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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41398-021-01271-4

Depression, anxiety and associated factors among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak: a comparison of two cross-sectional studies.

02 Mar 2021-Translational Psychiatry (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 11, Iss: 1, pp 148-148
Abstract: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a public health emergency of international concern. In China, all schools were shut down and students were home quarantined to prevent disease spread; these steps could have potential negative effects on mental health of adolescents. This study aimed to examine changes in depression and anxiety among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic, and explore factors associated with depression and anxiety. Two survey administrations were conducted among Chinese adolescents between February 20 and February 27 and between April 11 and April 19, 2020, respectively. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale were used to assess depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms, respectively. A total of 9554 and 3886 adolescents participated in the first and second surveys. During the initial survey, the prevalence of depression was 36.6% (95% CI: 35.6-37.6%) while the prevalence of anxiety was 19% (95% CI: 18.2-19.8%). Rates of depression and anxiety increased to 57.0% (95% CI: 55.4-58.6%) and 36.7% (95% CI: 35.2-38.2%), respectively, in the second survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that group membership in the second survey, female gender, senior secondary school enrollment, and concerns about entering a higher grade were positively associated with both depression and anxiety. Conversely, a sleep duration of ≥6 h/day, an exercise duration ≥30 min/day, having the same as typical or higher study efficiency during the COVID-19 outbreak, and living in provinces with 1000-9999 confirmed COVID-19 cases were negatively associated with depression and anxiety. In conclusion, compared to figures reported during the COVID-19 outbreak, the prevalence of depression and anxiety in Chinese adolescents significantly increased after the initial outbreak. Regular screening and appropriate interventions are urgently needed to reduce the risk for emotional disturbances among adolescents during and after the initial COVID-19 outbreaks.

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Topics: Anxiety (62%), Generalized anxiety disorder (56%), Depression (differential diagnoses) (53%) ... show more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1542/PEDS.2021-051507
Stephanie L. Mayne1, Chloe Hannan1, Molly Davis2, Molly Davis3  +8 moreInstitutions (3)
17 Jun 2021-Pediatrics
Abstract: BACKGROUND Mental health concerns increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, but previous studies have not examined depression screening in pediatric primary care. We aimed to describe changes in screening, depressive symptoms, and suicide risk among adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS In a repeat cross-sectional analysis of electronic health record data from a large pediatric primary care network, we compared the percentage of primary care visits where adolescents aged 12 to 21 were screened for depression, screened positive for depressive symptoms, or screened positive for suicide risk between June and December 2019 (prepandemic) and June and December 2020 (pandemic). Changes were examined overall, by month, and by sex, race and ethnicity, insurance type, and income. Modified Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) for the prepandemic to pandemic changes. RESULTS Depression screening at primary care visits declined from 77.6% to 75.8% during the pandemic period (PR: 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90–1.06). The percentage of adolescents screening positive for depressive symptoms increased from 5.0% to 6.2% (PR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.15–1.34), with greater increases among female, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic white adolescents. Positive suicide risk screens increased from 6.1% to 7.1% (PR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.08–1.26), with a 34% relative increase in reporting recent suicidal thoughts among female adolescents (PR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.18–1.52). CONCLUSIONS Results suggest that depression and suicide concerns have increased during the pandemic, especially among female adolescents. Results underscore the importance of consistent depression and suicidality screening.

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12144-021-02334-X
Yue Li1, Yue Li2, Jun Peng2, Yanqiang Tao3Institutions (3)
04 Oct 2021-Current Psychology
Abstract: With the continued spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and the strict implementation of quarantine policy, the levels of anxiety among university students surged in the lockdown period. Previous studies confirmed the effectiveness of social support in mitigating anxiety, so offering social support should be of high priority in COVID-19, especially in quarantine. However, various coping strategies against the pandemic may explain the link between social support and anxiety. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of social support, coping strategy against COVID-19, and anxiety, identifying the potential mediating effect of coping strategy between social support and anxiety during the COVID-19 quarantine. Home-quarantined Chinese university students (N = 2640; 68.79% female) completed online ratings of social support, coping, and anxiety from February 21st to 24th, 2020, when they had been confined to their homes in the peak of the pandemic. Sex and academic attainment being covariates, path analysis with parallel mediation were conducted using “lavaan” package in R environment. Anxiety was significantly negatively related to subjective support and counselor support, while family support did not demonstrate substantive associations with anxiety. The mediating role of cognitive coping was found between all the three social support sources and anxiety. Emotional coping and behavioral coping were found to partially mediate the relationship between subjective support and anxiety, fully mediate the associations of family support and anxiety. However, the impact of counselor support on anxiety was not found to be mediated by emotional coping and behavioral coping. This large-scale online study provides initial evidence that various coping strategies may mediate the relationship between three sources of social support and anxiety in quarantine to some extent. Given that coping against COVID-19 is a valuable reasearch goal upon the global ongoing challenge, the findings will shed more light on the mechanism in the link between coping, social support, and anxiety.

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Topics: Anxiety (66%), Coping (psychology) (64%), Social support (57%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/HEALTHCARE9111532
Shenghua Lu1, Boris Cheval2, Qian Yu3, Mahbub Hossain4  +10 moreInstitutions (8)
10 Nov 2021-Healthcare
Abstract: This study examined the associations between adherence to 24-hour movement behavior guidelines (24-HMB) and the mental-health-related outcomes of depressive symptoms and anxiety in Chinese children. Data on movement behavior from 5357 children (4th and 5th grades), including physical activity, recreational screen time and sleep, were self-reported using the Health Behavior School-Aged Children Survey. Depressive symptoms and anxiety were self-reported using the Chinese version of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, respectively. Depressive symptoms and anxiety were treated as categorical variables. Only 3.2% of the participants met physical activity, screen time, and sleep 24-HMB guidelines. Ordinal logistic regressions showed that, compared with participants who met the 24-HMB guidelines, participants who met none (odds ratio (OR) = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.76–3.90) or any one of the guidelines (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.27–2.77) had higher odds of depressive symptoms. Similarly, there were higher odds of anxiety in participants who met none (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.45–3.70) or any one of the recommendations (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03–2.57) compared with participants who met all the 24-HMB guidelines. Meeting the 24-HMB guidelines is associated with better mental-health-related outcomes in Chinese children. Because of the low prevalence of Chinese children meeting the 24-HMB recommendations, the present findings highlight the need to encourage children to regularly engage in physical activity, decrease their time spent sitting, and improve their sleep patterns.

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Topics: Anxiety (61%), Patient Health Questionnaire (52%), Screen time (51%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYT.2021.740094
Tianya Hou1, Yawei Xie1, Xiaofei Mao1, Ying Liu1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted people's life across the globe. In a public health crisis, rural adolescents are more prone to mental health problems. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among Chinese rural adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak, and examine the association between perceived social support and depressive symptoms and its underlying mechanisms. Method: Perceived Social Support Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were administrated to 826 rural adolescents from Anhui Province, China, amid the COVID-19 crisis. Mackinnon's four-step procedure was employed to examine the mediating effect, while Hayes PROCESS macro was utilized to test the moderated mediation model. Results: The results showed the rate of depressive symptoms among rural adolescents in China was 77.6% during the outbreak of COVID-19. Female left-behind students and non-left-behind students from disrupted families experienced more depressive symptoms (all P < 0.05). Loneliness mediated the association between perceive social support and depressive symptoms and the indirect effect was stronger in left-behind adolescents in comparison to non-left-behind adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms are extremely prevalent among Chinese rural adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak, and perceived social support plays a protective role against depressive symptoms. Chinese rural adolescents, especially left-behind students, could benefit from the interventions aimed at enhancing the perceived social support and reducing loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Topics: Loneliness (58%), UCLA Loneliness Scale (57%), Social support (54%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/HEALTHCARE9101350
Jaewon Lee1, Hyejung Lim2, Jennifer Allen3, Gyuhyun Choi4  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
11 Oct 2021-Healthcare
Abstract: Even though boys' depression has become important, and their smartphone use has increased since COVID-19, little is known about low-income middle and high school boys' depression in the context of whether they have siblings. Thus, this study investigates the relationship between smartphone addiction and depression as well as the moderating effect of being an only child on the relationship. Participants were limited to middle and high school students whose families were regarded as having a low-income. A total of 129 low-income boys were selected for the final sample. The PROCESS macro 3.4 for Statistical Product and Service Solutions was used to identify the moderating effect. Smartphone addiction was positively related to depression among low-income male students. Being an only child significantly moderated the relationship between smartphone addiction and depression. This study contributes to understanding the importance of examining mental health problems among middle school boys since COVID-19, particularly among low-income boys. It is necessary to provide tailored mental health services for middle school boys in low-income families. Alternative activities and social programs should be provided for adolescent boys who are only children to safely socialize with friends and peers without a smartphone.

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Topics: Only child (53%), Mental health (52%)

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38 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/014662167700100306
Lenore Sawyer Radloff1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.

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44,791 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001017
Na Zhu1, Dingyu Zhang, Wenling Wang1, Xingwang Li2  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).

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Topics: Coronavirus (57%), Betacoronavirus (56%)

15,285 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.1585
Dawei Wang1, Bo Hu1, Chang Hu1, Fangfang Zhu1  +10 moreInstitutions (1)
17 Mar 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited. Objective To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective, single-center case series of the 138 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to January 28, 2020; final date of follow-up was February 3, 2020. Exposures Documented NCIP. Main Outcomes and Measures Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients were compared. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. Results Of 138 hospitalized patients with NCIP, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 42-68; range, 22-92 years) and 75 (54.3%) were men. Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). Common symptoms included fever (136 [98.6%]), fatigue (96 [69.6%]), and dry cough (82 [59.4%]). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]). Thirty-six patients (26.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 [61.1%]), arrhythmia (16 [44.4%]), and shock (11 [30.6%]). The median time from first symptom to dyspnea was 5.0 days, to hospital admission was 7.0 days, and to ARDS was 8.0 days. Patients treated in the ICU (n = 36), compared with patients not treated in the ICU (n = 102), were older (median age, 66 years vs 51 years), were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (26 [72.2%] vs 38 [37.3%]), and were more likely to have dyspnea (23 [63.9%] vs 20 [19.6%]), and anorexia (24 [66.7%] vs 31 [30.4%]). Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). As of February 3, 47 patients (34.1%) were discharged and 6 died (overall mortality, 4.3%), but the remaining patients are still hospitalized. Among those discharged alive (n = 47), the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR, 7.0-14.0). Conclusions and Relevance In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%.

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Topics: Interquartile range (51%)

13,270 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/ARCHINTE.166.10.1092
Abstract: Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders; however, there is no brief clinical measure for assessing GAD. The objective of this study was to develop a brief self-report scale to identify probable cases of GAD and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods A criterion-standard study was performed in 15 primary care clinics in the United States from November 2004 through June 2005. Of a total of 2740 adult patients completing a study questionnaire, 965 patients had a telephone interview with a mental health professional within 1 week. For criterion and construct validity, GAD self-report scale diagnoses were compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; and health care use. Results A 7-item anxiety scale (GAD-7) had good reliability, as well as criterion, construct, factorial, and procedural validity. A cut point was identified that optimized sensitivity (89%) and specificity (82%). Increasing scores on the scale were strongly associated with multiple domains of functional impairment (all 6 Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey scales and disability days). Although GAD and depression symptoms frequently co-occurred, factor analysis confirmed them as distinct dimensions. Moreover, GAD and depression symptoms had differing but independent effects on functional impairment and disability. There was good agreement between self-report and interviewer-administered versions of the scale. Conclusion The GAD-7 is a valid and efficient tool for screening for GAD and assessing its severity in clinical practice and research.

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9,723 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
14 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.

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Topics: Quarantine (52%)

6,092 Citations