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Design and Simulation of Double "S" Shaped Metamaterial

TL;DR: In this paper, the design and simulation of a double S-shaped metamaterial in the microwave range is presented, where the design tool is the HFSS software which uses the finite element method.
Abstract: Metamaterials are defined as artificial electromagnetic structures based on the assembly of magnetic resonators and infinitely long metal rods at sub wavelength scale, which have the negative permittivity and the negative permeability simultaneously in a specific frequency range. However there are also some new metamaterial structures being explored which exhibit the same behavior. In this paper, we present the design, and simulation of a double S-shaped metamaterial in the microwave range. The design tool is the HFSS software which uses the finite element method. The extraction of effective parameters by the method of reflection- transmission coefficients demonstrates the metamaterial behavior of the said structure.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A compact double-negative (DNG) metamaterial that exhibits a negative refractive index (NRI) bandwidth of more than 3.6 GHz considering the frequency from 2 to 14 GHz is introduced.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to introduce a compact double-negative (DNG) metamaterial that exhibits a negative refractive index (NRI) bandwidth of more than 3.6 GHz considering the frequency from 2 to 14 GHz. In this framework, two arms of the designed unit cell are split in a way that forms a Modified-Z-shape structure of the FR-4 substrate material. The finite integration technique (FIT)-based Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio is applied for computation, and the experimental setup for measuring the performance is performed inside two waveguide ports. Therefore, the measured data complies well with the simulated data of the unit cell at 0-degree and 90-degree rotation angles. The designed unit cell shows a negative refractive index from 3.482 to 7.096 GHz (bandwidth of 3.61 GHz), 7.876 to 10.047 GHz (bandwidth of 2.171 GHz), and 11.594 to 14 GHz (bandwidth of 2.406 GHz) in the microwave spectra. The design also exhibits almost the same wide negative refractive index bandwidth in the major region of the C-band and X-band if it is rotated 90 degrees. However, the novelty of the proposed structure lies in its effective medium ratio of more than 4, wide bandwidth, and compact size.

83 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The design of a unit cell of a metamaterial that shows more than 2 GHz wideband near zero refractive index (NZRI) property in the C-band region of microwave spectra, and single layer C- band cloaking operation with slightly better cloaking performance is revealed.
Abstract: The paper reveals the design of a unit cell of a metamaterial that shows more than 2 GHz wideband near zero refractive index (NZRI) property in the C-band region of microwave spectra. The two arms of the unit cell were splitted in such a way that forms a near-pi-shape structure on epoxy resin fiber (FR-4) substrate material. The reflection and transmission characteristics of the unit cell were achieved by utilizing finite integration technique based simulation software. Measured results were presented, which complied well with simulated results. The unit cell was then applied to build a single layer rectangular-shaped cloak that operates in the C-band region where a metal cylinder was perfectly hidden electromagnetically by reducing the scattering width below zero. Moreover, the unit cell shows NZRI property there. The experimental result for the cloak operation was presented in terms of S-parameters as well. In addition, the same metamaterial shell was also adopted for designing an eye-shaped and triangular-shaped cloak structure to cloak the same object, and cloaking operation is achieved in the C-band, as well with slightly better cloaking performance. The novel design, NZRI property, and single layer C-band cloaking operation has made the design a promising one in the electromagnetic paradigm.

79 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents the design and analysis of a novel split-H-shaped metamaterial unit cell structure that is applicable in a multi-band frequency range and that exhibits negative permeability and permittivity in those frequency bands.
Abstract: This paper presents the design and analysis of a novel split-H-shaped metamaterial unit cell structure that is applicable in a multi-band frequency range and that exhibits negative permeability and permittivity in those frequency bands. In the basic design, the separate split-square resonators are joined by a metal link to form an H-shaped unit structure. Moreover, an analysis and a comparison of the 1 × 1 array and 2 × 2 array structures and the 1 × 1 and 2 × 2 unit cell configurations were performed. All of these configurations demonstrate multi-band operating frequencies (S-band, C-band, X-band and Ku-band) with double-negative characteristics. The equivalent circuit model and measured result for each unit cell are presented to validate the resonant behavior. The commercially available finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-based simulation software, Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio, was used to obtain the reflection and transmission parameters of each unit cell. This is a novel and promising design in the electromagnetic paradigm for its simplicity, scalability, double-negative characteristics and multi-band operation.

73 citations


Cites background from "Design and Simulation of Double "S"..."

  • ...[24,25] have proposed a double “S-shaped” metamaterial in the microwave range....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a horizontally inverse double L-shaped metamaterial with a square split ring resonator on the outer side was etched on a Rogers RT5880 dielectric substrate material.
Abstract: The principle purpose of this study was to produce a horizontally inverse double L-shaped metamaterial that was applicable for triple-band applications and that exhibited negative permittivity and permeability in the resonance frequencies. The horizontally inverse double L-shaped structure had a square split ring resonator on the outer side that was etched on a Rogers RT5880 dielectric substrate material. The size of the unit cell was 10 × 10 mm2. The CST Microwave Studio electromagnetic simulator was utilized for the design and analysis of the proposed metamaterial. Analyses and comparisons were performed with different configurations, such as the use of different substrates, varying the width of the splits, and the use of different array arrangements. All the arrangements confirmed that triple-band operation frequency lay in the C-, X-, and Ku-bands. The double negative and negative refractive index regions as seen in the unit cell results and the array results harmonized between 6–7.632 GHz, 7.932–8.388 GHz, 9.204–9.804 GHz, 10.284–13.356 GHz, 13.716–16.632 GHz, 16.872–17.136 GHz, 17.52–17.652 GHz and 10.692–12.828 GHz, 13.02–13.5 GHz, 14.928–18 GHz, respectively. The scattering parameters dimensions of the introduced horizontally inverse double L-structured metamaterial is favorable for different applications associated with C-, X-, and Ku-bands such as long-distance, military, and satellite communications.

46 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new, metamaterial-based electromagnetic cloaking operation is proposed in this study, and a common cloaking region was revealed over more than 900 MHz in the C-band for the different objects.
Abstract: A new, metamaterial-based electromagnetic cloaking operation is proposed in this study. The metamaterial exhibits a sharp transmittance in the C-band of the microwave spectrum with negative effective property of permittivity at that frequency. Two metal arms were placed on an FR-4 substrate to construct a double-split-square shape structure. The size of the resonator was maintained to achieve the effective medium property of the metamaterial. Full wave numerical simulation was performed to extract the reflection and transmission coefficients for the unit cell. Later on, a single layer square-shaped cloak was designed using the proposed metamaterial unit cell. The cloak hides a metal cylinder electromagnetically, where the material exhibits epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) property. Cloaking operation was demonstrated adopting the scattering-reduction technique. The measured result was provided to validate the characteristics of the metamaterial and the cloak. Some object size- and shape-based analyses were performed with the cloak, and a common cloaking region was revealed over more than 900 MHz in the C-band for the different objects.

45 citations


Cites background from "Design and Simulation of Double "S"..."

  • ...Therefore, from Equations (1), (2) and (3) the minimum number of unit cell needed is,...

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI

10,495 citations


"Design and Simulation of Double "S"..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Several appointments appeared since the synthesis of such a medium; left hand medium [1-5], media with negative refractive index [7], "backward-wave" which wants to say medium where the wave moves behind [8], DNG (double negative materials) [9] and meta-matérial....

    [...]

  • ...Veselago suggested a new type of material which has simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability, and he presented general properties of electromagnetic wave propagation in such material [1]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
06 Apr 2001-Science
TL;DR: These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root ofɛ·μ for the frequencies where both the permittivity and the permeability are negative.
Abstract: We present experimental scattering data at microwave frequencies on a structured metamaterial that exhibits a frequency band where the effective index of refraction (n) is negative. The material consists of a two-dimensional array of repeated unit cells of copper strips and split ring resonators on interlocking strips of standard circuit board material. By measuring the scattering angle of the transmitted beam through a prism fabricated from this material, we determine the effective n, appropriate to Snell's law. These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root of epsilon.mu for the frequencies where both the permittivity (epsilon) and the permeability (mu) are negative. Configurations of geometrical optical designs are now possible that could not be realized by positive index materials.

8,477 citations


"Design and Simulation of Double "S"..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Several appointments appeared since the synthesis of such a medium; left hand medium [1-5], media with negative refractive index [7], "backward-wave" which wants to say medium where the wave moves behind [8], DNG (double negative materials) [9] and meta-matérial....

    [...]

  • ...The first experiment showing negative refraction was performed using a metamaterial consisting of a twodimensional array of repeated unit cells of copper strips and split ring resonators in 2001 by Shelby et al [5]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that microstructures built from nonmagnetic conducting sheets exhibit an effective magnetic permeability /spl mu/sub eff/, which can be tuned to values not accessible in naturally occurring materials.
Abstract: We show that microstructures built from nonmagnetic conducting sheets exhibit an effective magnetic permeability /spl mu//sub eff/, which can be tuned to values not accessible in naturally occurring materials, including large imaginary components of /spl mu//sub eff/. The microstructure is on a scale much less than the wavelength of radiation, is not resolved by incident microwaves, and uses a very low density of metal so that structures can be extremely lightweight. Most of the structures are resonant due to internal capacitance and inductance, and resonant enhancement combined with compression of electrical energy into a very small volume greatly enhances the energy density at critical locations in the structure, easily by factors of a million and possibly by much more. Weakly nonlinear materials placed at these critical locations will show greatly enhanced effects raising the possibility of manufacturing active structures whose properties can be switched at will between many states.

8,135 citations


"Design and Simulation of Double "S"..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Several appointments appeared since the synthesis of such a medium; left hand medium [1-5], media with negative refractive index [7], "backward-wave" which wants to say medium where the wave moves behind [8], DNG (double negative materials) [9] and meta-matérial....

    [...]

  • ...B Pendry proposed his design of Thin-Wire (TW) structure that exhibits the negative value of permittivity ε [2] and the Split Ring Resonator (SRR) with a negative value of permeability μ in 1999 [3]....

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  • ...The unit cell dimensions are presented in figure1 [3]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A composite medium, based on a periodic array of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators and continuous wires, that exhibits a frequency region in the microwave regime with simultaneously negative values of effective permeability and permittivity varepsilon(eff)(omega).
Abstract: We demonstrate a composite medium, based on a periodic array of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators and continuous wires, that exhibits a frequency region in the microwave regime with

8,057 citations


"Design and Simulation of Double "S"..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Several appointments appeared since the synthesis of such a medium; left hand medium [1-5], media with negative refractive index [7], "backward-wave" which wants to say medium where the wave moves behind [8], DNG (double negative materials) [9] and meta-matérial....

    [...]

  • ...Later, Smith and his colleagues demonstrated a new metamaterial that shows simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability and carried out microwave experiments to test its unusual properties in 2000 [4]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A mechanism for depression of the plasma frequency into the far infrared or even GHz band is proposed: Periodic structures built of very thin wires dilute the average concentration of electrons and considerably enhance the effective electron mass through self-inductance.
Abstract: The plasmon is a well established collective excitation of metals in the visible and near UV, but at much lower frequencies dissipation destroys all trace of the plasmon and typical Drude behavior sets in. We propose a mechanism for depression of the plasma frequency into the far infrared or even GHz band: Periodic structures built of very thin wires dilute the average concentration of electrons and considerably enhance the effective electron mass through self-inductance. Computations replicate the key features and confirm our analytic theory. The new structure has novel properties not observed before in the GHz band, including some possible impact on superconducting properties.

3,954 citations


"Design and Simulation of Double "S"..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Several appointments appeared since the synthesis of such a medium; left hand medium [1-5], media with negative refractive index [7], "backward-wave" which wants to say medium where the wave moves behind [8], DNG (double negative materials) [9] and meta-matérial....

    [...]

  • ...B Pendry proposed his design of Thin-Wire (TW) structure that exhibits the negative value of permittivity ε [2] and the Split Ring Resonator (SRR) with a negative value of permeability μ in 1999 [3]....

    [...]