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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08830185.2020.1844195

Dendritic cells in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis: insights for a possible role in determining disease outcome.

04 Mar 2021-International Reviews of Immunology (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 40, pp 108-125
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. This novel coronavirus emerged in China, quickly spreading to more than 200 countries worldwide. Although most patients are only mildly ill or even asymptomatic, some develop severe pneumonia and become critically ill. One of the biggest unanswered questions is why some develop severe disease, whilst others do not. Insight on the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system and the contribution of dysfunctional immune responses to disease progression will be instrumental to the understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis, risk factors for worst outcome, and rational design of effective therapies and vaccines. In this review we have gathered the knowledge available thus far on the epidemiology of SARS-COV-2 infection, focusing on the susceptibility of older individuals, SARS-CoV-2-host cell interaction during infection and the immune response directed at SARS-CoV-2. Dendritic cells act as crucial messengers linking innate and adaptative immunity against viral infections. Thus, this review also brings a focused discussion on the role of dendritic cells and their immune functions during SARS-CoV-2 infection and how immune evasion strategies of SARS-CoV-2 and advancing age mediate dendritic cell dysfunctions that contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis and increased susceptibility to worst outcomes. This review brings to light the hypothesis that concomitant occurrence of dendritic cell dysfunction/cytopathic effects induced by SARS-CoV-2 and/or aging may influence disease outcome in the elderly. Lastly, a detailed discussion on the effects and mechanisms of action of drugs currently being tested for COVID-19 on the function of dendritic cells is also provided.

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Topics: Dendritic cell (54%), Immunosenescence (53%), Immune system (52%)
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18 results found


Open access
01 Jan 2007-
Abstract: Pathogens or their toxins, including influenza virus, Pseudomonas, and anthrax toxins, require processing by host proprotein convertases (PCs) to enter host cells and to cause disease. Conversely, inhibiting PCs is likely to protect host cells from multiple furin-dependent, but otherwise unrelated, pathogens. To determine if this concept is correct, we designed specific nanomolar inhibitors of PCs modeled from the extended cleavage motif TPQRERRRKKR↓GL of the avian influenza H5N1 hemagglutinin. We then confirmed the efficacy of the inhibitory peptides in vitro against the fluorescent peptide, anthrax protective antigen (PA83), and influenza hemagglutinin substrates and also in mice in vivo against two unrelated toxins, anthrax and Pseudomonas exotoxin. Peptides with Phe/Tyr at P1′ were more selective for furin. Peptides with P1′ Thr were potent against multiple PCs. Our strategy of basing the peptide sequence on a furin cleavage motif known for an avian flu virus shows the power of starting inhibitor design with a known substrate. Our results confirm that inhibiting furin-like PCs protects the host from the distinct furin-dependent infections and lay a foundation for novel, host cell-focused therapies against acute diseases.

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Topics: Proprotein Convertases (73%), Furin (70%)

89 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.INTIMP.2021.107763
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the rapidly spreading pandemic COVID-19 in the world. As an effective therapeutic strategy is not introduced yet and the rapid genetic variations in the virus, there is an emerging necessity to design, evaluate and apply effective new vaccines. An acceptable vaccine must elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses, must have the least side effects and the storage and transport systems should be available and affordable for all countries. These vaccines can be classified into different types: inactivated vaccines, live-attenuated virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, virus-like particles (VLPs), nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA and RNA) and recombinant vector-based vaccines (replicating and non-replicating viral vector). According to the latest update of the WHO report on April 2nd, 2021, at least 85 vaccine candidates were being studied in clinical trial phases and 184 candidate vaccines were being evaluated in pre-clinical stages. In addition, studies have shown that other vaccines, including the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and the Plant-derived vaccine, may play a role in controlling pandemic COVID-19. Herein, we reviewed the different types of COVID-19 candidate vaccines that are currently being evaluated in preclinical and clinical trial phases along with advantages, disadvantages or adverse reactions, if any.

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Topics: Viral vector (51%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1172/JCI.INSIGHT.150542
22 Sep 2021-JCI insight
Abstract: The inflammatory and IFN pathways of innate immunity play a key role in the resistance and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Innate sensors and SARS-CoV-2-associated molecular patterns (SAMPs) remain to be completely defined. Here, we identified single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) fragments from the SARS-CoV-2 genome as direct activators of endosomal TLR7/8 and MyD88 pathway. The same sequences induced human DC activation in terms of phenotype and function, such as IFN and cytokine production and Th1 polarization. A bioinformatic scan of the viral genome identified several hundreds of fragments potentially activating TLR7/8, suggesting that products of virus endosomal processing potently activate the IFN and inflammatory responses downstream of these receptors. In vivo, SAMPs induced MyD88-dependent lung inflammation characterized by accumulation of proinflammatory and cytotoxic mediators and immune cell infiltration, as well as splenic DC phenotypical maturation. These results identified TLR7/8 as a crucial cellular sensor of ssRNAs encoded by SARS-CoV-2 involved in host resistance and the disease pathogenesis of COVID-19.

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Topics: Innate immune system (54%), TLR7 (54%), Proinflammatory cytokine (53%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CYTOGFR.2021.03.006
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) elicits an interferon (IFN) deficiency state, which aggravates the type I interferon deficiency and slow IFN responses, which associate with e.g. aging and obesity. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 may also elicit a cytokine storm, which accounts for disease progression and ultimately the urgent need of ventilator support. Based upon several reports, it has been argued that early treatment with IFN-alpha2 or IFN-beta, preferentially in the early disease stage, may prohibit disease progression. Similarly, preliminary studies have shown that JAK1/2 inhibitor treatment with ruxolitinib or baricitinib may decrease mortality by dampening the deadly cytokine storm, which - in addition to the virus itself - also contributes to multi-organ thrombosis and multi-organ failure. Herein, we describe the rationale for treatment with IFNs (alpha2 or beta) and ruxolitinib emphasizing the urgent need to explore these agents in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 - both as monotherapies and in combination. In this context, we take advantage of several safety and efficacy studies in patients with the chronic myeloproliferative blood cancers (essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis) (MPNs), in whom IFN-alpha2 and ruxolitinib have been used successfully for the last 10 (ruxolitinib) to 30 years (IFN) as monotherapies and most recently in combination as well. In the context of these agents being highly immunomodulating (IFN boosting immune cells and JAK1/2 inhibitors being highly immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory), we also discuss if statins and hydroxyurea, both agents possessing anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and antiviral potentials, might be inexpensive agents to be repurposed in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Ruxolitinib (64%), Cytokine storm (53%), Myelofibrosis (51%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22031118
Abstract: Dendritic cells (DC) connect the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system and carry out numerous roles that are significant in the context of viral disease. Their functions include the control of inflammatory responses, the promotion of tolerance, cross-presentation, immune cell recruitment and the production of antiviral cytokines. Based primarily on the available literature that characterizes the behaviour of many DC subsets during Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we speculated possible mechanisms through which DC could contribute to COVID-19 immune responses, such as dissemination of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to lymph nodes, mounting dysfunctional inteferon responses and T cell immunity in patients. We highlighted gaps of knowledge in our understanding of DC in COVID-19 pathogenesis and discussed current pre-clinical development of therapies for COVID-19.

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Topics: Acquired immune system (57%), Immune system (54%), Immunopathology (51%)

4 Citations


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175 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001017
Na Zhu1, Dingyu Zhang, Wenling Wang1, Xingwang Li2  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).

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Topics: Coronavirus (57%), Betacoronavirus (56%)

15,285 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.1585
Dawei Wang1, Bo Hu1, Chang Hu1, Fangfang Zhu1  +10 moreInstitutions (1)
17 Mar 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited. Objective To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective, single-center case series of the 138 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to January 28, 2020; final date of follow-up was February 3, 2020. Exposures Documented NCIP. Main Outcomes and Measures Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients were compared. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. Results Of 138 hospitalized patients with NCIP, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 42-68; range, 22-92 years) and 75 (54.3%) were men. Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). Common symptoms included fever (136 [98.6%]), fatigue (96 [69.6%]), and dry cough (82 [59.4%]). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]). Thirty-six patients (26.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 [61.1%]), arrhythmia (16 [44.4%]), and shock (11 [30.6%]). The median time from first symptom to dyspnea was 5.0 days, to hospital admission was 7.0 days, and to ARDS was 8.0 days. Patients treated in the ICU (n = 36), compared with patients not treated in the ICU (n = 102), were older (median age, 66 years vs 51 years), were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (26 [72.2%] vs 38 [37.3%]), and were more likely to have dyspnea (23 [63.9%] vs 20 [19.6%]), and anorexia (24 [66.7%] vs 31 [30.4%]). Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). As of February 3, 47 patients (34.1%) were discharged and 6 died (overall mortality, 4.3%), but the remaining patients are still hospitalized. Among those discharged alive (n = 47), the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR, 7.0-14.0). Conclusions and Relevance In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%.

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Topics: Interquartile range (51%)

13,270 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2012-7
Peng Zhou1, Xing-Lou Yang1, Xian Guang Wang2, Ben Hu1  +25 moreInstitutions (3)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1–4. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5–7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV. Characterization of full-length genome sequences from patients infected with a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) shows that the sequences are nearly identical and indicates that the virus is related to a bat coronavirus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (67%), Betacoronavirus (54%), Deltacoronavirus (51%) ... read more

12,056 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.02.052
16 Apr 2020-Cell
Abstract: The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.

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Topics: Proteases (52%)

10,193 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8
Roujian Lu1, Xiang Zhao1, Juan Li2, Peihua Niu1  +33 moreInstitutions (6)
22 Feb 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background In late December, 2019, patients presenting with viral pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was subsequently identified as the causative pathogen, provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As of Jan 26, 2020, more than 2000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed, most of which involved people living in or visiting Wuhan, and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed. Methods We did next-generation sequencing of samples from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cultured isolates from nine inpatients, eight of whom had visited the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan. Complete and partial 2019-nCoV genome sequences were obtained from these individuals. Viral contigs were connected using Sanger sequencing to obtain the full-length genomes, with the terminal regions determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Phylogenetic analysis of these 2019-nCoV genomes and those of other coronaviruses was used to determine the evolutionary history of the virus and help infer its likely origin. Homology modelling was done to explore the likely receptor-binding properties of the virus. Findings The ten genome sequences of 2019-nCoV obtained from the nine patients were extremely similar, exhibiting more than 99·98% sequence identity. Notably, 2019-nCoV was closely related (with 88% identity) to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, collected in 2018 in Zhoushan, eastern China, but were more distant from SARS-CoV (about 79%) and MERS-CoV (about 50%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 2019-nCoV fell within the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus, with a relatively long branch length to its closest relatives bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, and was genetically distinct from SARS-CoV. Notably, homology modelling revealed that 2019-nCoV had a similar receptor-binding domain structure to that of SARS-CoV, despite amino acid variation at some key residues. Interpretation 2019-nCoV is sufficiently divergent from SARS-CoV to be considered a new human-infecting betacoronavirus. Although our phylogenetic analysis suggests that bats might be the original host of this virus, an animal sold at the seafood market in Wuhan might represent an intermediate host facilitating the emergence of the virus in humans. Importantly, structural analysis suggests that 2019-nCoV might be able to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in humans. The future evolution, adaptation, and spread of this virus warrant urgent investigation. Funding National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong First Medical University.

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Topics: Betacoronavirus (59%), Coronavirus (58%)

7,249 Citations


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