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Journal ArticleDOI

Design and Low-Cost Implementation of an Electric Wheelchair Control

03 Sep 2021-Iete Journal of Research (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 67, Iss: 5, pp 657-666
TL;DR: The design and low-cost implementation of direction and speed controller for an electric wheelchair actuated using a permanent magnet direct current (PMDC) motor is discussed.
Abstract: This paper discusses the design and low-cost implementation of direction and speed controller for an electric wheelchair actuated using a permanent magnet direct current (PMDC) motor. Most ...
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
05 Aug 2021
TL;DR: In this article, an intelligent embedded system for wheelchairs used by paraplegic patients in order to bring comfort and autonomy, which can be found in clinics, hospitals and homes, is presented.
Abstract: In Peru there are approximately 932,000 people with disabilities, 59.2% of them have mobility problems. These people can not carry out activities inside or outside their home, thus affecting their daily life. Therefore, this study has been conducted from 2014 to 2020 at the Mechatronics Engineering Laboratory of Ricardo Palma University in Peru; resulting in the proposed project titled iTakuna, an intelligent embedded system for wheelchairs used by paraplegic patients in order to bring comfort and autonomy, which can be found in clinics, hospitals and homes. The device is composed of 8 sensors capable of detecting objects up to 3 meters away, power drivers for controlling the motors, controlled by fuzzy logic. The device was developed using SolidWorks software for 3D design; Proteus, for the design of electronic boards and simulation of electronic components, and Simulink for mechatronics analysis. Finally, it was designed, manufactured and implemented obtaining the expected results. Likewise, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed turned out to be friendly and intuitive for the patient. It is expected to reach a mass manufacturing level and can be used in clinics and hospitals.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the greenhouse model has strong interactions between its parameters, which are removed by Relative Gain Array (RGA) analyses, thereby providing an effective control strategy for complex greenhouse production.
Abstract: . In a commercial greenhouse, variables, such as temperature and humidity, should be controlled with minimal human intervention. A systematically designed climate control system can enhance the yield of commercial greenhouses. This study aims to formulate a nonlinear multivariable transfer function model of the greenhouse model using thermodynamic laws by taking into account the variables that affect the Greenhouse Climate Control System. To control its parameters, Mamdani model-based Fuzzy PID is designed which is compared with the performance of proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers to achieve a smooth control action. The Fuzzy logic based PID provides robust control actions eliminating the need for conventional tuning methods. The robustness analysis is performed using values obtained from real-time implementation for the greenhouse model for Fuzzy based PID, PI and PID controllers by minimizing the Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Integral Square Error (ISE). The greenhouse model has strong interactions between its parameters, which are removed by Relative Gain Array (RGA) analysis, thereby providing an effective control strategy for complex greenhouse production. Further, the stability analysis of non-linear greenhouse model is conducted with the help of the bode plot and Nyquist plot. Results show that good control performance can be achieved by tuning the gain parameters of controllers via step responses such as small overshoot, fast settling time, less rise time, and steady-state error. Also, smoother control action was obtained with Fuzzy based PID making the Greenhouse Climate Control System stable.

9 citations


Cites methods from "Design and Low-Cost Implementation ..."

  • ...CMS system can be further improved using permanent magnet direct current motors and the same has been previously verified using fuzzy logic systems (Sankardoss and Geethanjali, 2019)....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2020
TL;DR: In this article, a fuzzy logic controller-based speed control of PMDC motor using cost-effective ATMEGA328P-PU controller is discussed, which can effectively tune the PI parameters for every step change in command speed and improve the speed response of the drive.
Abstract: Permanent magnet direct current (PMDC) motors are commercial widely available and used for various industrial applications which require fast and effective control of speed. Conventional controllers like proportional integral (PI) controller perform better in pre-defined speed band for which they are tuned. However, for obtaining better performance for applications involving wide range of speeds, they have to be re-tuned for every speed change. It is inconvenient or in most of the cases not possible to re-tune PI controller parameters at every step to obtain optimal response from a PMDC motor drive for entire speed range. Fuzzy-logic based PI controller can effectively tune the PI parameters for every step change in command speed and improve the speed response of the drive. This paper discusses implementation scheme for fuzzy logic controller-based speed control of PMDC motor using cost-effective ATMEGA328P-PU controller.

4 citations


Cites methods from "Design and Low-Cost Implementation ..."

  • ...The application of real-time fuzzy system for wheelchair is documented in [20]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The platform showed an excellent performance regarding controlling the motorized wheelchair using face Tilting, and the position of the eyes was shown as the most useful face feature to track face tilting.
Abstract: Abstract Disability, specifically impaired upper and/or lower limbs, has a direct impact on the patients’ quality of life. Nowadays, motorized wheelchairs supported by a mobility-aided technique have been devised to improve the quality of life of these patients by increasing their independence. This study aims to present a platform to control a motorized wheelchair based on face tilting. A real-time tracking system of face tilting using a webcam and a microcontroller circuit has been designed and implemented. The designed system is dedicated to control the movement directions of the motorized wheelchair. Four commands were adequate to perform the required movements for the motorized wheelchair (forward, right, and left, as well as stopping status). The platform showed an excellent performance regarding controlling the motorized wheelchair using face tilting, and the position of the eyes was shown as the most useful face feature to track face tilting.

3 citations


Cites methods from "Design and Low-Cost Implementation ..."

  • ...The process included 13 flashing buttons presented on a graphical user interface (GUI), flashing in sequence one-by-one....

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  • ...Fuzzy logic has also been introduced to develop a speed and direction controller for motorized wheelchairs in the virtual world using Matlab-Simulink with a suggested push button and graphical user interface (GUI) [16]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2022-Energies
TL;DR: In this paper , a self-tuning fuzzy PID controller is introduced in the pressure and velocity regulation procedures of a TBM to improve the control characteristics of the thrust system, and tests on a Φ2.5 m scaled TBM test rig are carried out.
Abstract: The tunnel boring machine (TBM) is widely used in tunnel construction projects. The thrust system plays a crucial role to drive the machine ahead and support gripper shoes stably while tunneling. More and more attention has been paid to the pressure and velocity regulation efficiency as the TBM advances in complex rock conditions to ensure the stabilization of the tunneling process. A thrust hydraulic control system, assembled with a proportional pressure reducing valve, is established with system operating parameters. The mathematical model of the thrust electro-hydraulic system is revealed. To improve the control characteristics of the thrust system, a self-tuning fuzzy PID controller is introduced in the pressure and velocity regulation procedures. After that, tests on a Φ2.5 m scaled TBM test rig are carried out. The test results show that the thrust system adopting the fuzzy PID controller results in less oscillation and a smoother regulation process. It takes less time to reach the target goal of pressure regulation with less vibration during the pressure regenerating periods, and both systems of conventional PID controller and fuzzy PID controller are qualified in velocity regulation movements. The proposed control methods show better benefits in reduction of vibrations and shorter time of regulation to stable conditions, which extends the machine’s life and affects the acceleration of the tunneling process.

1 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Smart wheelchairs have been the subject of research since the early 1980s and have been developed on four continents and presented a summary of the current state of the art and directions for future research.
Abstract: — Several studies have shown that both children andadults benefit substantially from access to a means of indepen-dent mobility. While the needs of many individuals with disabil-ities can be satisfied with traditional manual or poweredwheelchairs, a segment of the disabled community finds it diffi-cult or impossible to use wheelchairs independently. To accom-modate this population, researchers have used technologiesoriginally developed for mobile robots to create “smart wheel-chairs.” Smart wheelchairs have been the subject of researchsince the early 1980s and have been developed on four conti-nents. This article presents a summary of the current state of theart and directions for future research. Key words: artificial intelligence, independent mobility, infra-red range finder, laser range finder, machine vision, powerwheelchairs, robotics, sonar, subsumption, voice control. INTRODUCTION Several studies have shown that both children andadults benefit substantially from access to a means ofindependent mobility, including power wheelchairs, man-ual wheelchairs, scooters, a nd walkers [1–2]. Independentmobility increases vocational and educational opportuni-ties, reduces dependence on caregivers and family mem-bers, and promotes feelings of self-reliance. For youngchildren, independent mobility serves as the foundationfor much early learning [1]. Nonambulatory children lackaccess to the wealth of stimuli afforded self-ambulatingchildren. This lack of exploration and control often pro-duces a cycle of deprivation and reduced motivation thatleads to learned helplessness [3].For adults, independent mobility is an importantaspect of self-esteem and plays a pivotal role in “aging inplace.” For example, if older people find it increasinglydifficult to walk or wheel themselves to the commode,they may do so less often or they may drink less fluid toreduce the frequency of urination. If they become unableto walk or wheel themselves to the commode and help isnot routinely available in the home when needed, a moveto a more enabling environment (e.g., assisted living) maybe necessary. Mobility limitati ons are the leading cause offunctional limitations among adults, with an estimatedprevalence of 40 per 1,000 persons age 18 to 44 and 188per 1,000 at age 85 and older [4]. Mobility difficulties arealso strong predictors of activities of daily living (ADL)and instrumental ADL disabi lities because of the need to

531 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that a DC motor can be successfully controlled using an ANN, and the trained neural-network identifier is combined with a desired reference model to achieve trajectory control of speed.
Abstract: An artificial-neural-network (ANN)-based high-performance speed-control system for a DC motor is introduced. The rotor speed of the DC motor can be made to follow an arbitrarily selected trajectory. The purpose is to achieve accurate trajectory control of the speed, especially when motor and load parameters are unknown. The unknown nonlinear dynamics of the motor and the load are captured by the ANN. The trained neural-network identifier is combined with a desired reference model to achieve trajectory control of speed. The performances of the identification and control algorithms are evaluated by simulating them on a typical DC motor model. It is shown that a DC motor can be successfully controlled using an ANN. >

232 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a review of electric powered wheelchair (EPW) control technology and provide insights into the future directions of EPW. The information gathered in this study is intended to promote awareness of the status of contemporary powered wheelchair control technologies and increase functional mobility of people who use EPWs.
Abstract: The purpose of this review is to convey the depth and breadth of the research conducted on electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) control technology as well as provide insights into future directions. We review the concepts and previous work on velocity control, traction control, suspension control, stability control, stair-climbing wheelchairs, and wheelchair navigation. The information gathered in this study is intended to promote awareness of the status of contemporary powered wheelchair control technology and increase the functional mobility of people who use EPWs.

210 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The PAPAW provided intuitive control and was capable of significantly reducing the strain on the upper extremities commonly associated with secondary disabling conditions among manual wheelchair users.
Abstract: Wheelchairs are an important form of mobility for people with disabilities. For many years, there have only been three wheelchair varieties: electric-powered wheelchairs, scooters and manual wheelchairs. Recently, wheelchairs have been developed that use a combination of human power and electric power. The human power is delivered by the arms through the pushrims while the electric power is delivered by a battery through two electric motors. The shared control system for a pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchair (PAPAW) must account for the human behavior and the interaction with the device. The PAPAW uses a form of gain scheduling based upon events recorded from the pushrim torque. The control system significantly altered (p<0.05) selected variables from pushrim torque curves for manual wheelchair propulsion and PAPAW operation as desired. The peak torque was reduced by over 50%, and the time on the rim was nearly doubled with the PAPAW. The PAPAW provided intuitive control and was capable of significantly reducing the strain on the upper extremities commonly associated with secondary disabling conditions among manual wheelchair users.

144 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel optimal design of the PID controller in the AVR system is presented by using the Taguchi combined genetic algorithm (TCGA) method to minimize the maximum percentage overshoot, the rise time, the settling time, and the steady-state error of the terminal voltage of the synchronous generator.
Abstract: The optimum design of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller plays an important role in achieving a satisfactory response in the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) system. This paper presents a novel optimal design of the PID controller in the AVR system by using the Taguchi combined genetic algorithm (TCGA) method. A multiobjective design optimization is introduced to minimize the maximum percentage overshoot, the rise time, the settling time, and the steady-state error of the terminal voltage of the synchronous generator. The proportional gain, the integral gain, the derivative gain, and the saturation limit define the search space for the optimization problem. The approximate optimum values of the design variables are determined by the Taguchi method using analysis of means. Analysis of variance is used to select the two most influential design variables. A multiobjective GA is used to obtain the accurate optimum values of these two variables. MATLAB toolboxes are used for this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed method is then compared with that of the earlier GA method and the particle swarm optimization method. With this proposed TCGA method, the step response of the AVR system can be improved.

144 citations