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Delimitation of Unbeatable Fear in Facing the State of Necessity

TL;DR: In this article, the authors study the limits of unbeatable fear in the state of necessity and propose a framework to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of this kind of fear.
Abstract: This chapter focuses on the study of the limits of unbeatable fear in the state of necessity. Unbeatable fear remains one of the most complex exemptions to interpret, and it stands as a relevant issue both around sacrifice of persons and in cases of violence against women in Chile. Hence, our objective is not a mere analysis of unbeatable fear but rather its delimitation with respect to the state of necessity. The problem has its origin in specifying whether some of the requirements of unbeatable fear are part of the state of necessity. Therefore, the treatment of the nature of this kind of fear, as we have stated, is not peaceful in doctrine and creates insecurity in its interpretation. Therefore, the study of unbeatable fear deserves attention since it entails the analysis of fundamental concepts of the criminal law theory.

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Citations
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Book
28 Jan 2013

85 citations

01 Jan 1976

74 citations

Journal Article
01 Jan 2015-InDret
TL;DR: The § 35 StGB of the Derecho penal aleman as discussed by the authors allows a person who violates a norma penal to be excusada bajo the condition of the estado de necesidad exculpante.
Abstract: Segun el Derecho penal aleman, una persona que infringe una norma penal puede ser excusada bajo las condiciones del § 35 StGB (estado de necesidad como causa de exclusion de la culpabilidad). ?Cuales son las razones para no considerar responsable en estos casos a quien ha infringido una norma, a pesar de que pudo incluso haber causado la muerte de la victima? En el apartado 2 de este ensayo se analizan las respuestas usuales a esta pregunta. La conclusion es que ninguna de ellas es absolutamente convincente. Comun a todas ellas es que infravaloran la importancia del interes de la victima en su libertad personal. En el apartado 3 se desarrolla una interpretacion propia del § 35 StGB. Esta interpretacion esta basada en la distincion entre dos significados de libertad juridica. En primer lugar, los miembros de una comunidad juridica estan obligados a respetar la “libertad negativa” de los otros. Sobre la base de este concepto de “libertad”, la causa de exclusion de la culpabilidad del estado de necesidad exculpante aparece como un elemento ajeno al sistema del Derecho penal. Sin embargo, el estatus de los miembros de una comunidad juridica no esta limitado a sus “libertades negativas”. Hasta cierto punto, el Derecho penal tambien reconoce sus “libertades positivas”: el interes de cada individuo en preservar su integridad personal. La causa de exclusion de la culpabilidad del estado de necesidad exculpante del § 35 StGB puede ser interpretada como un reconocimiento de la “libertad positiva” de quien infringio una norma. En el apartado final de este trabajo (4) se aplica este modelo de explicacion a una serie de problemas especificos que genera el § 35 StGB.

1 citations

17 Dec 1983
TL;DR: Cardenas, de Mejico, is uno de esos profesores de Derecho penal que destacan en Ciencias Juridicas as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Mi distinguido y querido amigo, el doctor Raul F. Cardenas, de Mejico, es uno de esos pocos profesores de Derecho penal que destacan en Ciencias Juridicas. Bien conocido en Europa v ecpecialmente en Iberoamerica, ha sido fundador v colaborador eficiente en las reuniones y trabajos de la Comision Redactora del Codigo Penal Tipo para Latinoamerica que comenzaron en Santiago de Chile en 1963. Su participacion ha sido . muy estimada y aleccionadora para cuantos le hemos acompaiiado en esas sesiones. Considero muy merecido este acto y repito que el dar a conocer la obra cumpre en la que estamos unidos tantos profesores de la materia en America, Espafia y Portugal, es el mejor tributo que yo personalmente puedo brindar a mi amigo v maestro doctor Cardenas. Sus desvelos constantes por tan inapreciable tarea, deben divulgarse .

1 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1975
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a learned-helplessness model of depression and developed a set of guidelines for depression and learned helplessness, including depression, anxiety and unpredictability, childhood failure, sudden psychosomatic death controllability.
Abstract: Overview - depression, golden girl, anxiety and unpredictability, childhood failure, sudden psychosomatic death controllability - voluntary responding, response independence and response contingency - the superstition experiments experimental studies - helplessness saps the motivation to initiate responses - learned helplessness in the dog, the triadic design, motivational deficits in several species, generality of helplessness across situations helplessness disrupts to ability to learn helplessness produces emotional disturbance theory - cure and immunization - the statement of the theory, motivational disturbance, cognitive disturbance, emotional disturbance cure and prevention - limits on helplessness alternative theories - competing motor responses, adaptation, emotional exhaustion, and sensitization physiological approaches to helplessness depression - types of depression the learned-helplessness model of depression - ground rules, symptoms of depression and learned helplessness, etiology of depression and learned helplessness, a speculation about success and depression, cure of depression and learned helplessness, prevention of depression and learned helplessness anxiety and unpredictability - definition of unpredictability anxiety and the safety-signal hypothesis - the safety-signal hypothesis upredictability and monitoring fear stomach ulcers preference for predictability the relationship of predictability to controllability - self-administration, perceived control systematic desensitization and uncontrollability conclusion emotional development and education - the dance of development - reafference maternal deprivation predictability and controllability in childhood and adolescence - the classroom, poverty death - death from helplessness in animals death from helplessness in humans - institutionalized helplessness, death from helplessness in old age, infant death and anaclitic depression.

4,406 citations

01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: The 10a edicion de the Codigo de Constitucion (COC) as mentioned in this paper was the first to incorporate reforma de la reforma del CP operada by la LO 1/2015, de 30 de marzo, que ha entrado en vigor el 1 de julio de this mismo ano.
Abstract: El objeto principal de esta 10a edicion es la incorporacion de la reforma del CP operada por la LO 1/2015, de 30 de marzo, que ha entrado en vigor el 1 de julio de este mismo ano. Ha afectado a numerosos preceptos del Codigo. En su mayoria corresponden a su Parte Especial, pero no son pocos los que aqui mas importan, los propios de la Parte General -como los relativos a la responsabilidad penal de las personas juridica y, muy especialmente, los que introducen la eufemisticamente la llamada "prision permanente revisable", que no es mas que una verdadera cadena perpetua dificilmente compatible con la Constitucion-. En segundo lugar, importaba actualizar tambien la jurisprudencia y la bibliografia. Por ultimo, se ha efectuado una revision general de la obra.

172 citations

Book
30 Mar 1984
TL;DR: Moore as discussed by the authors describes the legal view of persons as rational and autonomous and defends it from the challenges presented by three psychiatric ideas: that badness is illness, that the unconscious rules our mental life, and that a person is a community of selves more than a unified single self.
Abstract: This book is about the competing images of man offered us by the disciplines of law and psychiatry. Michael Moore describes the legal view of persons as rational and autonomous and defends it from the challenges presented by three psychiatric ideas: that badness is illness, that the unconscious rules our mental life, and that a person is a community of selves more than a unified single self. Using the tools of modern philosophy, he attempts to show that the moral metaphysical foundations of our law are not eroded by these challenges of psychiatry. The book thus seeks, through philosophy, to go beneath the centuries-old debates between lawyers and psychiatrists, and to reveal their hidden agreement about the nature of man. Some attention is paid to practical legal and psychiatric issues of contemporary concern, such as the proper definition of mental illness for psychiatric purposes, and the proper definition of legal insanity for legal purposes. This book was first announced, for publication in hard covers, in the Press's January to July seasonal list.

88 citations

Book
28 Jan 2013

85 citations

01 Jan 1976

74 citations