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Journal ArticleDOI

Denoising digital breast tomosynthesis projections using deep learning with synthetic data as training set

22 May 2023-Journal of medical imaging (Journal of medical imaging)-Vol. 10, Iss: 03
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors used synthetic data generated by software for training DNNs to denoise DBT real data, showing that the synthesized noise is in the same sample space as the target image.
Abstract: Image denoising based on deep neural networks (DNN) needs a big dataset containing digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) projections acquired in different radiation doses to be trained, which is impracticable. Therefore, we propose extensively investigating the use of synthetic data generated by software for training DNNs to denoise DBT real data.The approach consists of generating a synthetic dataset representative of the DBT sample space by software, containing noisy and original images. Synthetic data were generated in two different ways: (a) virtual DBT projections generated by OpenVCT and (b) noisy images synthesized from photography regarding noise models used in DBT (e.g., Poisson-Gaussian noise). Then, DNN-based denoising techniques were trained using a synthetic dataset and tested for denoising physical DBT data. Results were evaluated in quantitative (PSNR and SSIM measures) and qualitative (visual analysis) terms. Furthermore, a dimensionality reduction technique (t-SNE) was used for visualization of sample spaces of synthetic and real datasets.The experiments showed that training DNN models with synthetic data could denoise DBT real data, achieving competitive results to traditional methods in quantitative terms but showing a better balance between noise filtering and detail preservation in a visual analysis. T-SNE enables us to visualize if synthetic and real noises are in the same sample space.We propose a solution for the lack of suitable training data to train DNN models for denoising DBT projections, showing that we just need the synthesized noise to be in the same sample space as the target image.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a structural similarity index is proposed for image quality assessment based on the degradation of structural information, which can be applied to both subjective ratings and objective methods on a database of images compressed with JPEG and JPEG2000.
Abstract: Objective methods for assessing perceptual image quality traditionally attempted to quantify the visibility of errors (differences) between a distorted image and a reference image using a variety of known properties of the human visual system. Under the assumption that human visual perception is highly adapted for extracting structural information from a scene, we introduce an alternative complementary framework for quality assessment based on the degradation of structural information. As a specific example of this concept, we develop a structural similarity index and demonstrate its promise through a set of intuitive examples, as well as comparison to both subjective ratings and state-of-the-art objective methods on a database of images compressed with JPEG and JPEG2000. A MATLAB implementation of the proposed algorithm is available online at http://www.cns.nyu.edu//spl sim/lcv/ssim/.

40,609 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: SciPy as discussed by the authors is an open source scientific computing library for the Python programming language, which includes functionality spanning clustering, Fourier transforms, integration, interpolation, file I/O, linear algebra, image processing, orthogonal distance regression, minimization algorithms, signal processing, sparse matrix handling, computational geometry, and statistics.
Abstract: SciPy is an open source scientific computing library for the Python programming language. SciPy 1.0 was released in late 2017, about 16 years after the original version 0.1 release. SciPy has become a de facto standard for leveraging scientific algorithms in the Python programming language, with more than 600 unique code contributors, thousands of dependent packages, over 100,000 dependent repositories, and millions of downloads per year. This includes usage of SciPy in almost half of all machine learning projects on GitHub, and usage by high profile projects including LIGO gravitational wave analysis and creation of the first-ever image of a black hole (M87). The library includes functionality spanning clustering, Fourier transforms, integration, interpolation, file I/O, linear algebra, image processing, orthogonal distance regression, minimization algorithms, signal processing, sparse matrix handling, computational geometry, and statistics. In this work, we provide an overview of the capabilities and development practices of the SciPy library and highlight some recent technical developments.

12,774 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article will be concerned primarily with the second and third questions, which are still subject to a vast amount of speculation, and where the few relevant facts currently supplied by neurophysiology have not yet been integrated into an acceptable theory.
Abstract: The first of these questions is in the province of sensory physiology, and is the only one for which appreciable understanding has been achieved. This article will be concerned primarily with the second and third questions, which are still subject to a vast amount of speculation, and where the few relevant facts currently supplied by neurophysiology have not yet been integrated into an acceptable theory. With regard to the second question, two alternative positions have been maintained. The first suggests that storage of sensory information is in the form of coded representations or images, with some sort of one-to-one mapping between the sensory stimulus

8,434 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An algorithm based on an enhanced sparse representation in transform domain based on a specially developed collaborative Wiener filtering achieves state-of-the-art denoising performance in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and subjective visual quality.
Abstract: We propose a novel image denoising strategy based on an enhanced sparse representation in transform domain. The enhancement of the sparsity is achieved by grouping similar 2D image fragments (e.g., blocks) into 3D data arrays which we call "groups." Collaborative Altering is a special procedure developed to deal with these 3D groups. We realize it using the three successive steps: 3D transformation of a group, shrinkage of the transform spectrum, and inverse 3D transformation. The result is a 3D estimate that consists of the jointly filtered grouped image blocks. By attenuating the noise, the collaborative filtering reveals even the finest details shared by grouped blocks and, at the same time, it preserves the essential unique features of each individual block. The filtered blocks are then returned to their original positions. Because these blocks are overlapping, for each pixel, we obtain many different estimates which need to be combined. Aggregation is a particular averaging procedure which is exploited to take advantage of this redundancy. A significant improvement is obtained by a specially developed collaborative Wiener filtering. An algorithm based on this novel denoising strategy and its efficient implementation are presented in full detail; an extension to color-image denoising is also developed. The experimental results demonstrate that this computationally scalable algorithm achieves state-of-the-art denoising performance in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and subjective visual quality.

7,912 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Sep 2020-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review how a few fundamental array concepts lead to a simple and powerful programming paradigm for organizing, exploring and analysing scientific data, and their evolution into a flexible interoperability layer between increasingly specialized computational libraries is discussed.
Abstract: Array programming provides a powerful, compact and expressive syntax for accessing, manipulating and operating on data in vectors, matrices and higher-dimensional arrays. NumPy is the primary array programming library for the Python language. It has an essential role in research analysis pipelines in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, astronomy, geoscience, biology, psychology, materials science, engineering, finance and economics. For example, in astronomy, NumPy was an important part of the software stack used in the discovery of gravitational waves1 and in the first imaging of a black hole2. Here we review how a few fundamental array concepts lead to a simple and powerful programming paradigm for organizing, exploring and analysing scientific data. NumPy is the foundation upon which the scientific Python ecosystem is constructed. It is so pervasive that several projects, targeting audiences with specialized needs, have developed their own NumPy-like interfaces and array objects. Owing to its central position in the ecosystem, NumPy increasingly acts as an interoperability layer between such array computation libraries and, together with its application programming interface (API), provides a flexible framework to support the next decade of scientific and industrial analysis. NumPy is the primary array programming library for Python; here its fundamental concepts are reviewed and its evolution into a flexible interoperability layer between increasingly specialized computational libraries is discussed.

7,624 citations