised learning. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review of various attention mechanisms in computer vision and categorize them according to approach, such as channel attention, spatial attention, temporal attention and branch attention; a related repository this https URL is dedicated to collecting related work. We also suggest future directions for attention mechanism research.

243 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors proposed a bitemporal image transformer (BIT) to efficiently and effectively model contexts within the spatial-temporal domain, where the high-level concepts of the change of interest can be represented by a few visual words.
Abstract: Modern change detection (CD) has achieved remarkable success by the powerful discriminative ability of deep convolutions. However, high-resolution remote sensing CD remains challenging due to the complexity of objects in the scene. Objects with the same semantic concept may show distinct spectral characteristics at different times and spatial locations. Most recent CD pipelines using pure convolutions are still struggling to relate long-range concepts in space-time. Non-local self-attention approaches show promising performance via modeling dense relations among pixels, yet are computationally inefficient. Here, we propose a bitemporal image transformer (BIT) to efficiently and effectively model contexts within the spatial-temporal domain. Our intuition is that the high-level concepts of the change of interest can be represented by a few visual words, i.e., semantic tokens. To achieve this, we express the bitemporal image into a few tokens, and use a transformer encoder to model contexts in the compact token-based space-time. The learned context-rich tokens are then feedback to the pixel-space for refining the original features via a transformer decoder. We incorporate BIT in a deep feature differencing-based CD framework. Extensive experiments on three CD datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Notably, our BIT-based model significantly outperforms the purely convolutional baseline using only 3 times lower computational costs and model parameters. Based on a naive backbone (ResNet18) without sophisticated structures (e.g., FPN, UNet), our model surpasses several state-of-the-art CD methods, including better than four recent attention-based methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy. Our code is available at this https URL\_CD.

205 citations

References
More filters
Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Jun 2016
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously, which won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task.
Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets [40] but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

123,388 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: This work introduces Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments, and provides a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework.
Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

111,197 citations

Proceedings Article
12 Jun 2017
TL;DR: This paper proposed a simple network architecture based solely on an attention mechanism, dispensing with recurrence and convolutions entirely and achieved state-of-the-art performance on English-to-French translation.
Abstract: The dominant sequence transduction models are based on complex recurrent orconvolutional neural networks in an encoder and decoder configuration. The best performing such models also connect the encoder and decoder through an attentionm echanisms. We propose a novel, simple network architecture based solely onan attention mechanism, dispensing with recurrence and convolutions entirely.Experiments on two machine translation tasks show these models to be superiorin quality while being more parallelizable and requiring significantly less timeto train. Our single model with 165 million parameters, achieves 27.5 BLEU onEnglish-to-German translation, improving over the existing best ensemble result by over 1 BLEU. On English-to-French translation, we outperform the previoussingle state-of-the-art with model by 0.7 BLEU, achieving a BLEU score of 41.1.

52,856 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Jia Deng1, Wei Dong1, Richard Socher1, Li-Jia Li1, Kai Li1, Li Fei-Fei1 
20 Jun 2009
TL;DR: A new database called “ImageNet” is introduced, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure, much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets.
Abstract: The explosion of image data on the Internet has the potential to foster more sophisticated and robust models and algorithms to index, retrieve, organize and interact with images and multimedia data. But exactly how such data can be harnessed and organized remains a critical problem. We introduce here a new database called “ImageNet”, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure. ImageNet aims to populate the majority of the 80,000 synsets of WordNet with an average of 500-1000 clean and full resolution images. This will result in tens of millions of annotated images organized by the semantic hierarchy of WordNet. This paper offers a detailed analysis of ImageNet in its current state: 12 subtrees with 5247 synsets and 3.2 million images in total. We show that ImageNet is much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets. Constructing such a large-scale database is a challenging task. We describe the data collection scheme with Amazon Mechanical Turk. Lastly, we illustrate the usefulness of ImageNet through three simple applications in object recognition, image classification and automatic object clustering. We hope that the scale, accuracy, diversity and hierarchical structure of ImageNet can offer unparalleled opportunities to researchers in the computer vision community and beyond.

49,639 citations

Book ChapterDOI
06 Sep 2014
TL;DR: A new dataset with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in object recognition by placing the question of object recognition in the context of the broader question of scene understanding by gathering images of complex everyday scenes containing common objects in their natural context.
Abstract: We present a new dataset with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in object recognition by placing the question of object recognition in the context of the broader question of scene understanding. This is achieved by gathering images of complex everyday scenes containing common objects in their natural context. Objects are labeled using per-instance segmentations to aid in precise object localization. Our dataset contains photos of 91 objects types that would be easily recognizable by a 4 year old. With a total of 2.5 million labeled instances in 328k images, the creation of our dataset drew upon extensive crowd worker involvement via novel user interfaces for category detection, instance spotting and instance segmentation. We present a detailed statistical analysis of the dataset in comparison to PASCAL, ImageNet, and SUN. Finally, we provide baseline performance analysis for bounding box and segmentation detection results using a Deformable Parts Model.

30,462 citations