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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PGEN.1009411

Deleterious mutation accumulation and the long-term fate of chromosomal inversions.

04 Mar 2021-PLOS Genetics (Public Library of Science (PLoS))-Vol. 17, Iss: 3
Abstract: Chromosomal inversions contribute widely to adaptation and speciation, yet they present a unique evolutionary puzzle as both their allelic content and frequency evolve in a feedback loop. In this simulation study, we quantified the role of the allelic content in determining the long-term fate of the inversion. Recessive deleterious mutations accumulated on both arrangements with most of them being private to a given arrangement. This led to increasing overdominance, allowing for the maintenance of the inversion polymorphism and generating strong non-adaptive divergence between arrangements. The accumulation of mutations was mitigated by gene conversion but nevertheless led to the fitness decline of at least one homokaryotype under all considered conditions. Surprisingly, this fitness degradation could be permanently halted by the branching of an arrangement into multiple highly divergent haplotypes. Our results highlight the dynamic features of inversions by showing how the non-adaptive evolution of allelic content can play a major role in the fate of the inversion.

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11 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/GBE/EVAB057
Abstract: Supergenes are genomic regions containing sets of tightly linked loci that control multi-trait phenotypic polymorphisms under balancing selection. Recent advances in genomics have uncovered significant variation in both the genomic architecture as well as the mode of origin of supergenes across diverse organismal systems. Although the role of genomic architecture for the origin of supergenes has been much discussed, differences in the genomic architecture also subsequently affect the evolutionary trajectory of supergenes and the rate of degeneration of supergene haplotypes. In this review, we synthesize recent genomic work and historical models of supergene evolution, highlighting how the genomic architecture of supergenes affects their evolutionary fate. We discuss how recent findings on classic supergenes involved in governing ant colony social form, mimicry in butterflies, and heterostyly in flowering plants relate to theoretical expectations. Furthermore, we use forward simulations to demonstrate that differences in genomic architecture affect the degeneration of supergenes. Finally, we discuss implications of the evolution of supergene haplotypes for the long-term fate of balanced polymorphisms governed by supergenes.

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Topics: Supergene (50%)

8 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MOLBEV/MSAB143
Claire Mérot1, Emma L. Berdan2, Hugo Cayuela1, Hugo Cayuela3  +8 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Across a species range, multiple sources of environmental heterogeneity, at both small and large scales, create complex landscapes of selection, which may challenge adaptation, particularly when gene flow is high. One key to multidimensional adaptation may reside in the heterogeneity of recombination along the genome. Structural variants, like chromosomal inversions, reduce recombination, increasing linkage disequilibrium among loci at a potentially massive scale. In this study, we examined how chromosomal inversions shape genetic variation across a species range, and ask how their contribution to adaptation in the face of gene flow varies across geographic scales. We sampled the seaweed fly Coelopa frigida along a bioclimatic gradient stretching across 10° of latitude, a salinity gradient and a range of heterogeneous, patchy habitats. We generated a chromosome-level genome assembly to analyse 1,446 low-coverage whole genomes collected along those gradients. We found several large non-recombining genomic regions, including putative inversions. In contrast to the collinear regions, inversions and low recombining regions differentiated populations more strongly, either along an ecogeographic cline or at a fine-grained scale. These genomic regions were associated with environmental factors and adaptive phenotypes, albeit with contrasting patterns. Altogether, our results highlight the importance of recombination in shaping adaptation to environmental heterogeneity at local and large scales.

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Topics: Local adaptation (53%), Coelopa frigida (53%), Cline (biology) (50%)

6 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2102914118
Abstract: Genomic structural variants (SVs) can play important roles in adaptation and speciation. Yet the overall fitness effects of SVs are poorly understood, partly because accurate population-level identification of SVs requires multiple high-quality genome assemblies. Here, we use 31 chromosome-scale, haplotype-resolved genome assemblies of Theobroma cacao—an outcrossing, long-lived tree species that is the source of chocolate—to investigate the fitness consequences of SVs in natural populations. Among the 31 accessions, we find over 160,000 SVs, which together cover eight times more of the genome than single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels (125 versus 15 Mb). Our results indicate that a vast majority of these SVs are deleterious: they segregate at low frequencies and are depleted from functional regions of the genome. We show that SVs influence gene expression, which likely impairs gene function and contributes to the detrimental effects of SVs. We also provide empirical support for a theoretical prediction that SVs, particularly inversions, increase genetic load through the accumulation of deleterious nucleotide variants as a result of suppressed recombination. Despite the overall detrimental effects, we identify individual SVs bearing signatures of local adaptation, several of which are associated with genes differentially expressed between populations. Genes involved in pathogen resistance are strongly enriched among these candidates, highlighting the contribution of SVs to this important local adaptation trait. Beyond revealing empirical evidence for the evolutionary importance of SVs, these 31 de novo assemblies provide a valuable resource for genetic and breeding studies in T. cacao.

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3 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/MEC.15936
01 Jun 2021-Molecular Ecology
Abstract: A key step in understanding the genetic basis of different evolutionary outcomes (e.g., adaptation) is to determine the roles played by different mutation types (e.g., SNPs, translocations and inversions). To do this we must simultaneously consider different mutation types in an evolutionary framework. Here, we propose a research framework that directly utilizes the most important characteristics of mutations, their population genetic effects, to determine their relative evolutionary significance in a given scenario. We review known population genetic effects of different mutation types and show how these may be connected to different evolutionary outcomes. We provide examples of how to implement this framework and pinpoint areas where more data, theory and synthesis are needed. Linking experimental and theoretical approaches to examine different mutation types simultaneously is a critical step towards understanding their evolutionary significance.

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Topics: Mutation (genetic algorithm) (61%), Mutation rate (58%), Population (53%)

1 Citations

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.06.03.446913
Emma L. Berdan1, Claire Mérot2, Henrik Pavia1, Kerstin Johannesson1  +4 moreInstitutions (5)
03 Jun 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Inversions often underlie complex adaptive traits, but the genic targets inside them are largely unknown. Gene expression profiling provides a powerful way to link inversions with their phenotypic consequences. We examined the effects of the Cf-Inv(1) inversion in the seaweed fly Coelopa frigida on gene expression variation across sexes and life stages. Our analyses revealed that Cf-Inv(1) shapes global expression patterns but the extent of this effect is variable with much stronger effects in adults than larvae. Furthermore, within adults, both common as well as sex specific patterns were found. The vast majority of these differentially expressed genes mapped to Cf-Inv(1). However, genes that were differentially expressed in a single context (i.e. in males, females or larvae) were more likely to be located outside of Cf-Inv(1). By combining our findings with genomic scans for environmentally associated SNPs, we were able to pinpoint candidate variants in the inversion that may underlie mechanistic pathways that determine phenotypes. Together the results in this study, combined with previous findings, support the notion that the polymorphic Cf-Inv(1) inversion in this species is a major factor shaping both coding and regulatory variation resulting in highly complex adaptive effects.

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70 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0027-5107(64)90047-8
Hermann J. Muller1Institutions (1)
01 May 1964-Mutation Research
Abstract: The method of calculation is shown wherebt a formula has been derived that approximately the ratio of the rate of accumulation of advantageous mutant genes in a population that undergoes recombination to the rate in an otherwise non-recombining one. A table is given showing the ratios thus found for different frequencies of advantageous mutations and different degrees of their advantage. It is shown that this calculation does not apply for mutant genes that act advantageously only when in some special combinations with one or more other mutant genes, and that as far as these cases of special synergism are concerned recombining lines have no evolutionary advantage over non-recombining ones. Other limitations of the formula are pointed out and assessed. It is explained that most factors that retard the rate of recombination—for expample, linkage, rarity of outbreeding, intercalation of sexual reproduction between more frequent cycles of sexual propagation, and partial isolation between subpopulations—must usually cause little long-term retardation of the speed of advance that is fostered by recombination. Moreover, even where long-term evolutions has virtually ceased, recombination of mutant genes still confers upon a population the means of adopting short-term genetic “dodges”, that adjust it to ecological and “physical” changes in its circumstances, much more rapidly than would be possible for a comparable asexual population. Under conditions where only stability of type is needed, a non-recombining does not actually degenerate as a result of an excess of mutation over selection, after the usual equilibrium between these pressures is reached. However, a irreversible ratchet mechanism exists in the non-recombining species (unlike the recombining ones) that prevents selection, even if intensified, from reducing the mutational loads below the lightest that were in existence when the intensified selection started, whereas, contrariwise, “drift”, and what might be called “selective noise” must allow occasional slips of the lightest loads in the direction of increased weight.

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Topics: Clonal interference (55%), Population (55%), Muller's ratchet (54%) ... show more

2,080 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/GENETICS/78.2.737
Joseph Felsenstein1Institutions (1)
01 Oct 1974-Genetics
Abstract: The controversy over the evolutionary advantage of recombination initially discovered by Fisher and by Muller is reviewed. Those authors whose models had finite-population effects found an advantage of recombination, and those whose models had infinite populations found none. The advantage of recombination is that it breaks down random linkage disequilibrium generated by genetic drift. Hill and Robertson found that the average effect of this randomly-generated linkage disequilibrium was to cause linked loci to interfere with each other's response to selection, even where there was no gene interaction between the loci. This effect is shown to be identical to the original argument of Fisher and Muller. It also predicts the "ratchet mechanism" discovered by Muller, who pointed out that deleterious mutants would more readily increase in a population without recombination. Computer simulations of substitution of favorable mutants and of the long-term increase of deleterious mutants verified the essential correctness of the original Fisher-Muller argument and the reality of the Muller ratchet mechanism. It is argued that these constitute an intrinsic advantage of recombination capable of accounting for its persistence in the face of selection for tighter linkage between interacting polymorphisms, and possibly capable of accounting for its origin.

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Topics: Hill–Robertson effect (65%), Muller's ratchet (62%), Clonal interference (54%) ... show more

1,495 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1365-294X.2008.03946.X
01 Feb 2009-Molecular Ecology
Abstract: Levels of genetic differentiation between populations can be highly variable across the genome, with divergent selection contributing to such heterogeneous genomic divergence. For example, loci under divergent selection and those tightly physically linked to them may exhibit stronger differentiation than neutral regions with weak or no linkage to such loci. Divergent selection can also increase genome-wide neutral differentiation by reducing gene flow (e.g. by causing ecological speciation), thus promoting divergence via the stochastic effects of genetic drift. These consequences of divergent selection are being reported in recently accumulating studies that identify: (i) ‘outlier loci’ with higher levels of divergence than expected under neutrality, and (ii) a positive association between the degree of adaptive phenotypic divergence and levels of molecular genetic differentiation across population pairs [‘isolation by adaptation’ (IBA)]. The latter pattern arises because as adaptive divergence increases, gene flow is reduced (thereby promoting drift) and genetic hitchhiking increased. Here, we review and integrate these previously disconnected concepts and literatures. We find that studies generally report 5–10% of loci to be outliers. These selected regions were often dispersed across the genome, commonly exhibited replicated divergence across different population pairs, and could sometimes be associated with specific ecological variables. IBA was not infrequently observed, even at neutral loci putatively unlinked to those under divergent selection. Overall, we conclude that divergent selection makes diverse contributions to heterogeneous genomic divergence. Nonetheless, the number, size, and distribution of genomic regions affected by selection varied substantially among studies, leading us to discuss the potential role of divergent selection in the growth of regions of differentiation (i.e. genomic islands of divergence), a topic in need of future investigation.

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Topics: Genetic divergence (61%), Genetic hitchhiking (58%), Ecological speciation (57%) ... show more

1,046 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.93.7.2873
Nancy A. Moran1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Many bacteria live only within animal cells and infect hosts through cytoplasmic inheritance. These endosymbiotic lineages show distinctive population structure, with small population size and effectively no recombination. As a result, endosymbionts are expected to accumulate mildly deleterious mutations. If these constitute a substantial proportion of new mutations, endosymbionts will show (i) faster sequence evolution and (ii) a possible shift in base composition reflecting mutational bias. Analyses of 16S rDNA of five independently derived endosymbiont clades show, in every case, faster evolution in endosymbionts than in free-living relatives. For aphid endosymbionts (genus Buchnera), coding genes exhibit accelerated evolution and unusually low ratios of synonymous to nonsynonymous substitutions compared to ratios for the same genes for enterics. This concentration of the rate increase in nonsynonymous substitutions is expected under the hypothesis of increased fixation of deleterious mutations. Polypeptides for all Buchnera genes analyzed have accumulated amino acids with codon families rich in A+T, supporting the hypothesis that substitutions are deleterious in terms of polypeptide function. These observations are best explained as the result of Muller's ratchet within small asexual populations, combined with mutational bias. In light of this explanation, two observations reported earlier for Buchnera, the apparent loss of a repair gene and the overproduction of a chaperonin, may reflect compensatory evolution. An alternative hypothesis, involving selection on genomic base composition, is contradicted by the observation that the speedup is concentrated at nonsynonymous sites.

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Topics: Buchnera (58%), Nonsynonymous substitution (58%), Muller's ratchet (58%) ... show more

903 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/285812
Abstract: Although extensive work has been done on the relationship between population size and the risk of extinction due to demographic and environmental stochasticity, the role of genetic deterioration in the extinction process is poorly understood. We develop a general theoretical approach for evaluating the risk of small populations to extinction via the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations, and we support this with extensive computer simulations. Unlike previous attempts to model the genetic consequences of small population size, our approach is genetically explicit and fully accounts for the mutations inherited by a founder population as well as those introduced by subsequent mutation. Application of empirical estimates of the properties of spontaneous deleterious mutations leads to the conclusion that populations with effective sizes smaller than 100 (and actual sizes smaller than 1,000) are highly vulnerable to extinction via a mutational meltdown on timescales of approximately 100 generations. We ...

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Topics: Mutational meltdown (66%), Extinction (56%), Small population size (53%) ... show more

840 Citations

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