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Journal ArticleDOI

Design and signal processing of a magnetic sensor array for train wheel detection

20 Nov 2006-Sensors and Actuators A-physical (Elsevier)-Vol. 132, Iss: 2, pp 516-525
TL;DR: The gain of the process allows placing the signal-processing module far away of the detection point, which makes it possible to work with a detector system without electronics near the railways.
Abstract: This paper proposes a train wheel detection system based on the use of an inductive sensor array. It allows multiple detection points and uses coded signals in order to work with low signal to noise ratios. The sensor array consists of pairs of sensor coils placed at every detection point. In this work, unlike previous work about this matter, the coils are interconnected in series as a part of a Maxwell bridge that is used to excite the coils and to receive the unbalance signal when there is a perturbation caused by the train pass over the detection point. Furthermore, the signal used is encoded with complementary sequences, allowing a single process of many detection points. Finally, the gain of the process allows placing the signal-processing module far away of the detection point, which makes it possible to work with a detector system without electronics near the railways.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show that both classical and Bayesian semi-parametric approaches are useful tools to analyse degradation data and can, therefore, support a company in decision making for preventive maintenance.

57 citations


Cites methods from "Design and signal processing of a m..."

  • ...With the proposed classical approach, both accelerated life tests (ALT) and design of experiments (DOE) technology are used to determine how each critical factor affects the prediction of performance....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show that under specified assumptions and a given topography, the position of the locomotive wheel could influence its reliability and lifetime and the Bayesian Log-normal Regression Model is a useful tool.
Abstract: This paper undertakes a reliability study using a Bayesian survival analysis framework to explore the impact of a locomotive wheel’s installed position on its service lifetime and to predict its reliability characteristics. The Bayesian Exponential Regression Model, Bayesian Weibull Regression Model and Bayesian Log-normal Regression Model are used to analyze the lifetime of locomotive wheels using degradation data and taking into account the position of the wheel. This position is described by three different discrete covariates: the bogie, the axle and the side of the locomotive where the wheel is mounted. The goal is to determine reliability, failure distribution and optimal maintenance strategies for the wheel. The results show that: (i) under specified assumptions and a given topography, the position of the locomotive wheel could influence its reliability and lifetime; (ii) the Bayesian Log-normal Regression Model is a useful tool. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

50 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Therefore, the joint posterior distribution can be obtained as p a;bjD ð Þ / Lða;bjDÞ pðaja0; b0Þ pðbjm0;Σ0Þ / a 1þ Xn i1⁄41ui exp Xn i1⁄41 uixibþ ui a 1 ð Þln ti ð Þ exp x’ib t i b0a 1 2 b m0 ð ÞΣ 1 0 b m0 ð Þ ( ) (10)...

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2015
TL;DR: In this article, a reliability study based on a Bayesian semi-parametric framework is performed in order to explore the impact of the position of a locomotive wheel on its service lifetime and to predict its other reliability characteristics.
Abstract: A reliability study based on a Bayesian semi-parametric framework is performed in order to explore the impact of the position of a locomotive wheel on its service lifetime and to predict its other reliability characteristics. A piecewise constant hazard regression model is used to analyse the lifetime of locomotive wheels using degradation data and taking into account the bogie on which the wheel is located. Gamma frailties are included in this study to explore unobserved covariates within the same group. The goal is to flexibly determine reliability for the wheel. A case study is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and the following conclusions are drawn. First, a polynomial degradation path is a better choice for the studied locomotive wheels; second, under given operational conditions, the position of the locomotive wheel, i.e. on which bogie it is mounted, can influence its reliability; third, a piecewise constant hazard regression model can be used to undertake reliability studies; fourth, considering gamma frailties is useful for exploring the influence of unobserved covariates; and fifth, the wheels have a higher failure risk after running a threshold distance, a finding which could be applied in optimisation of maintenance activities.

15 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Dec 2016
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a system consisting of one or more passive fiber trackside sensors and an x86 processing unit located at the work site for early detection of oncoming rail vehicles.
Abstract: During track maintenance operations, the early detection of oncoming rail vehicles is critical for the safety of maintenance personnel. In addition, the detection system should be simple to install at the trackside by minimally qualified personnel. Fibre optic based sensor systems have the inherent advantages of being passive, unaffected by radio frequency interference (RFI) and suffering very low signal attenuation. Such a system therefore represents a good alternative to conventional approaches such as ultrasonic based sensor systems. The proposed system consists of one or more passive fibre trackside sensors and an x86 processing unit located at the work site. The solid fibre connection between sensors and processing unit eliminates the risk of RFI. In addition, the detection system sensors are easy to install with no requirement for electrical power at the sensor site. The system was tested on a tram line in Ostrava with the results obtained indicating the successful detection of all the trams in the monitoring windows using a single sensor. However, the platform allows flexibility in configuring multiple sensors where required by system users.

14 citations


Cites background from "Design and signal processing of a m..."

  • ...Detection by means of induction coils is based on a change in inductance of the sensor coil due to change in the permeability of the environment around the coil [3]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
03 Nov 2011-Sensors
TL;DR: The results prove that the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is able to perform magnetic imaging in identifying various ferromagnetic materials.
Abstract: This paper presents a Mobile Hall Sensor Array system for the shape detection of ferromagnetic materials that are embedded in walls or floors. The operation of the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is based on the principle of magnetic flux leakage to describe the shape of the ferromagnetic material. Two permanent magnets are used to generate the magnetic flux flow. The distribution of magnetic flux is perturbed as the ferromagnetic material is brought near the permanent magnets and the changes in magnetic flux distribution are detected by the 1-D array of the Hall sensor array setup. The process for magnetic imaging of the magnetic flux distribution is done by a signal processing unit before it displays the real time images using a netbook. A signal processing application software is developed for the 1-D Hall sensor array signal acquisition and processing to construct a 2-D array matrix. The processed 1-D Hall sensor array signals are later used to construct the magnetic image of ferromagnetic material based on the voltage signal and the magnetic flux distribution. The experimental results illustrate how the shape of specimens such as square, round and triangle shapes is determined through magnetic images based on the voltage signal and magnetic flux distribution of the specimen. In addition, the magnetic images of actual ferromagnetic objects are also illustrated to prove the functionality of Mobile Hall Sensor Array system for actual shape detection. The results prove that the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is able to perform magnetic imaging in identifying various ferromagnetic materials.

12 citations


Cites methods from "Design and signal processing of a m..."

  • ...In [1,2], a small yoke type electromagnet and a 181 differential type linearly integrated Hall sensor array design with a signal conditioning method was used for the evaluation of cracks in train wheels, while in [3], inductive sensor arrays placed on both sides of the train rails are used to detect the condition of train wheels as they pass....

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References
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01 Apr 1961
TL;DR: These series, which were originally conceived in connection with the optical problem of multislit spectrometry, also have possible applications in communication engineering, for when the two kinds of elements of these series are taken to be +1 and -1, it follows immediately from their definition that the sum of their two respective autocorrelation series is zero everywhere, except for the center term.
Abstract: A set of complementary series is defined as a pair of equally long, finite sequences of two kinds of elements which have the property that the number of pairs of like elements with any one given separation in one series is equal to the number of pairs of unlike elements with the same given separation in the other series. (For instance the two series, 1001010001 and 1000000110 have, respectively, three pairs of like and three pairs of unlike adjacent elements, four pairs of like and four pairs of unlike alternate elements, and so forth for all possible separations.) These series, which were originally conceived in connection with the optical problem of multislit spectrometry, also have possible applications in communication engineering, for when the two kinds of elements of these series are taken to be +1 and -1, it follows immediately from their definition that the sum of their two respective autocorrelation series is zero everywhere, except for the center term. Several propositions relative to these series, to their permissible number of elements, and to their synthesis are demonstrated.

1,456 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The algorithm called fast Golay correlation (FGC) performs the correlation of the input radar signal with the Golay sequence using only 2•log 2 (M) operations per input sample as opposed to M operations required by standard correlators.
Abstract: The highly regular structure of binary Golay complementary sequences of length 2 N makes possible a very simple correlator for these sequences. The algorithm called fast Golay correlation (FGC) performs the correlation of the input radar signal with the Golay sequence using only 2•log 2 (M) operations per input sample as opposed to M operations required by standard correlators. This algorithm is also valid for complex sequences of the same length. This fast correlator and the good autocorrelation properties of Golay sequences make them the ideal choice for high speed, long sequence pulse compression. Sequence agility on the pulse to pulse basis is also possible at the expense of some added complexity

139 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
B.M. Popovic1
TL;DR: A special set of orthogonal Golay complementary sequences is proposed for inclusion in the third generation cellular standard to be used as the set of synchronisation preambles for the random access channel and offer an efficient hardware implementation of the corresponding correlators based on the so-called efficient Golay correlator (EGG).
Abstract: A special set of orthogonal Golay complementary sequences is proposed for inclusion in the third generation cellular standard to be used as the set of synchronisation preambles for the random access channel. Besides excellent correlation properties, such sequences offer an efficient hardware implementation of the corresponding correlators based on the so-called efficient Golay correlator (EGG). This kind of correlator is derived here.

109 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A predictive maintenance system in point mechanism, called RCM2, has been implemented for increasing the quality service and it is shown that the detection of faults in the system is based on the correlation estimate between a curve free from faults and the current curve data.

51 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A simple adaptive algorithm is proposed in order to ensure fast conversion of the digital AC bridge and a new design of the bridge, based on the TMS 320C25, is given.
Abstract: The paper reviews the digital AC bridge. A more accurate and thorough analysis of the bridge is presented. Based on the analysis a simple adaptive algorithm is proposed in order to ensure fast conversion. In addition, a new design of the bridge, based on the TMS 320C25, is given. The system is implemented with the Dalanco Spry model 25 DSP board, on a software system designed whereby an IBM PC host computer provides control of the bridge. Experimental results are presented. >

30 citations