Density functional theory study of the complexation of the uranyl dication with anionic phosphate ligands with and without water molecules.
04 Sep 2013-Journal of Physical Chemistry A (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 117, Iss: 36, pp 8939-8957
TL;DR: The structures, vibrational frequencies and energetics of anhydrous and hydrated complexes of UO2(2+) with the phosphate anions H2PO4(-), HPO4(2-), and PO4(3-) were predicted at the density functional theory and MP2 molecular orbital theory levels as isolated gas phase species and in aqueous solution by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with different solvation models.
Abstract: The structures, vibrational frequencies and energetics of anhydrous and hydrated complexes of UO22+ with the phosphate anions H2PO4–, HPO42–, and PO43– were predicted at the density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 molecular orbital theory levels as isolated gas phase species and in aqueous solution by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with different solvation models. The geometries and vibrational frequencies of the major binding modes for these complexes are compared to experiment where possible and good agreement is found. The uranyl moiety is nonlinear in many of the complexes, and the coordination number (CN) 5 in the equatorial plane is the predominant binding motif. The phosphates are found to bind in both monodentate and bidentate binding modes depending on the charge and the number of water molecules. The SCRF calculations were done with a variety of approaches, and different SCRF approaches were found to be optimal for different reaction types. The acidities of HxPO43-x in ...
TL;DR: This review article provides a thorough discussion of the vibrational modes for U(IV), U(V), and U(VI) and applications of infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies in the identification and detection of both naturally occurring and synthetic uranium species in solid and solution states.
Abstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of uranium speciation using vibrational spectroscopy methods including Raman and IR. Uranium is a naturally occurring, radioactive element that is utilized in the nuclear energy and national security sectors. Fundamental uranium chemistry is also an active area of investigation due to ongoing questions regarding the participation of 5f orbitals in bonding, variation in oxidation states and coordination environments, and unique chemical and physical properties. Importantly, uranium speciation affects fate and transportation in the environment, influences bioavailability and toxicity to human health, controls separation processes for nuclear waste, and impacts isotopic partitioning and geochronological dating. This review article provides a thorough discussion of the vibrational modes for U(IV), U(V), and U(VI) and applications of infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies in the identification and detection of both naturally occurring and synthetic uranium species in solid and solution states. The vibrational frequencies of the uranyl moiety, including both symmetric and asymmetric stretches are sensitive to the coordinating ligands and used to identify individual species in water, organic solvents, and ionic liquids or on the surface of materials. Additionally, vibrational spectroscopy allows for the in situ detection and real-time monitoring of chemical reactions involving uranium. Finally, techniques to enhance uranium species signals with vibrational modes are discussed to expand the application of vibrational spectroscopy to biological, environmental, inorganic, and materials scientists and engineers.
TL;DR: The ability to predict the equilibrium constants for the formation of 1:1 uranyl/ligand complexes (log K1 values) provides the essential foundation for the rational design of ligands with enhanced uranyl affinity and selectivity in UO2(2+) complexes with 18 donor ligands.
Abstract: The ability to predict the equilibrium constants for the formation of 1:1 uranyl/ligand complexes (log K1 values) provides the essential foundation for the rational design of ligands with enhanced uranyl affinity and selectivity. We use density functional theory (B3LYP) and the integral equation formalism polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) to compute aqueous stability constants for UO22+ complexes with 18 donor ligands. Theoretical calculations permit reasonably good estimates of relative binding strengths, while the absolute log K1 values are significantly overestimated. Accurate predictions of the absolute log K1 values (root-mean-square deviation from experiment <1.0 for log K1 values ranging from 0 to 16.8) can be obtained by fitting the experimental data for two groups of mono- and divalent negative oxygen donor ligands. The utility of correlations is demonstrated for amidoxime and imide dioxime ligands, providing a useful means of screening for new ligands with strong chelating capability to uranyl.
TL;DR: The calculations show that it is still difficult to predict pKa's using this cluster/implicit solvent approach to better than 1 pKa unit, but the SCRF calculations consistently agree best with experiment at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and CCSD(T) level of theory.
Abstract: Aqueous metal ions play an important role in many areas of chemistry. The acidities of [Be(H2O)4](2+), [M(H2O)6](2+), M = Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Hg(2+), and [M(H2O)n](2+), M = Ca(2+) and Sr(2+), n = 7 and 8, complexes have been predicted using density functional theory, second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory in the gas phase. pKa's in aqueous solution were predicted by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with different solvation models. The most common binding motif of the majority of the metal +2 complexes is coordination number (CN) 6, with each hexaaquo cluster having reasonably high symmetry for the best arrangement of the water molecules in the first solvation shell. Be(2+) is tetracoordinated, but a second solvation shell of 8 waters is needed to predict the pKa. The Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) aquo clusters have a coordination number of 7 or 8 as found in terms of the energy of the reaction M(H2O)7(2+) + H2O → M(H2O)8(2+) and the pKa values. The calculated geometries are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The SCRF calculations with the conductor-like screening model (COSMO), and the conductor polarized continuum model (CPCM) using COSMO-RS radii, consistently agree best with experiment at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory. The CCSD(T) level provides the most accurate pKa's, and the MP2 level also provides reliable predictions. Our predictions were used to elucidate the properties of metal +2 ion complexes. The pKa predictions provide confirmation of the size of the first solvation shell sizes. The calculations show that it is still difficult to predict pKa's using this cluster/implicit solvent approach to better than 1 pKa unit.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the effect of tetramethyl diglycolamide (TMDGA) chelating ligand on the performance of the extraction of actinides in the PUREX process.
Abstract: In the well-known PUREX process, tertiary butyl phosphate shows preferential extraction of UO2 2+ over Pu4+, whereas tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA) displays the reverse selectivity The reversal of selectivity toward diglycolamide has been investigated here theoretically by considering shorter analogue of TODGA, tetramethyl diglycolamide (TMDGA) Structure, bonding, energetic parameter and thermodynamic parameters of UO2 2+ and Pu4+ ions with TMDGA in the gas and solvent phase have been reported in order to understand their complexation and extraction behavior The calculation has been performed with generalized gradient approximated BP86 density functional and hybrid B3LYP functional employing SVP and TZVP basis set The calculated structure obtained at BP86/SVP level of optimization is found to be in close agreement with the reported experimental data The free energy of extraction, ΔG ext, of UO2 2+ and Pu4+ ions from aqueous phase to the dodecane phase has been computed using the Born-Haber thermodynamic cycle in conjunction with COSMO (conductor like screening model) solvation approach The free energy of extraction is predicted to be exergonic for explicit monomer water model The free energy of extraction for Pu4+ ion is shown to be higher than that of UO2 2+ as observed in the reported solvent extraction experiment Further, the suitability of non-polar solvents as organic diluents has been confirmed by the decreased free energy of extraction with increasing dielectric constant of the solvents Natural population and orbital analysis indicate the electrostatic and small covalent nature of interactions between the metal ions and the tridentate TMDGA chelating ligand The results presented here might be helpful in designing new ligands for efficient extraction of actinides
TL;DR: The combined experimental and theoretical studies helped to understand the superior complexation/extraction behavior of Pu(IV) over U(VI) with DHOA.
Abstract: Straight chain amide N,N-dihexyloctanamide (DHOA) has been found to be a promising alternative extractant to tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) for the reprocessing of irradiated uranium- and thorium-based fuels. Unlike TBP, DHOA displays preferential extraction of Pu(IV) over U(VI) at higher acidities (≥3 M HNO3) and poor extraction at lower acidities. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations have been carried out on the structures and relative binding energies of U(VI) and Pu(IV) with the extractant molecules. These calculations suggest that the differential hardness of the two extractants is responsible for the preferential binding/complexation of TBP to uranyl, whereas the softer DHOA and the bulky nature of the extractant lead to stronger binding/complexation of DHOA to Pu(IV). In conjunction with quantum chemical calculations, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements have also been performed for understanding the stoichiometry of the complex formed that leads to relatively lower extraction of Th(IV) (a model for Pu(IV)) as compared to U(VI) using DHOA and TBP as the extractants. The combined experimental and theoretical studies helped us to understand the superior complexation/extraction behavior of Pu(IV) over U(VI) with DHOA.
TL;DR: A simple derivation of a simple GGA is presented, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants, and only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked.
Abstract: Generalized gradient approximations (GGA’s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. [S0031-9007(96)01479-2] PACS numbers: 71.15.Mb, 71.45.Gm Kohn-Sham density functional theory [1,2] is widely used for self-consistent-field electronic structure calculations of the ground-state properties of atoms, molecules, and solids. In this theory, only the exchange-correlation energy EXC › EX 1 EC as a functional of the electron spin densities n"srd and n#srd must be approximated. The most popular functionals have a form appropriate for slowly varying densities: the local spin density (LSD) approximation Z d 3 rn e unif
TL;DR: In this article, a semi-empirical exchange correlation functional with local spin density, gradient, and exact exchange terms was proposed. But this functional performed significantly better than previous functionals with gradient corrections only, and fits experimental atomization energies with an impressively small average absolute deviation of 2.4 kcal/mol.
Abstract: Despite the remarkable thermochemical accuracy of Kohn–Sham density‐functional theories with gradient corrections for exchange‐correlation [see, for example, A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 2155 (1992)], we believe that further improvements are unlikely unless exact‐exchange information is considered. Arguments to support this view are presented, and a semiempirical exchange‐correlation functional containing local‐spin‐density, gradient, and exact‐exchange terms is tested on 56 atomization energies, 42 ionization potentials, 8 proton affinities, and 10 total atomic energies of first‐ and second‐row systems. This functional performs significantly better than previous functionals with gradient corrections only, and fits experimental atomization energies with an impressively small average absolute deviation of 2.4 kcal/mol.
TL;DR: Numerical calculations on a number of atoms, positive ions, and molecules, of both open- and closed-shell type, show that density-functional formulas for the correlation energy and correlation potential give correlation energies within a few percent.
Abstract: A correlation-energy formula due to Colle and Salvetti [Theor. Chim. Acta 37, 329 (1975)], in which the correlation energy density is expressed in terms of the electron density and a Laplacian of the second-order Hartree-Fock density matrix, is restated as a formula involving the density and local kinetic-energy density. On insertion of gradient expansions for the local kinetic-energy density, density-functional formulas for the correlation energy and correlation potential are then obtained. Through numerical calculations on a number of atoms, positive ions, and molecules, of both open- and closed-shell type, it is demonstrated that these formulas, like the original Colle-Salvetti formulas, give correlation energies within a few percent.
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-modelling procedure called "Continuum Methods within MD and MC Simulations 3072", which automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive process of integrating discrete and continuous components into a discrete-time model.
Abstract: 6.2.2. Definition of Effective Properties 3064 6.3. Response Properties to Magnetic Fields 3066 6.3.1. Nuclear Shielding 3066 6.3.2. Indirect Spin−Spin Coupling 3067 6.3.3. EPR Parameters 3068 6.4. Properties of Chiral Systems 3069 6.4.1. Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) 3069 6.4.2. Optical Rotation (OR) 3069 6.4.3. VCD and VROA 3070 7. Continuum and Discrete Models 3071 7.1. Continuum Methods within MD and MC Simulations 3072