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Journal ArticleDOI

Demographic factors, family background and prior self-employment on entrepreneurial intention - Vietnamese business students are different: why?

01 Dec 2018-Vol. 8, Iss: 1, pp 1-17

Abstract: This study investigates the impact of demographic factors, prior exposure to self-employment and family background on entrepreneurial intention of Vietnamese business students. Three hundred seventy-two undergraduate and post-graduate business students from three universities in Ho Chi Minh City completed a self-administered questionnaire which was analyzed through Independent Sample T-test and One-way ANOVA. Demographic factors include gender, age ranges and education level, family background include parents’ employment status and parents’ immigrant status. Results evidence somewhat higher entrepreneurial intention in male students. Furthermore, students whose parents are self-employed score higher entrepreneurial intention, but the difference is not statistically significant. The same is evidenced for students whose parents are immigrants from rural areas to urban cities versus non-immigrant parents. Prior experience in self-employment also increases entrepreneurial intention, albeit again insignificantly. Age and education levels show practically no impact. These results are in clear contradiction to the state with state of-the art international literature, which evidences significance in all these impact factors.
Topics: Vietnamese (52%)

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Nguyen, Cuong
Article
Demographic factors, family background and prior
self-employment on entrepreneurial intention:
Vietnamese business students are different: Why?
Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research
Provided in Cooperation with:
SpringerOpen
Suggested Citation: Nguyen, Cuong (2018) : Demographic factors, family background and
prior self-employment on entrepreneurial intention: Vietnamese business students are different:
Why?, Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, ISSN 2251-7316, Springer, Heidelberg,
Vol. 8, Iss. 10, pp. 1-17,
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40497-018-0097-3
This Version is available at:
http://hdl.handle.net/10419/196944
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RES E AR C H Open Access
Demographic factors, family background
and prior self-employment on
entrepreneurial intention - Vietnamese
business students are different: why?
Cuong Nguyen
1,2
Correspondence:
nguyenquoccuong@iuh.edu.vn
1
Industrial University of Ho Chi
Minh city, 74 TA19A Street, Thoi An
Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City,
Viet Nam
2
ESCP Europe & Sorbonne Paris 1
Panthéon Doctoral School, Paris,
France
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of demographic factors, prior exposure to self-
employment and family background on entrepreneurial intention of Vietnamese
business students. Three hundred seventy-two undergraduate and post-graduate
business students from three universities in Ho Chi Minh City completed a self-
administered questionnaire which was analyzed through Independent Sample T-test
and One-way ANOVA. Demographic factors include gender, age ranges and education
level, family background include parents employment status and parents immigrant
status. Results evidence somewhat higher entrepreneurial intention in male students.
Furthermore, students whose parents are self-employed score higher entrepreneurial
intention, but the difference is not statistically significant. The same is evidenced for
students whose parents are immigrants from rural areas to urban cities versus non-
immigrant parents. Prior experience in self-employment also increases entrepreneurial
intention, albeit again insignificantly. Age and education levels show practically no
impact. These results are in clear contradiction to the state with state of-the art
international literature, which evidences significance in all these impact factors.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial intention, Gender, Age, Education level, Prior experience in
self-employment, Parent, Self-employed, Immigrant
Background
Currently, entrepreneurship is a widely discussed topic in Vietnam and the role of
entrepreneurs and private business sectors has been increasingly promoted by the
Vietnamese government.
1
Business start-up programs are not only to inspire the young
peoples entrepreneurial mindset, but more importantly an overall business start-up
support program would be built, including many creative and effective activities. The
Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) (2017), reported that among
the one million Vietnamese unemployed in 2016, the highest unemployment rates
were university graduates or those holding higher degrees. An estimated 190,900 grad-
uates and degree holders (an increase of more than 35,000 people over the same period
last year) could not get jobs. (Vietna m Business Forum - VCCI, 2017).
Journal o
f
Globa
l
E
ntre
p
reneurshi
p
Researc
h
© The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and
indicate if changes were made.
Nguyen Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research (2018) 8:10
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40497-018-0097-3

Vietnamese graduates struggle to look for jobs and business start-ups and self-
employment are seen as a strategic solution not only to create jobs for young people
but also contribute significantly to the countrys socio-economic development. Many
studies evidence that entrepreneurship is critically important for the economic prosper-
ity of nations (Bowen and Clercq, 2008; Katz, 2007; Kogut et al., 2010). Moreover, self-
employment has significant positive economic imp act not only on wage and salary
scales but also on per capita income growth and poverty reduction (Goetz et al., 2012).
According to Beeka and Rimmington (2011), entrepreneurship is one of the career op-
tions students may consider shortly before or immediately after graduation. For all
these reasons, investigating the motives that drive graduating student s to envisage
entrepreneurship is highly relevant (Zellweger et al. 2011). Namely, it is cru cial to
understand the factors that can impact upon such intentions to start-up a business in
the future. Individual factors that motivate a persons decision to become an entrepre-
neur are numerous. In general, these factors can be classified as demographic factors
and attitudes, values or psychological factors (Ashley-Cotleur et al., 2009). Two key
demographic variables that influence entrepreneurship activities are gender and family/
parental background. To study antecedents of entrepreneurial intention can help
teachers, consultants, advisors and policy makers to know mor e how these are formed
and how new venture founders beliefs, perceptions, experiences, and motives impact
the intent to start a business (Wang et al. 2011; Zellweger et al. 2011). In addition to
personality traits, individual difference variables have been found to predi ct entrepre-
neurship (Ismail et al., 2009). They include age, gender, education, work experience and
role models, family background and education (Hatak et al., 2015; Fatoki, 2014; Quan,
2012; Pablo-Lerchundi et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2016a, b; Yukongdi et al.,2017).
The objective of this study is to further investigate, with a focus on Vietnam, such as
demographic factors, family backgrounds and prior exposure to self-employment on entre-
preneurial intention of business students. Demographic factors include age, gender and
education level; family backgrounds include their parents job status and parents immi-
grant background. We also strive to assess whether prior experience in self-employment
has any impact on entrepreneurial intention of young business graduates or not. Investi-
gating the motives that drive graduate students for entrepreneurship is highly significant
given the importance of entrepreneurship for job creation and economic growth.
Research framework
Entrepreneurial intention
Entrepreneurial intent ion has been defined by many different scholars worldwide.
Tkachev and Kolvereid (1999) defines entrepreneurial intention as ones willingness in
undertaking entrepreneurial activity, or in other words becoming self-employed. Entre-
preneurial behavior is a process that unfo lds over time for the individual (Shane, 2000).
Choo and Wong (2006) define entrepreneurial intention as the search for information
that can be used to help fulfill the goal of venture creation. Entrepreneurial intentions
can generally be defined as a conscious awareness and conviction by an individual that
set up a new business venture and plans to do so in the future (Bird, 1988 ; Thompson,
2009). Pihie et al. (2009) states intention as a state of mind or attitude which influences
entrepreneurial behavior. Van Gelderen (2008) states that entrepreneurial intentions
Nguyen Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research (2018) 8:10 Page 2 of 17

are central to understanding the entrepreneurship process because they form the un-
derpinnings of new organizations. The opposite status of being self-employed is becom-
ing a waged or salaried individual. There are many approaches to studying
entrepreneurial intention but there are two most popular models which are Shaperos
Entrepreneurial Event Model (Shapero, 1975) and the Theory of Planned Behavior
Model (Ajzen, 1991).
Shaperos Entrepreneurial Event Model views firm creation resulting from interactions
between contextual factors, which would act through their influence an individualsper-
ceptions. Shapero (1975) lists three dimensions that determine entrepreneurial intention,
namely Perceived desirability, Perceived feasibility and Propensity to act.Shapero
emphasizes the importance of perception in predicting the intention to act in some spe-
cific ways. The perception requires that the behavior must be desirable and feasible and a
clear propensity to act the behavior. Perceived desirability refers to the degree to which
he/she feels attraction for a given behavior (to become an entrepreneur). Perceived feasi-
bility is defined as the degree to which people consider themselves personally able to carry
out certain behavior. The presence of role models, mentors or partners would be a de-
cisive element in establishing the individuals entrepreneurial feasibility level. Propensity
to act refers to an individuals willingness to act on decision. The three perceptions are de-
termined by cultural and social factors, through their influence on the individuals values
system (Shapero, 1975). In a later study, Krueger et al. (2000) modifies the model with
two more components which are specific desirability and perceived self-efficacy. Krueger
studies the significance to understand the self-efficacy in relation to entrepreneurial
intention and he also concluded that entrepreneurial usually ignore the concept of Self-
efficacy in entrepreneurial researches. Self-efficacy theory explains what peoples beliefs
about their capabilities to produce effects are.
The Theory of Planned Behavior model is the most widely used model to research on
entrepreneurial intention (Liñán and Chen, 2009). There are three conceptually inde-
pendent determinants of intention towards entrepreneurship, namely attitudes towards
entrepreneurship, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control (Ajzen, 1991). Atti-
tude towards performing behavior refers to perceptions of personal desirability to per-
form the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). It depends on the expectations and beliefs about
personal impacts of outcomes resulting from the behavior. A persons attitude towards
behavior represents evaluation of the behavior and its outcome. Attitude towards
entrepreneurship refers to the personal desirability in becoming an entrepreneur
(Kolvereid, 1996). As a result, the more expectations and beliefs towards self-
employment refle ct a favorable attitude towards entrepreneurship. Financial security
was the most outstanding variable that made up for the attitude towards en trepreneur-
ial intention (Van Gelderen et al., 2008). Many studies confirm a positive relationship
between attitude and behavioral intention (Kolve reid, 1996; Krueger et al., 2000; Autio
et al., 2001; Van Gelderen et al., 2008; Bodewes, 2010; Tegtmeier, 2012; Yang, 2013;
Nguyen, 2015). Yang (2013
) confirms that attitude represented the most effective pre-
dictor
of entrepreneurial intention. In contrast, Zhang et al. (2015) confirms a surprise
result from a study conducted in United States that attitude fails to generate a signifi-
cant impact on entrepreneurial intention. In addition, Nguyen (2017) confirms that
subjective norms fails to generate significant impact on entrepreneuria l intention in a
research conducted in Viet Nam.
Nguyen Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research (2018) 8:10 Page 3 of 17

Gender
Entrepreneurial intention are associated with socio-demographic variables such as age,
gender, education background, prior employment experience, level of education and the
role models. Demographic factors such as age and gender have been proposed to have an
impact on entrepreneurial intention (Kristiansen and Indarti, 2004). In general, women
have been reported as having lower entrepreneurial intentions. Crant (1996) confirms that
men are more likely than women to express an intention or preference for starting their
own businesses. Zhao et al. (2005) concludes that women are less likely than men to de-
sire becoming an entrepreneur Other studies also argued that females are less likely to es-
tablish their own business than men (Phan et al., 2002a, b). In contrast, some studies
showed no meaningful difference between men and women in terms of intentions to start
businesses (Kourilsky and Walstad, 1998; Shay and Terjensen, 2005;Wilsonetal.,2007;
Smith et al., 2016a, b;Chaudhary,2017). These results challenge past research findings
which ranked female students lower on entrepreneurial dimensions compared to male
students. Furthermore, Daim et al. (2016) provides insight into the entrepreneurial inten-
sion of students in terms of genders and country of residence differences. The paper ex-
plores perceived feasibility and desirability for students in 10 countries. The
entrepreneurship role is gender tested against desirability and feasibility. The results indi-
cate that gender impacts entrepreneurship intention and the way it impacts is influenced
by which country the students are from (Daim et al., 2016). Since the impact of gender on
entrepreneurship remains largely inconclusive, it proposes further research in the area.
Therefore, the first hypothesis of this study are proposed as:
H1. Men will display higher entrepreneurial intention than women.
Age
Some researchers believe that people mostly decide to establish their own firms be-
tween the ages of 25 to 34 (Choo and Wong, 2006; Delmar and Davidsson, 2000). Al-
though older people are more capable of exhibiting behaviors that deviate from the
customary way of doing business as they have greater means and opportunity for doing
so (Curran and Black burn, 2001; Weber and Schaper, 2004) but they are much less
likely as younger people to take steps toward acting entrepreneuria lly (Hart et al., 2004)
or to actually establish a company (Kautonen, 2008). Levesque and Minniti (2006) ex-
plain the age-related effect on entrepreneurial intention as a result of the opportunity
costs of time. It ca n thus be assumed that age has a negative relation with entrepre-
neurial intention. In addition, Hatak et al. (2015) confirms that age is associated with a
lower likelihood of having an entrepreneurial intention. In contrast, Chaudhary (2017)
does not support age is inversely related to entrepreneurial inclination. Thus, the sec-
ond hypothesis of this study is proposed as:
H2. There is a significant difference between age ranges on entrepreneurial intention
of business students.
Education level
Van der Sluis et al. (2004) shows that the effect of general education, measured in years
of schooling, on entrepreneur performance is positive (Van der Sluis et al., 2004). Some
other studies show that the educational background plays a vital role on creating
Nguyen Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research (2018) 8:10 Page 4 of 17

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Abstract: What factors influence students to start their own business? What are the implications at the university level? This paper aims to answer to these questions and investigates, at a micro level (university), the motivation for entrepreneurial intentions among students in 10 universities from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). An online inquiry has been conducted among 500 students between April and June 2018, and 157 fully completed questionnaires were retained. Factor Analysis with Varimax (with Kaizer Normalization) rotation and logistic regression were used to identify what factors motivate students to start their own business and, from those factors, which one is determinant in this decision. Also, age and parental self-employment status were used to determine the influence of these factors. Four factors have been identified as determinants for students to start their own business: entrepreneurial confidence, entrepreneurial orientation, university support for entrepreneurship, and cultural support for entrepreneurship. Surprisingly, the only factor significantly correlated with the intention in starting a business is entrepreneurial confidence. This factor becomes even stronger when it is associated with age (20–25 years old) and parents’ self-employment status. These conclusions involve specific challenges on the university level, related to the role of entrepreneurial education and on country level, in link with the effectiveness of governmental programs to enhance entrepreneurial endeavours. Further research can explore and test these findings on a representative sample for the UAE, and for other countries.

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Abstract: Unlike previous studies that examine the role of different entrepreneurial ecosystem factors in predicting entrepreneurial intentions. The purpose of this study is to explain the direct effects of entrepreneurial ecosystem factors effecting entrepreneurial intentions and configurational combinations of entrepreneurial ecosystem factors that cause high or low entrepreneurial intentions among female university students in Saudi Arabia.,The study used structured survey-questionnaire based data collected from 310 female students enrolled in different universities in Saudi Arabia. The study used symmetric analysis using structural equation modeling technique, whereas asymmetric analysis is performed using the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, necessary condition analysis is also used to identify the role of different entrepreneurial ecosystem factors in increasing and/or decreasing entrepreneurial intentions among young Saudi women.,The results of symmetrical analysis show that access to finance, access to physical infrastructure, and cultural factors are not significantly associated with entrepreneurial intentions, whereas government policies and regulations, government programs and support, social factors and entrepreneurship education and training are significantly associated with the development of entrepreneurial intentions among female Saudi university students. While the result of asymmetrical analysis provides 15 configurational models that explains the high levels of certain factors to predict entrepreneurial intentions among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Specifically, social support is found as necessary condition in majority of models to predict high levels of entrepreneurial intentions among female Saudi university students.,The results of the study provide empirical evidence to policymakers in Saudi Arabia. The study proposes that it is not mandatory that the high levels of all entrepreneurial ecosystem factors are important to predict high entrepreneurial intentions, rather in some conditions the low levels of certain factors are obligatory to predict high levels of entrepreneurial intentions.,Two-step mix-method approach is used in this study containing analysis of symmetric within entrepreneurial ecosystem increase or decrease entrepreneurial intentions among female university students in Saudi Arabia. There has been plenty of research that examines the role of entrepreneurial ecosystem factors in development of university students’ entrepreneurial intentions, however there is less research evident in the entrepreneurship literature that examine the configurational effects of factors within entrepreneurial ecosystem in increasing and/or decreasing entrepreneurial intentions among female university students.

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Abstract: Subsistence women in developing economies are largely marginalised yet their circumstances could be improved through entrepreneurship. The study sought to establish the relationship between entrepr...

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Cites background from "Demographic factors, family backgro..."

  • ...Nguyen (2018) also indicated that there is no relationship between age and entrepreneurial intention....

    [...]

  • ...Nguyen (2018) also reached the same conclusion when he noted that the statistical evidence available is not adequate to support the idea that any individual whose parents own businesses portrays a higher entrepreneurial intention than the one whose parents did not own a business....

    [...]

  • ...This conclusion was also arrived at by Nguyen (2018) who identified an insignificant relationship when it comes to moderation effect and direct effect on the relationship between female entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial intention....

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Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of family business exposure on individuals' entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). By applying the institutional framework at the micro level, this study proposed the mediation of three types of institutional forces (coercive, normative and mimetic) between the relationship of family business exposure and EIs.,Data were collected from 367 university students in Pakistan. The survey design was used for the data collection. The measurement and hypothesized models were tested using the structural equation modeling technique in Mplus 7.0.,The findings of this study revealed that family business exposure positively influenced the institutional forces (coercive, normative and mimetic) which further developed the individuals' EIs. However, family business exposure did not affect the EIs directly that showed the full mediation of institutional forces between the relationship of family business exposure and EIs.,This is the first study in its nature which applied institutional theory from the macro level to the micro level within the context of family business. The results revealed the institutional forces as the underpinning mechanism which explains the relationship between family business exposure and EIs.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This study has investigated the extent to which individual and contextual factors determine the entrepreneurial intention in Bangladesh. Also, this study examined the comparative impact of both individual and contextual factors on entrepreneurial intentions. Sample data (n = 270) have been collected through using a survey questionnaire from a renowned public university of Bangladesh. This study has applied both correlation analysis and hierarchical regression for testing the hypotheses. Total eight hypotheses are tested to examine the influence of seven independent variables on entrepreneurial intentions, in which six factors have been found as significant predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. The correlation analysis revealed that risk-taking, locus of control, self-efficacy, and job autonomy are significantly correlated with entrepreneurial intention at 5% significance level. The regression result indicated that individual factors such as risk-taking, locus of control, self-efficacy, and job autonomy and contextual factors such as social networks and university educational program have positive effect on entrepreneurial intention. The study also found out that individual factors have more influence on entrepreneurial intentions than contextual variables. This paper also offers some implications for academic scholars. Md Uzzal Hossain (Bangladesh), Ahmed Al Asheq (Bangladesh), S. M. Arifuzzaman (Bangladesh)

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  • ...Because entrepreneurship is evidenced as one of the immediate career choices by the graduate students and thus it is relevant to examine what stimulates student’s intention to be an entrepreneur (Nguyen, 2018)....

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References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Icek Ajzen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability. © 1991 Academic Press. Inc.

55,422 citations


"Demographic factors, family backgro..." refers background or methods or result in this paper

  • ...In fact, entrepreneurial intention usually involves in psychological process, which are popularly studied by the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991)....

    [...]

  • ...The Theory of Planned Behavior model is the most widely used model to research on entrepreneurial intention (Liñán and Chen, 2009)....

    [...]

  • ...There are three conceptually independent determinants of intention towards entrepreneurship, namely attitudes towards entrepreneurship, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control (Ajzen, 1991). Attitude towards performing behavior refers to perceptions of personal desirability to perform the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). It depends on the expectations and beliefs about personal impacts of outcomes resulting from the behavior. A person’s attitude towards behavior represents evaluation of the behavior and its outcome. Attitude towards entrepreneurship refers to the personal desirability in becoming an entrepreneur (Kolvereid, 1996). As a result, the more expectations and beliefs towards selfemployment reflect a favorable attitude towards entrepreneurship. Financial security was the most outstanding variable that made up for the attitude towards entrepreneurial intention (Van Gelderen et al., 2008). Many studies confirm a positive relationship between attitude and behavioral intention (Kolvereid, 1996; Krueger et al., 2000; Autio et al., 2001; Van Gelderen et al., 2008; Bodewes, 2010; Tegtmeier, 2012; Yang, 2013; Nguyen, 2015). Yang (2013) confirms that attitude represented the most effective predictor of entrepreneurial intention. In contrast, Zhang et al. (2015) confirms a surprise result from a study conducted in United States that attitude fails to generate a significant impact on entrepreneurial intention....

    [...]

  • ...There are three conceptually independent determinants of intention towards entrepreneurship, namely attitudes towards entrepreneurship, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control (Ajzen, 1991). Attitude towards performing behavior refers to perceptions of personal desirability to perform the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). It depends on the expectations and beliefs about personal impacts of outcomes resulting from the behavior. A person’s attitude towards behavior represents evaluation of the behavior and its outcome. Attitude towards entrepreneurship refers to the personal desirability in becoming an entrepreneur (Kolvereid, 1996). As a result, the more expectations and beliefs towards selfemployment reflect a favorable attitude towards entrepreneurship. Financial security was the most outstanding variable that made up for the attitude towards entrepreneurial intention (Van Gelderen et al., 2008). Many studies confirm a positive relationship between attitude and behavioral intention (Kolvereid, 1996; Krueger et al., 2000; Autio et al., 2001; Van Gelderen et al., 2008; Bodewes, 2010; Tegtmeier, 2012; Yang, 2013; Nguyen, 2015). Yang (2013) confirms that attitude represented the most effective predictor of entrepreneurial intention. In contrast, Zhang et al. (2015) confirms a surprise result from a study conducted in United States that attitude fails to generate a significant impact on entrepreneurial intention. In addition, Nguyen (2017) confirms that subjective norms fails to generate significant impact on entrepreneurial intention in a research conducted in Viet Nam. Nguyen Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research (2018) 8:10 Page 3 of 17...

    [...]

  • ...There are three conceptually independent determinants of intention towards entrepreneurship, namely attitudes towards entrepreneurship, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control (Ajzen, 1991)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Why are intentions interesting to those who care about new venture formation? Entrepreneurship is a way of thinking, a way of thinking that emphasizes opportunities over threats. The opportunity identification process is clearly an intentional process, and, therefore, entrepreneurial intentions clearly merit our attention. Equally important, they offer a means to better explain—and predict—entrepreneurship. We don't start a business as a reflex, do we? We may respond to the conditions around us, such as an intriguing market niche, by starting a new venture. Yet, we think about it first; we process the cues from the environment around us and set about constructing the perceived opportunity into a viable business proposition. In the psychological literature, intentions have proven the best predictor of planned behavior, particularly when that behavior is rare, hard to observe, or involves unpredictable time lags. New businesses emerge over time and involve considerable planning. Thus, entrepreneurship is exactly the type of planned behavior Bird 1988 , Katz and Gartner 1988 for which intention models are ideally suited. If intention models prove useful in understanding business venture formation intentions, they offer a coherent, parsimonious, highly-generalizable, and robust theoretical framework for understanding and prediction. Empirically, we have learned that situational (for example, employment status or informational cues) or individual (for example, demographic characteristics or personality traits) variables are poor predictors. That is, predicting entrepreneurial activities by modeling only situational or personal factors usually resulted in disappointingly small explanatory power and even smaller predictive validity. Intentions models offer us a significant opportunity to increase our ability to understand and predict entrepreneurial activity. The current study compares two intention-based models in terms of their ability to predict entrepreneurial intentions: Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) and Shapero's model of the entrepreneurial event (SEE). Ajzen argues that intentions in general depend on perceptions of personal attractiveness, social norms, and feasibility. Shapero argues that entrepreneurial intentions depend on perceptions of personal desirability, feasibility, and propensity to act. We employed a competing models approach, comparing regression analyses results for the two models. We tested for overall statistical fit and how well the results supported each component of the models. The sample consisted of student subjects facing imminent career decisions. Results offered strong statistical support for both models. (1) Intentions are the single best predictor of any planned behavior, including entrepreneurship. Understanding the antecedents of intentions increases our understanding of the intended behavior. Attitudes influence behavior by their impact on intentions. Intentions and attitudes depend on the situation and person. Accordingly, intentions models will predict behavior better than either individual (for example, personality) or situational (for example, employment status) variables. Predictive power is critical to better post hoc explanations of entrepreneurial behavior; intentions models provide superior predictive validity. (2) Personal and situational variables typically have an indirect influence on entrepreneurship through influencing key attitudes and general motivation to act. For instance, role models will affect entrepreneurial intentions only if they change attitudes and beliefs such as perceived self-efficacy. Intention-based models describe how exogenous influences (for eample, perceptions of resource availability) change intentions and, ultimately, venture creation. (3) The versatility and robustness of intention models support the broader use of comprehensive, theory-driven, testable process models in entrepreneurship research (MacMillan and Katz 1992) . Intentional behavior helps explain and model why many entrepreneurs decide to start a business long before they scan for opportunities. Understanding intentions helps researchers and theoreticians to understand related phenomena. These include: what triggers opportunity scanning, the sources of ideas for a business venture, and how the venture ultimately becomes a reality. Intention models can describe how entrepreneurial training molds intentions in subsequent venture creation (for example, how does training in business plan writing change attitudes and intentions?). Past research has extensively explored aspects of new venture plans once written. Intentionality argues instead that we study the planning process itself for determinants of venturing behavior. We can apply intentions models to other strategic decisions such as the decision to grow or exit a business. Researchers can model the intentions of critical stakeholders in the venture, such as venture capitalists' intentions toward investing in a given company. Finally, management researchers can explore the overlaps between venture formation intentions and venture opportunity identification. Entrepreneurs themselves (and those who teach and train them) should benefit from a better understanding of their own motives. The lens provided by intentions affords them the opportunity to understand why they made certain choices in their vision of the new venture. Intentions-based models provide practical insight to any planned behavior. This allows us to better encourage the identification of personally-viable, personally-credible opportunities. Teachers, consultants, advisors, and entrepreneurs should benefit from a better general understanding of how intentions are formed, as well as a specific understanding of how founders' beliefs, perceptions, and motives coalesce into the intent to start a business. This understanding offers sizable diagnostic power, thus entrepreneurship educators can use this model to better understand the motivations and intentions of students and trainees and to help students and trainees understand their own motivations and intentions. Carefully targeted training becomes possible. For example, ethnic and gender differences in career choice are largely explained by self-efficacy differences. Applied work in psychology and sociology tells us that we already know how to remediate self-efficacy differences. Raising entrepreneurial efficacies will raise perceptions of venture feasibility, thus increasing the perception of opportunity. Economic and community development hinges not on chasing smokestacks, but on growing new businesses. To encourage economic development in the form of new enterprises we must first increase perceptions of feasibility and desirability. Policy initiatives will increase business formations if those initiatives positively influence attitudes and thus influence intentions. The growing trends of downsizing and outsourcing make this more than a sterile academic exercise. Even if we successfully increase the quantity and quality of potential entrepreneurs, we must also promote such perceptions among critical stakeholders including suppliers, financiers, neighbors, government officials, and the larger community. The findings of this study argue that promoting entrepreneurial intentions by promoting public perceptions of feasibility and desirability is not just desirable; promoting entrepreneurial intentions is also thoroughly feasible.

4,046 citations


"Demographic factors, family backgro..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Many studies confirm a positive relationship between attitude and behavioral intention (Kolvereid, 1996; Krueger et al., 2000; Autio et al., 2001; Van Gelderen et al., 2008; Bodewes, 2010; Tegtmeier, 2012; Yang, 2013; Nguyen, 2015)....

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  • ...In a later study, Krueger et al. (2000) modifies the model with two more components which are specific desirability and perceived self-efficacy....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Before technological change leads to new processes, products, markets, or ways of organizing, entrepreneurs must discover opportunities in which to exploit the new technology. To date, research has not explained adequately why entrepreneurs discover these opportunities, which creates several conceptual problems in the entrepreneurship literature. Drawing on Austrian economics, I argue that opportunity discovery is a function of the distribution of information in society (Hayek 1945). Through in-depth case studies of eight sets of entrepreneurs who exploit a single MIT invention, I show that entrepreneurs discover opportunities related to the information that they already possess. I use these findings to draw several implications that differ from those prevailing in the entrepreneurship literature, including: (1) entrepreneurs do not always select between alternative market opportunities for new technologies; (2) the source of entrepreneurship lies in differences in information about opportunities; (3) the results of prior studies of entrepreneurial exploitation may suffer from bias; and (4) individual differences influence the opportunities that people discover, how their entrepreneurial efforts are organized, and how the government can influence this process.

3,998 citations


"Demographic factors, family backgro..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...Entrepreneurial behavior is a process that unfolds over time for the individual (Shane, 2000)....

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  • ...…finding is inconsistent with many previous studies which confirm a positive relationship between prior experience in self-employment and entrepreneurial intention (Tkachev and Kolvereid, 1999; Lee and Tsang, 2001; Phan et al., 2002a, b; Barringer et al., 2005; Basu and Virick, 2008; Shane, 2000)....

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  • ...Shane (2000) points out that prior knowledge about markets, customer problems, and knowledge about how to serve markets will influence individuals’ discovery of opportunities, thus influencing entrepreneurial behaviors....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Per Davidsson1, Benson Honig1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This study examines nascent entrepreneurship by comparing individuals engaged in nascent activities (n=380) with a control group (n=608), after screening a sample from the general population (n=30,427). The study then follows the developmental process of nascent entrepreneurs for 18 months. Bridging and bonding social capital, consisting of both strong and weak ties, was a robust predictor for nascent entrepreneurs, as well as for advancing through the start-up process. With regard to outcomes like first sale or showing a profit, only one aspect of social capital, viz. being a member of a business network, had a statistically significant positive effect. The study supports human capital in predicting entry into nascent entrepreneurship, but only weakly for carrying the start-up process towards successful completion.

3,437 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Barbara Bird1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurs' states of mind that direct attention, experience, and action toward a business concept, set the form and direction of organizations at their inception. Subsequent organizational outcomes such as survival, development (including written plans), growth, and change are based on these intentions. The study of entrepreneurial intentions provides a way of advancing entrepreneurship research beyond descriptive studies and helps to distinguish entrepreneurial activity from strategic management.

2,362 citations


"Demographic factors, family backgro..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Entrepreneurial intentions can generally be defined as a conscious awareness and conviction by an individual that set up a new business venture and plans to do so in the future (Bird, 1988; Thompson, 2009). Pihie et al. (2009) states intention as a state of mind or attitude which influences entrepreneurial behavior. Van Gelderen (2008) states that entrepreneurial intentions Nguyen Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research (2018) 8:10 Page 2 of 17...

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  • ...Entrepreneurial intentions can generally be defined as a conscious awareness and conviction by an individual that set up a new business venture and plans to do so in the future (Bird, 1988; Thompson, 2009). Pihie et al. (2009) states intention as a state of mind or attitude which influences entrepreneurial behavior....

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  • ..., 2004; Murphy, 2006; Birdthistle, 2008). In contrast, other studies argue that the relationship between university education in general and entrepreneurship is not so strong and contested (Galloway and Brown, 2002; Pittaway and Cope, 2007). Hence, the influence of education level on entrepreneurial intention still remains doubtful so it calls for further research in the field. This result also implies that government and higher education institutions should provide entrepreneurial supporting programs to any person who wish to start up rather than only base on their education level. Entrepreneurship should be nurtured in any educational environment; not necessarily only in formal education such as universities or colleges. Remarkably, the result does not support that students with prior experience in selfemployment show higher entrepreneurial intention than students without prior experience in self-employment. This finding is inconsistent with many previous studies which confirm a positive relationship between prior experience in self-employment and entrepreneurial intention (Tkachev and Kolvereid, 1999; Lee and Tsang, 2001; Phan et al., 2002a, b; Barringer et al., 2005; Basu and Virick, 2008; Shane, 2000). This finding calls for further research to assess the influences of prior experience in self-employment on entrepreneurial intention. Further studies should clarify how would positive experiences and negative positive experiences affect entrepreneurial intention of business students. Moreover, what are the context that build such entrepreneurial experience also need to be investigated. Therefore, further studies should utilize qualitative methodology to gain more in-depth findings not only for prior experience in self-employment but also for other determinants as well. In term of family background, the results do not support any relationship between family background and entrepreneurial intentions of business students. There is insufficient statistical evidence to conclude that children of self-employed parents show a higher entrepreneurial intention than children whose parents are not self-employed. The result also does not support that children of immigrant parents from rural areas to urban cities show a higher entrepreneurial intention than students whose parents are not immigrant. These results imply that family backgrounds do not have significant influence on entrepreneurial intention although the relationship between role models and entrepreneurship has been confirmed by many studies worldwide (Birley and Westhead, 1994; Crant, 1996; Tkachev and Kolvereid, 1999; McElwee and Al-Riyami, 2003, Fairlie and Robb, 2007; Nguyen Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research (2018) 8:10 Page 13 of 17...

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  • ...Entrepreneurial intentions can generally be defined as a conscious awareness and conviction by an individual that set up a new business venture and plans to do so in the future (Bird, 1988; Thompson, 2009)....

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