scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Deploy-As-You-Go Wireless Relay Placement: An Optimal Sequential Decision Approach Using the Multi-Relay Channel Model

TL;DR: The problem of as-you-go placement of relays along a line of exponentially distributed length is formulated as a total cost Markov decision process, results for the value function are established, and insights are provided into the placement policy and the performance of the deployed network via numerical exploration.
Abstract: We use information theoretic achievable rate formulas for the multi-relay channel to study the problem of as-you-go deployment of relay nodes. The achievable rate formulas are for full-duplex radios at the relays and for decode-and-forward relaying. Deployment is done along the straight line joining a source node and a sink node at an unknown distance from the source. The problem is for a deployment agent to walk from the source to the sink, deploying relays as he walks, given the knowledge of the wireless path-loss model, and given that the distance to the sink node is exponentially distributed with known mean. As a precursor to the formulation of the deploy-as-you-go problem, we apply the multi-relay channel achievable rate formula to obtain the optimal power allocation to relays placed along a line, at fixed locations. This permits us to obtain the optimal placement of a given number of nodes when the distance between the source and sink is given. Numerical work for the fixed source-sink distance case suggests that, at low attenuation, the relays are mostly clustered close to the source in order to be able to cooperate among themselves, whereas at high attenuation they are uniformly placed and work as repeaters. We also prove that the effect of path-loss can be entirely mitigated if a large enough number of relays are placed uniformly between the source and the sink. The structure of the optimal power allocation for a given placement of the nodes, then motivates us to formulate the problem of as-you-go placement of relays along a line of exponentially distributed length, and with the exponential path-loss model, so as to minimize a cost function that is additive over hops. The hop cost trades off a capacity limiting term, motivated from the optimal power allocation solution, against the cost of adding a relay node. We formulate the problem as a total cost Markov decision process, establish results for the value function, and provide insights into the placement policy and the performance of the deployed network via numerical exploration.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We consider unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-assisted wireless communication employing UAVs as relays to increase the throughput between a pair of transmitter and receiver. We focus on developing effective methods to position the UAV(s) in the presence of interference in the environment, the existence of which makes the problem non-trivial and our methodology different from the current art. We study the optimal position planning, which aims to maximize the (average) signal-to-interference-ratio (SIR) of the system, in the presence of: i) one major source of interference, ii) stochastic interference. For each scenario, we first consider utilizing a single UAV in the dual-hop relay mode and determine its optimal position. Afterward, multiple UAVs in the multi-hop relay mode are considered, for which we investigate two novel problems concerned with determining the optimal number of required UAVs and developing an optimal distributed position alignment method. Subsequently, we propose a cost-effective method that simultaneously minimizes the number of UAVs and determines their optimal positions to guarantee a certain (average) SIR of the system. Alternatively, for a given number of UAVs, we develop a fully distributed placement algorithm along with its performance guarantee. Numerical simulations are provided to evaluate the performance of our proposed methods.

43 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that, compared with traditional search algorithms, solutions based on the maximum matching and the maximum flow technologies have O ( n 2 ) complexity, and they perform better than traditional ways on the number of paths and system overhead.

31 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work designs a Set-Covering-based Algorithm (SCA) which figures out the DCRNP problem while ensuring the quality of each link better than a given threshold and builds fault-tolerant WSNs based on the methodology of SCA.
Abstract: The increasingly wide utilization of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in industrial applications outstands the significance of the Delay Constrained Relay Node Placement (DCRNP) problem. Existing algorithms to the DCRNP problem are designed based on the ideal geometric disk wireless channel model, and no real-world deployments are performed to verify the effectiveness of these algorithms. However, the unreliable and unpredictable wireless links in WSNs may lead these algorithms to fail in practice. Therefore, we first conduct extensive real-world deployments under the guidance of existing algorithms to evaluate their performance and to gain some insights for designing practical deployment algorithms. The results exhibit that the WSNs built by existing algorithms have a favorable performance in end-to-end delay but a poor performance in reliability, which is mainly due to the lack of methods ensuring high-quality links. To this end, we first devise a Set-Covering-based Algorithm (SCA) which figures out the DCRNP problem while ensuring the quality of each link better than a given threshold. As our experiments also show that the fault-tolerant topology can significantly improve network reliability, we then design a $k$ k -Set-Covering-based Algorithm ( $k$ k SCA) to build fault-tolerant WSNs based on the methodology of SCA. Furthermore, the elaborate analysis proves that both SCA and $k$ k SCA are polynomial-time algorithms, and their approximation ratios are both O( $\ln n$ ln n ), where $n$ n is the number of sensor nodes. Finally, extensive experiments are performed under the guidance of SCA and $k$ k SCA to demonstrate the effectiveness of these two algorithms.

14 citations


Cites background from "Deploy-As-You-Go Wireless Relay Pla..."

  • ...Normally, the communication radius of an SN is very limited because of the limited energy and antenna height [5]....

    [...]

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a distributed placement algorithm for UAV-assisted wireless communication employing UAVs as relay nodes to increase the throughput between a pair of transmitter and receiver.
Abstract: We consider unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-assisted wireless communication employing UAVs as relay nodes to increase the throughput between a pair of transmitter and receiver. We focus on developing effective methods to position the UAV(s) in the sky in the presence of a major source of interference, the existence of which makes the problem non-trivial. First, we consider utilizing a single UAV, for which we develop a theoretical framework to determine its optimal position aiming to maximize the SIR of the system. To this end, we investigate the problem for three practical scenarios, in which the position of the UAV is: (i) vertically fixed, horizontally adjustable; (ii) horizontally fixed, vertically adjustable; (iii) both horizontally and vertically adjustable. Afterward, we consider employing multiple UAVs, for which we propose a cost-effective method that simultaneously minimizes the number of required UAVs and determines their optimal positions so as to guarantee a certain SIR of the system. We further develop a distributed placement algorithm, which can increase the SIR of the system given an arbitrary number of UAVs. Numerical simulations are provided to evaluate the performance of our proposed methods.

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a deploy-and-learn algorithm for the pure-as-you-go approach, where the deployment agent explores a few successive steps and then selects the best relay placement location among them.
Abstract: We are motivated by the need, in emergency situations, for impromptu (or “as-you-go”) deployment of multihop wireless networks, by human agents or robots (e.g., unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)); the agent moves along a line, makes wireless link quality measurements at regular intervals, and makes on-line placement decisions using these measurements. As a first step, we have formulated such deployment along a line as a sequential decision problem. In our earlier work, reported in [1] , we proposed two possible deployment approaches: (i) the pure as-you-go approach where the deployment agent can only move forward, and (ii) the explore-forward approach where the deployment agent explores a few successive steps and then selects the best relay placement location among them. The latter was shown to provide better performance (in terms of network cost, network performance, and power expenditure), but at the expense of more measurements and deployment time, which makes explore-forward impractical for quick deployment by an energy constrained agent such as a UAV. Further, since in emergency situations the terrain would be unknown, the deployment algorithm should not require a-priori knowledge of the parameters of the wireless propagation model. In [1] , we, therefore, developed learning algorithms for the explore-forward approach. The current paper fills in an important gap by providing deploy-and-learn algorithms for the pure as-you-go approach. We formulate the sequential relay deployment problem as an average cost Markov decision process (MDP), which trades off among power consumption, link outage probabilities, and the number of relay nodes in the deployed network. While the pure as-you-go deployment problem was previously formulated as a discounted cost MDP (see [1] ), the discounted cost MDP formulation was not amenable for learning algorithms that are proposed in this paper. In this paper, first we show structural results for the optimal policy corresponding to the average cost MDP, and provide new insights into the optimal policy. Next, by exploiting the special structure of the average cost optimality equation and by using the theory of asynchronous stochastic approximation (in single and two timescale), we develop two learning algorithms that asymptotically converge to the set of optimal policies as deployment progresses. Numerical results show reasonably fast speed of convergence, and hence the model-free algorithms can be useful for practical, fast deployment of emergency wireless networks.

7 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the capacity of the Gaussian relay channel was investigated, and a lower bound of the capacity was established for the general relay channel, where the dependence of the received symbols upon the inputs is given by p(y,y) to both x and y. In particular, the authors proved that if y is a degraded form of y, then C \: = \: \max \!p(x,y,x,2})} \min \,{I(X,y), I(X,Y,Y,X,Y
Abstract: A relay channel consists of an input x_{l} , a relay output y_{1} , a channel output y , and a relay sender x_{2} (whose transmission is allowed to depend on the past symbols y_{1} . The dependence of the received symbols upon the inputs is given by p(y,y_{1}|x_{1},x_{2}) . The channel is assumed to be memoryless. In this paper the following capacity theorems are proved. 1)If y is a degraded form of y_{1} , then C \: = \: \max \!_{p(x_{1},x_{2})} \min \,{I(X_{1},X_{2};Y), I(X_{1}; Y_{1}|X_{2})} . 2)If y_{1} is a degraded form of y , then C \: = \: \max \!_{p(x_{1})} \max_{x_{2}} I(X_{1};Y|x_{2}) . 3)If p(y,y_{1}|x_{1},x_{2}) is an arbitrary relay channel with feedback from (y,y_{1}) to both x_{1} \and x_{2} , then C\: = \: \max_{p(x_{1},x_{2})} \min \,{I(X_{1},X_{2};Y),I \,(X_{1};Y,Y_{1}|X_{2})} . 4)For a general relay channel, C \: \leq \: \max_{p(x_{1},x_{2})} \min \,{I \,(X_{1}, X_{2};Y),I(X_{1};Y,Y_{1}|X_{2}) . Superposition block Markov encoding is used to show achievability of C , and converses are established. The capacities of the Gaussian relay channel and certain discrete relay channels are evaluated. Finally, an achievable lower bound to the capacity of the general relay channel is established.

4,311 citations

01 Sep 1979
TL;DR: An achievable lower bound to the capacity of the general relay channel is established and superposition block Markov encoding is used to show achievability of C, and converses are established.

3,918 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...F...

    [...]

  • ...Conclusions are drawn in Section 7....

    [...]

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Jung-Il Choi1, Mayank Jain1, Kannan Srinivasan1, Phil Levis1, Sachin Katti1 
20 Sep 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, a single channel full-duplex wireless transceiver is proposed, which uses a combination of RF and baseband techniques to achieve FD with minimal effect on link reliability.
Abstract: This paper discusses the design of a single channel full-duplex wireless transceiver. The design uses a combination of RF and baseband techniques to achieve full-duplexing with minimal effect on link reliability. Experiments on real nodes show the full-duplex prototype achieves median performance that is within 8% of an ideal full-duplexing system. This paper presents Antenna Cancellation, a novel technique for self-interference cancellation. In conjunction with existing RF interference cancellation and digital baseband interference cancellation, antenna cancellation achieves the amount of self-interference cancellation required for full-duplex operation. The paper also discusses potential MAC and network gains with full-duplexing. It suggests ways in which a full-duplex system can solve some important problems with existing wireless systems including hidden terminals, loss of throughput due to congestion, and large end-to-end delays.

1,623 citations

Book
05 Apr 2006
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present abstract models that capture the cross-layer interaction from the physical to transport layer in wireless network architectures including cellular, ad-hoc and sensor networks as well as hybrid wireless-wireline.
Abstract: Information flow in a telecommunication network is accomplished through the interaction of mechanisms at various design layers with the end goal of supporting the information exchange needs of the applications. In wireless networks in particular, the different layers interact in a nontrivial manner in order to support information transfer. In this text we will present abstract models that capture the cross-layer interaction from the physical to transport layer in wireless network architectures including cellular, ad-hoc and sensor networks as well as hybrid wireless-wireline. The model allows for arbitrary network topologies as well as traffic forwarding modes, including datagrams and virtual circuits. Furthermore the time varying nature of a wireless network, due either to fading channels or to changing connectivity due to mobility, is adequately captured in our model to allow for state dependent network control policies. Quantitative performance measures that capture the quality of service requirements in these systems depending on the supported applications are discussed, including throughput maximization, energy consumption minimization, rate utility function maximization as well as general performance functionals. Cross-layer control algorithms with optimal or suboptimal performance with respect to the above measures are presented and analyzed. A detailed exposition of the related analysis and design techniques is provided.

1,612 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
19 Sep 2011
TL;DR: Experimental results show that a re- design of the wireless network stack to exploit full duplex capability can result in significant improvements in network performance.
Abstract: This paper presents a full duplex radio design using signal inversion and adaptive cancellation. Signal inversion uses a simple design based on a balanced/unbalanced (Balun) transformer. This new design, unlike prior work, supports wideband and high power systems. In theory, this new design has no limitation on bandwidth or power. In practice, we find that the signal inversion technique alone can cancel at least 45dB across a 40MHz bandwidth. Further, combining signal inversion cancellation with cancellation in the digital domain can reduce self-interference by up to 73dB for a 10MHz OFDM signal. This paper also presents a full duplex medium access control (MAC) design and evaluates it using a testbed of 5 prototype full duplex nodes. Full duplex reduces packet losses due to hidden terminals by up to 88%. Full duplex also mitigates unfair channel allocation in AP-based networks, increasing fairness from 0.85 to 0.98 while improving downlink throughput by 110% and uplink throughput by 15%. These experimental results show that a re- design of the wireless network stack to exploit full duplex capability can result in significant improvements in network performance.

1,489 citations