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Proceedings Article

Deformable DETR: Deformable Transformers for End-to-End Object Detection

03 May 2021-

AbstractDETR has been recently proposed to eliminate the need for many hand-designed components in object detection while demonstrating good performance. However, it suffers from slow convergence and limited feature spatial resolution, due to the limitation of Transformer attention modules in processing image feature maps. To mitigate these issues, we proposed Deformable DETR, whose attention modules only attend to a small set of key sampling points around a reference. Deformable DETR can achieve better performance than DETR (especially on small objects) with 10× less training epochs. Extensive experiments on the COCO benchmark demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Code shall be released.

Topics: Object detection (52%)

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Posted Content
Ze Liu1, Yutong Lin1, Yue Cao1, Han Hu1, Yixuan Wei1, Zheng Zhang1, Stephen Lin1, Baining Guo1 
Abstract: This paper presents a new vision Transformer, called Swin Transformer, that capably serves as a general-purpose backbone for computer vision. Challenges in adapting Transformer from language to vision arise from differences between the two domains, such as large variations in the scale of visual entities and the high resolution of pixels in images compared to words in text. To address these differences, we propose a hierarchical Transformer whose representation is computed with shifted windows. The shifted windowing scheme brings greater efficiency by limiting self-attention computation to non-overlapping local windows while also allowing for cross-window connection. This hierarchical architecture has the flexibility to model at various scales and has linear computational complexity with respect to image size. These qualities of Swin Transformer make it compatible with a broad range of vision tasks, including image classification (86.4 top-1 accuracy on ImageNet-1K) and dense prediction tasks such as object detection (58.7 box AP and 51.1 mask AP on COCO test-dev) and semantic segmentation (53.5 mIoU on ADE20K val). Its performance surpasses the previous state-of-the-art by a large margin of +2.7 box AP and +2.6 mask AP on COCO, and +3.2 mIoU on ADE20K, demonstrating the potential of Transformer-based models as vision backbones. The code and models will be made publicly available at~\url{this https URL}.

351 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: A taxonomy that groups existing techniques into coherent categories in attention models is proposed, and how attention has been used to improve the interpretability of neural networks is described.
Abstract: Attention Model has now become an important concept in neural networks that has been researched within diverse application domains. This survey provides a structured and comprehensive overview of the developments in modeling attention. In particular, we propose a taxonomy which groups existing techniques into coherent categories. We review salient neural architectures in which attention has been incorporated, and discuss applications in which modeling attention has shown a significant impact. We also describe how attention has been used to improve the interpretability of neural networks. Finally, we discuss some future research directions in attention. We hope this survey will provide a succinct introduction to attention models and guide practitioners while developing approaches for their applications.

163 citations


Posted Content
Abstract: Although using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as backbones achieves great successes in computer vision, this work investigates a simple backbone network useful for many dense prediction tasks without convolutions. Unlike the recently-proposed Transformer model (e.g., ViT) that is specially designed for image classification, we propose Pyramid Vision Transformer~(PVT), which overcomes the difficulties of porting Transformer to various dense prediction tasks. PVT has several merits compared to prior arts. (1) Different from ViT that typically has low-resolution outputs and high computational and memory cost, PVT can be not only trained on dense partitions of the image to achieve high output resolution, which is important for dense predictions but also using a progressive shrinking pyramid to reduce computations of large feature maps. (2) PVT inherits the advantages from both CNN and Transformer, making it a unified backbone in various vision tasks without convolutions by simply replacing CNN backbones. (3) We validate PVT by conducting extensive experiments, showing that it boosts the performance of many downstream tasks, e.g., object detection, semantic, and instance segmentation. For example, with a comparable number of parameters, RetinaNet+PVT achieves 40.4 AP on the COCO dataset, surpassing RetinNet+ResNet50 (36.3 AP) by 4.1 absolute AP. We hope PVT could serve as an alternative and useful backbone for pixel-level predictions and facilitate future researches. Code is available at this https URL.

159 citations


Posted Content
Abstract: Transformer is a new kind of neural architecture which encodes the input data as powerful features via the attention mechanism. Basically, the visual transformers first divide the input images into several local patches and then calculate both representations and their relationship. Since natural images are of high complexity with abundant detail and color information, the granularity of the patch dividing is not fine enough for excavating features of objects in different scales and locations. In this paper, we point out that the attention inside these local patches are also essential for building visual transformers with high performance and we explore a new architecture, namely, Transformer iN Transformer (TNT). Specifically, we regard the local patches (e.g., 16$\times$16) as "visual sentences" and present to further divide them into smaller patches (e.g., 4$\times$4) as "visual words". The attention of each word will be calculated with other words in the given visual sentence with negligible computational costs. Features of both words and sentences will be aggregated to enhance the representation ability. Experiments on several benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed TNT architecture, e.g., we achieve an $81.5%$ top-1 accuracy on the ImageNet, which is about $1.7%$ higher than that of the state-of-the-art visual transformer with similar computational cost. The PyTorch code is available at this https URL, and the MindSpore code is at this https URL.

95 citations


Posted Content
Abstract: Motivated by the success of Transformers in natural language processing (NLP) tasks, there emerge some attempts (e.g., ViT and DeiT) to apply Transformers to the vision domain. However, pure Transformer architectures often require a large amount of training data or extra supervision to obtain comparable performance with convolutional neural networks (CNNs). To overcome these limitations, we analyze the potential drawbacks when directly borrowing Transformer architectures from NLP. Then we propose a new \textbf{Convolution-enhanced image Transformer (CeiT)} which combines the advantages of CNNs in extracting low-level features, strengthening locality, and the advantages of Transformers in establishing long-range dependencies. Three modifications are made to the original Transformer: \textbf{1)} instead of the straightforward tokenization from raw input images, we design an \textbf{Image-to-Tokens (I2T)} module that extracts patches from generated low-level features; \textbf{2)} the feed-froward network in each encoder block is replaced with a \textbf{Locally-enhanced Feed-Forward (LeFF)} layer that promotes the correlation among neighboring tokens in the spatial dimension; \textbf{3)} a \textbf{Layer-wise Class token Attention (LCA)} is attached at the top of the Transformer that utilizes the multi-level representations. Experimental results on ImageNet and seven downstream tasks show the effectiveness and generalization ability of CeiT compared with previous Transformers and state-of-the-art CNNs, without requiring a large amount of training data and extra CNN teachers. Besides, CeiT models also demonstrate better convergence with $3\times$ fewer training iterations, which can reduce the training cost significantly\footnote{Code and models will be released upon acceptance.}.

40 citations


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